Chapter 1 : Genetics 101

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 1 : Genetics 101"

Transcription

1 Chpter 1 : Genetics 101 Understnding the underlying concepts of humn genetics nd the role of genes, behvior, nd the environment will be importnt to ppropritely collecting nd pplying genetic informtion nd technologies during clinicl cre. This chpter provides some fundmentl informtion bout bsic genetic concepts including cell structure, the moleculr nd biochemicl bsis of disese, mjor types of genetic disese, lws of inheritnce, nd impct of genetic vrition.

2 6 Almost every humn trit nd disese hs genetic component, whether inherited or modifying the body s response to environmentl fctors such s toxins or behviorl fctors such s exercise. Understnding the underlying concepts of humn genetics nd the role of genes, behvior, nd the environment will be importnt in improving disese dignosis nd tretment. This section presents brod overview of bsic genetics concepts nd the moleculr nd biochemicl bsis of disese. 1.1 Cells, Genomes, DNA, nd Genes Cells re the fundmentl working units of every living system. All the instructions needed to direct their ctivities re contined within DNA (deoxyribonucleic cid) sequence. DNA from ll orgnisms is mde up of the sme chemicl units (bse pirs) bbrevited s A, T, C, nd G. The humn genome (totl composition of genetic mteril within cell) is pckged into lrger units known s chromosomes physiclly seprte molecules tht rnge in length from bout 50 million to 250 million bse pirs. Humn cells contin two sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from ech prent. Ech cell, except sperm nd eggs, contins 23 pirs of chromosomes 22 utosomes (numbered 1 through 22) nd one pir of sex chromosomes (XX or XY). Sperm nd eggs contin hlf s much genetic mteril (e.g., only one copy of ech chromosome). Understnding Genetics: A Guide for Ptients nd Helth Professionls Ech chromosome contins mny genes, the bsic physicl nd functionl units of heredity. Genes re specific sequences of bses tht encode instructions on how to mke proteins. The DNA sequence is the prticulr side-by-side rrngement of bses long the DNA strnd (e.g., ATTCCGGA). Ech gene hs unique DNA sequence. Genes comprise only bout 2% of the humn genome; the reminder consists of non-coding regions, whose functions my include providing chromosoml structurl integrity nd regulting where, when, nd in wht quntity proteins re mde. The humn genome is estimted to contin 20,000-25,000 genes. Although ech cell contins full complement of DNA, cells use genes selectively. For exmple, the genes ctive in liver cell differ from genes ctive in brin cell since ech cell performs different functions nd therefore requires different proteins. Different genes cn lso be ctivted during development or in response to environmentl stimuli such s n infection or stress. 1.2 Mjor Types of Genetic Disese Mny, if not most, diseses hve their roots in genes. Genes through the proteins they encode determine how efficiently foods nd chemicls re metbolized, how effectively toxins re detoxified, nd how vigorously infections re trgeted. Genetic diseses cn be ctegorized into three mjor groups: single-gene, chromosoml, nd multifctoril.

3 Chpter 1 : Genetics Thousnds of diseses re known to be cused by chnges in the DNA sequence of single genes. A gene cn be chnged (mutted) in mny wys resulting in n ltered protein product tht is unble to perform its function. The most common gene muttion involves chnge in single bse in the DNA misspelling. Other muttions include the loss (deletion) or gin (dupliction or insertion) of single or multiple bses. The ltered protein product my still retin some function but t reduced cpcity. In other cses, the protein my be totlly disbled by the muttion or gin n entirely new but dmging function. The outcome of prticulr muttion depends not only on how it lters protein s function but lso on how vitl tht prticulr protein is to survivl. Imge Credit: U.S. Deprtment of Energy Humn Genome Progrm, In ddition, genetic diseses cn be cused by lrger chnges in chromosomes. Chromosoml bnormlities my be either numericl or structurl. The most common type of chromosoml bnormlity is known s neuploidy, n bnorml chromosome number due to n extr or missing chromosome. A norml kryotype (complete chromosome set) contins 46 chromosomes including n XX (femle) or XY (mle) sex chromosome pir. Structurl chromosoml bnormlities include deletions, duplictions, insertions, inversions, or trnsloctions of chromosome segment. [See Appendix H for more informtion bout Chromosoml Abnormlities.] Multifctoril diseses re cused by combintion of genetic, behviorl nd environmentl fctors. The underlying etiology of multifctoril diseses is complex nd heterogeneous. Exmples of these conditions include neurl tube defects, dibetes, nd hert disese. While multifctoril diseses cn recur in fmilies, some muttions cn be cquired throughout n individul s lifetime such s in cncer. All genes work in the context of environment nd behvior, both t the cellulr nd globl perspectives. Altertions in behvior or the environment, such s diet, exercise, exposure to toxic gents, or medictions cn ll hve influences on trits tht re t lest in prt geneticlly determined. 1.3 Lws of Inheritnce The bsic lws of inheritnce re importnt in order to understnd ptterns of disese trnsmission [See Appendix B for more informtion bout Clssicl Mendelin Genetics (Ptterns of Inheritnce).] Single-gene diseses re usully inherited in one of severl ptterns depending on the loction of the gene (i.e., chromosomes 1-22 or X nd Y) nd whether one or two norml copies of the gene re needed for norml protein ctivity. There re five bsic modes of inheritnce for single-gene diseses: utosoml dominnt, utosoml recessive, X-linked dominnt, X-linked recessive, nd mitochondril.

4 8 Genetic diseses cused by chromosoml bnormlities re generlly not inherited, but usully occur s rndom events during the formtion of reproductive cells. Below re smple pedigree of ech type of inheritnce pttern nd overview of fmily history ptterns: Affected Unffected A A A Understnding Genetics: A Guide for Ptients nd Helth Professionls Autosoml Dominnt Individuls crrying one mutted copy of gene in ech cell will be ffected by the disese Ech ffected person usully hs one ffected prent Tends to occur in every genertion of n ffected fmily X-linked Dominnt Femles re more frequently ffected thn mles Fthers cnnot pss X-linked trits to their sons (no mle-to-mle trnsmission) Autosoml Recessive Affected individuls must crry two mutted copies of gene Prents of ffected individul re usully unffected nd ech crry single copy of the mutted gene (known s crriers) Not typiclly seen in every genertion. X-linked Recessive Mitochondril Mles re more frequently ffected thn femles Fmilies with n X-linked recessive disorder often hve ffected mles, but rrely ffected femles, in ech genertion Both prents of n ffected dughter must be crriers Only mother must be crrier of ffected son (fthers cnnot pss X-linked trits to theirs) Only femles cn pss on mitochondril conditions to their children (mternl inheritnce) Both mles nd femles cn be ffected Cn pper in every genertion of fmily

5 Chpter 1 : Genetics Genetic Vrition All individuls re 99.9 percent the sme with respect to their DNA sequence. Differences in the sequence of DNA mong individuls re clled genetic vrition. Genetic vrition explins some of the differences mong people, such s physicl trits nd lso whether person hs higher or lower risk for certin diseses. Genetic vrition is referred to s muttions or polymorphisms. While muttions re generlly ssocited with disese nd reltively rre, polymorphisms re more frequent nd their clinicl significnce not s strightforwrd. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) re DNA sequence vritions tht occur when single nucleotide is ltered. SNPs occur every 100 to 300 bses long the 3-billion-bse humn genome. A single individul my crry millions of SNPs. While some genetic vrition my cuse or modify risk to disese, others my result in neutrl phenotype or result in no detectble phenotype. For exmple, genetic vrints in single gene ccount for the different blood types A, B, AB, nd O. Understnding the clinicl significnce of genetic vrition is complicted process due to the limited knowledge of which genes re involved in disese or condition, nd the multiple gene-gene nd gene-behviorenvironment interctions likely to be involved in complex, chronic diseses. New technologies re enbling fster nd more ccurte detection of genetic vrints in hundreds or thousnds of genes in single experiment. Selected References Deprtment of Energy, Humn Genome Project Eduction Resources. Avilble t Ntionl Librry of Medicine, Genetics Home Reference Your Guide to Understnding Genetic Conditions. Avilble t Online Mendelin Inheritnce in Mn. Avilble t

6

Breeding dragons: investigating Mendelian inheritance

Breeding dragons: investigating Mendelian inheritance Breeding drgons: investigting Mendelin inheritnce Mendelin inheritnce cn be tricky topic to tech, but Pt Tellinghuisen, Jennifer Sexton nd Rchel Shevin s memorble drgon-breeding gme mkes it esier to understnd

More information

Human Pedigrees. Independent Assortment. Mendel s Second Law. Independent Assortment Test Cross. 4 phenotypes. Pedigree analysis:

Human Pedigrees. Independent Assortment. Mendel s Second Law. Independent Assortment Test Cross. 4 phenotypes. Pedigree analysis: Biology 2250 rinciples of Genetics nnouncements B2250 edings nd roblems Lb 3 Informtion: B2250 (Innes) webpge downlod nd print before lb. Virtul fly: log in nd prctice http://biologylb.wlonline.com/ Ch.

More information

Meiosis and the Sexual Life Cycle

Meiosis and the Sexual Life Cycle Key Concepts Meiosis nd the Sexul Life Cycle Heredity Trnsmission of trits from one genertion to the next Genetic Vrition Sexul Life Cycle: lterntion etween fertiliztion nd meiosis Diploid vs Hploid Need

More information

Treatment Spring Late Summer Fall 0.10 5.56 3.85 0.61 6.97 3.01 1.91 3.01 2.13 2.99 5.33 2.50 1.06 3.53 6.10 Mean = 1.33 Mean = 4.88 Mean = 3.

Treatment Spring Late Summer Fall 0.10 5.56 3.85 0.61 6.97 3.01 1.91 3.01 2.13 2.99 5.33 2.50 1.06 3.53 6.10 Mean = 1.33 Mean = 4.88 Mean = 3. The nlysis of vrince (ANOVA) Although the t-test is one of the most commonly used sttisticl hypothesis tests, it hs limittions. The mjor limittion is tht the t-test cn be used to compre the mens of only

More information

I calculate the unemployment rate as (In Labor Force Employed)/In Labor Force

I calculate the unemployment rate as (In Labor Force Employed)/In Labor Force Introduction to the Prctice of Sttistics Fifth Edition Moore, McCbe Section 4.5 Homework Answers to 98, 99, 100,102, 103,105, 107, 109,110, 111, 112, 113 Working. In the lnguge of government sttistics,

More information

Rational Expressions

Rational Expressions C H A P T E R Rtionl Epressions nformtion is everywhere in the newsppers nd mgzines we red, the televisions we wtch, nd the computers we use. And I now people re tlking bout the Informtion Superhighwy,

More information

Active & Retiree Plan: Trustees of the Milwaukee Roofers Health Fund Coverage Period: 06/01/2015-05/31/2016 Summary of Benefits and Coverage:

Active & Retiree Plan: Trustees of the Milwaukee Roofers Health Fund Coverage Period: 06/01/2015-05/31/2016 Summary of Benefits and Coverage: Summry of Benefits nd Coverge: Wht this Pln Covers & Wht it Costs Coverge for: Single & Fmily Pln Type: NPOS This is only summry. If you wnt more detil bout your coverge nd costs, you cn get the complete

More information

Examples - What is Ecology? What is Ecology? Systematics Taxonomy. Microbiology. Ecology and Evolution. Physiology. Developmental Biology.

Examples - What is Ecology? What is Ecology? Systematics Taxonomy. Microbiology. Ecology and Evolution. Physiology. Developmental Biology. Wht is Ecology? The study of the interctions between orgnisms nd their environment. Orgnism plnt, niml, microbe Environment biotic Non-living components soil, wter, nutrients Biotic Interctions with other

More information

ACID-BASE BASICS Stephen Wright, Ph.D. Dept of Physiology

ACID-BASE BASICS Stephen Wright, Ph.D. Dept of Physiology Foundtions Lerning Objectives for the self-lerning module on ACID-BASE Bsics 1. Define ph. 2. Clculte the hydrogen ion concentrtion from ph nd vice vers. 3. List the mjor body buffer systems. ACID-BASE

More information

Helicopter Theme and Variations

Helicopter Theme and Variations Helicopter Theme nd Vritions Or, Some Experimentl Designs Employing Pper Helicopters Some possible explntory vribles re: Who drops the helicopter The length of the rotor bldes The height from which the

More information

Health insurance exchanges What to expect in 2014

Health insurance exchanges What to expect in 2014 Helth insurnce exchnges Wht to expect in 2014 33096CAEENABC 02/13 The bsics of exchnges As prt of the Affordble Cre Act (ACA or helth cre reform lw), strting in 2014 ALL Americns must hve minimum mount

More information

Experiment 6: Friction

Experiment 6: Friction Experiment 6: Friction In previous lbs we studied Newton s lws in n idel setting, tht is, one where friction nd ir resistnce were ignored. However, from our everydy experience with motion, we know tht

More information

Health insurance marketplace What to expect in 2014

Health insurance marketplace What to expect in 2014 Helth insurnce mrketplce Wht to expect in 2014 33096VAEENBVA 06/13 The bsics of the mrketplce As prt of the Affordble Cre Act (ACA or helth cre reform lw), strting in 2014 ALL Americns must hve minimum

More information

Education Spending (in billions of dollars) Use the distributive property.

Education Spending (in billions of dollars) Use the distributive property. 0 CHAPTER Review of the Rel Number System 96. An pproximtion of federl spending on eduction in billions of dollrs from 200 through 2005 cn be obtined using the e xpression y = 9.0499x - 8,07.87, where

More information

Humana Critical Illness/Cancer

Humana Critical Illness/Cancer Humn Criticl Illness/Cncer Criticl illness/cncer voluntry coverges py benefits however you wnt With our criticl illness nd cncer plns, you'll receive benefit fter serious illness or condition such s hert

More information

Chapter 8 - Practice Problems 1

Chapter 8 - Practice Problems 1 Chpter 8 - Prctice Problems 1 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one lterntive tht best completes the sttement or nswers the question. A hypothesis test is to be performed. Determine the null nd lterntive hypotheses.

More information

Lecture 3 Gaussian Probability Distribution

Lecture 3 Gaussian Probability Distribution Lecture 3 Gussin Probbility Distribution Introduction l Gussin probbility distribution is perhps the most used distribution in ll of science. u lso clled bell shped curve or norml distribution l Unlike

More information

Or more simply put, when adding or subtracting quantities, their uncertainties add.

Or more simply put, when adding or subtracting quantities, their uncertainties add. Propgtion of Uncertint through Mthemticl Opertions Since the untit of interest in n eperiment is rrel otined mesuring tht untit directl, we must understnd how error propgtes when mthemticl opertions re

More information

Curve Sketching. 96 Chapter 5 Curve Sketching

Curve Sketching. 96 Chapter 5 Curve Sketching 96 Chpter 5 Curve Sketching 5 Curve Sketching A B A B A Figure 51 Some locl mximum points (A) nd minimum points (B) If (x, f(x)) is point where f(x) reches locl mximum or minimum, nd if the derivtive of

More information

Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014, 6(5): Research Article

Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014, 6(5): Research Article Avilble online www.jocpr.com Journl of Chemicl nd Phrmceuticl Reserch, 04, 6(5):90-95 Reserch Article ISSN : 0975-784 CODEN(USA) : JCPRC5 Anlytic hierrchy process to tennis bll-picking robot different

More information

Population Distribution

Population Distribution Why? Popultion Distriution How does popultion distriution ffect the environment? Alsk contins over 127 million cres of untouched forest lnd. It is the lrgest stte in the United Sttes, yet with popultion

More information

baby on the way, quit today

baby on the way, quit today for mums-to-be bby on the wy, quit tody WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW bout smoking nd pregnncy uitting smoking is the best thing you cn do for your bby We know tht it cn be difficult to quit smoking. But we lso

More information

4.0 5-Minute Review: Rational Functions

4.0 5-Minute Review: Rational Functions mth 130 dy 4: working with limits 1 40 5-Minute Review: Rtionl Functions DEFINITION A rtionl function 1 is function of the form y = r(x) = p(x) q(x), 1 Here the term rtionl mens rtio s in the rtio of two

More information

Well say we were dealing with a weak acid K a = 1x10, and had a formal concentration of.1m. What is the % dissociation of the acid?

Well say we were dealing with a weak acid K a = 1x10, and had a formal concentration of.1m. What is the % dissociation of the acid? Chpter 9 Buffers Problems 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, 15, 17,19 A Buffer is solution tht resists chnges in ph when cids or bses re dded or when the solution is diluted. Buffers re importnt in Biochemistry becuse

More information

Small Business Networking

Small Business Networking Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd business. Introducing technology

More information

Small Business Networking

Small Business Networking Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd processes. Introducing technology

More information

Health insurance exchanges What to expect in 2014

Health insurance exchanges What to expect in 2014 Helth insurnce exchnges Wht to expect in 2014 33096CAEENABC 11/12 The bsics of exchnges As prt of the Affordble Cre Act (ACA or helth cre reform lw), strting in 2014 ALL Americns must hve minimum mount

More information

Small Business Networking

Small Business Networking Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd business. Introducing technology

More information

Anti-derivatives/Indefinite Integrals of Basic Functions

Anti-derivatives/Indefinite Integrals of Basic Functions Anti-derivtives/Indefinite Integrls of Bsic Functions Power Rule: x n+ x n n + + C, dx = ln x + C, if n if n = In prticulr, this mens tht dx = ln x + C x nd x 0 dx = dx = dx = x + C Integrl of Constnt:

More information

Basic Analysis of Autarky and Free Trade Models

Basic Analysis of Autarky and Free Trade Models Bsic Anlysis of Autrky nd Free Trde Models AUTARKY Autrky condition in prticulr commodity mrket refers to sitution in which country does not engge in ny trde in tht commodity with other countries. Consequently

More information

The Definite Integral

The Definite Integral Chpter 4 The Definite Integrl 4. Determining distnce trveled from velocity Motivting Questions In this section, we strive to understnd the ides generted by the following importnt questions: If we know

More information

Theory of Forces. Forces and Motion

Theory of Forces. Forces and Motion his eek extbook -- Red Chpter 4, 5 Competent roblem Solver - Chpter 4 re-lb Computer Quiz ht s on the next Quiz? Check out smple quiz on web by hurs. ht you missed on first quiz Kinemtics - Everything

More information

Polynomial Functions. Polynomial functions in one variable can be written in expanded form as ( )

Polynomial Functions. Polynomial functions in one variable can be written in expanded form as ( ) Polynomil Functions Polynomil functions in one vrible cn be written in expnded form s n n 1 n 2 2 f x = x + x + x + + x + x+ n n 1 n 2 2 1 0 Exmples of polynomils in expnded form re nd 3 8 7 4 = 5 4 +

More information

2. Transaction Cost Economics

2. Transaction Cost Economics 3 2. Trnsction Cost Economics Trnsctions Trnsctions Cn Cn Be Be Internl Internl or or Externl Externl n n Orgniztion Orgniztion Trnsctions Trnsctions occur occur whenever whenever good good or or service

More information

PRACTICE 7: DETERMINATION BY VOLUMETRIC TECHNICS OF ALKALINITY IN WATER SAMPLES

PRACTICE 7: DETERMINATION BY VOLUMETRIC TECHNICS OF ALKALINITY IN WATER SAMPLES Áre de Toxicologí PRACTICE 7: DETERMINATION BY VOLUMETRIC TECHNICS OF ALKALINITY IN WATER SAMPLES OVERVIEW Prcticl ctivity of the Áre of Toxicologí Universidd Miguel Hernández de Elche Environmentl Anlytic

More information

Small Businesses Decisions to Offer Health Insurance to Employees

Small Businesses Decisions to Offer Health Insurance to Employees Smll Businesses Decisions to Offer Helth Insurnce to Employees Ctherine McLughlin nd Adm Swinurn, June 2014 Employer-sponsored helth insurnce (ESI) is the dominnt source of coverge for nonelderly dults

More information

Small Business Networking

Small Business Networking Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd processes. Introducing technology

More information

Tests for One Poisson Mean

Tests for One Poisson Mean Chpter 412 Tests for One Poisson Men Introduction The Poisson probbility lw gives the probbility distribution of the number of events occurring in specified intervl of time or spce. The Poisson distribution

More information

Econ 4721 Money and Banking Problem Set 2 Answer Key

Econ 4721 Money and Banking Problem Set 2 Answer Key Econ 472 Money nd Bnking Problem Set 2 Answer Key Problem (35 points) Consider n overlpping genertions model in which consumers live for two periods. The number of people born in ech genertion grows in

More information

Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company University of Southern California Custom Premier PPO 800/20%/20%

Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company University of Southern California Custom Premier PPO 800/20%/20% Anthem Blue Cross Life nd Helth Insurnce Compny University of Southern Cliforni Custom Premier 800/20%/20% Summry of Benefits nd Coverge: Wht this Pln Covers & Wht it Costs Coverge Period: 01/01/2015-12/31/2015

More information

Chapter 6 Solving equations

Chapter 6 Solving equations Chpter 6 Solving equtions Defining n eqution 6.1 Up to now we hve looked minly t epressions. An epression is n incomplete sttement nd hs no equl sign. Now we wnt to look t equtions. An eqution hs n = sign

More information

Assuming all values are initially zero, what are the values of A and B after executing this Verilog code inside an always block? C=1; A <= C; B = C;

Assuming all values are initially zero, what are the values of A and B after executing this Verilog code inside an always block? C=1; A <= C; B = C; B-26 Appendix B The Bsics of Logic Design Check Yourself ALU n [Arthritic Logic Unit or (rre) Arithmetic Logic Unit] A rndom-numer genertor supplied s stndrd with ll computer systems Stn Kelly-Bootle,

More information

Example 27.1 Draw a Venn diagram to show the relationship between counting numbers, whole numbers, integers, and rational numbers.

Example 27.1 Draw a Venn diagram to show the relationship between counting numbers, whole numbers, integers, and rational numbers. 2 Rtionl Numbers Integers such s 5 were importnt when solving the eqution x+5 = 0. In similr wy, frctions re importnt for solving equtions like 2x = 1. Wht bout equtions like 2x + 1 = 0? Equtions of this

More information

Use Geometry Expressions to create a more complex locus of points. Find evidence for equivalence using Geometry Expressions.

Use Geometry Expressions to create a more complex locus of points. Find evidence for equivalence using Geometry Expressions. Lerning Objectives Loci nd Conics Lesson 3: The Ellipse Level: Preclculus Time required: 120 minutes In this lesson, students will generlize their knowledge of the circle to the ellipse. The prmetric nd

More information

Feedback is always welcome, please contact me at Copyright Flash Bang Pop! 2013 Summary of KS1 Changes

Feedback is always welcome, please contact me at Copyright Flash Bang Pop! 2013 Summary of KS1 Changes The comprisons detiled in the document, compre the current 2000 Science Curriculum with the mster version of the 2014 Science Curriculum tht ws pulished y the DoE in Septemer 2013. Top 10 KS1 Science Curriculum

More information

Small Business Networking

Small Business Networking Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd processes. Introducing technology

More information

Section A-4 Rational Expressions: Basic Operations

Section A-4 Rational Expressions: Basic Operations A- Appendi A A BASIC ALGEBRA REVIEW 7. Construction. A rectngulr open-topped bo is to be constructed out of 9- by 6-inch sheets of thin crdbord by cutting -inch squres out of ech corner nd bending the

More information

ClearPeaks Customer Care Guide. Business as Usual (BaU) Services Peace of mind for your BI Investment

ClearPeaks Customer Care Guide. Business as Usual (BaU) Services Peace of mind for your BI Investment ClerPeks Customer Cre Guide Business s Usul (BU) Services Pece of mind for your BI Investment ClerPeks Customer Cre Business s Usul Services Tble of Contents 1. Overview...3 Benefits of Choosing ClerPeks

More information

Suggested Exercises from M&M Chapter 4 [Homegrown exercises begin on next page] These pages were updated on September 16

Suggested Exercises from M&M Chapter 4 [Homegrown exercises begin on next page] These pages were updated on September 16 Suggested Exercises from M&M Chpter 4 [Homegrown exercises egin on next pge] These pges were updted on Septemer 16 To strt with, do some of the odd-numered exercises. nswers to ll odd-numered exercises

More information

Matrix Algebra CHAPTER 1 PREAMBLE 1.1 MATRIX ALGEBRA

Matrix Algebra CHAPTER 1 PREAMBLE 1.1 MATRIX ALGEBRA CHAPTER 1 Mtrix Algebr PREAMBLE Tody, the importnce of mtrix lgebr is of utmost importnce in the field of physics nd engineering in more thn one wy, wheres before 1925, the mtrices were rrely used by the

More information

Unit 29: Inference for Two-Way Tables

Unit 29: Inference for Two-Way Tables Unit 29: Inference for Two-Wy Tbles Prerequisites Unit 13, Two-Wy Tbles is prerequisite for this unit. In ddition, students need some bckground in significnce tests, which ws introduced in Unit 25. Additionl

More information

Reasoning to Solve Equations and Inequalities

Reasoning to Solve Equations and Inequalities Lesson4 Resoning to Solve Equtions nd Inequlities In erlier work in this unit, you modeled situtions with severl vriles nd equtions. For exmple, suppose you were given usiness plns for concert showing

More information

Antibody Screening. Antibody Screening in Pre-transfusion Testing and Antenatal Screening

Antibody Screening. Antibody Screening in Pre-transfusion Testing and Antenatal Screening Antiody Screening in Pre-trnsfusion Testing nd Antentl Screening Antiody Screening in Pre-trnsfusion Testing nd Antentl Screening Q. Wht re nturlly occurring or expected ntiodies? Q. Wht re typicl or unexpected

More information

Utilization of Smoking Cessation Benefits in Medicaid Managed Care, 2009-2013

Utilization of Smoking Cessation Benefits in Medicaid Managed Care, 2009-2013 Utiliztion of Smoking Cesstion Benefits in Medicid Mnged Cre, 2009-2013 Office of Qulity nd Ptient Sfety New York Stte Deprtment of Helth Jnury 2015 Introduction According to the New York Stte Tocco Control

More information

6.2 Volumes of Revolution: The Disk Method

6.2 Volumes of Revolution: The Disk Method mth ppliction: volumes of revolution, prt ii Volumes of Revolution: The Disk Method One of the simplest pplictions of integrtion (Theorem ) nd the ccumultion process is to determine so-clled volumes of

More information

Pressure Ulcers ecourse: Module 2 Quiz I

Pressure Ulcers ecourse: Module 2 Quiz I Pressure Ulcers ecourse: Module 2 Quiz I 1. Blck, brown or tn tissue tht dheres firmly to the wound bed or ulcer edges nd my be either firmer or softer thn surrounding tissue is:. Eschr b. Slough c. Grnultion

More information

An Undergraduate Curriculum Evaluation with the Analytic Hierarchy Process

An Undergraduate Curriculum Evaluation with the Analytic Hierarchy Process An Undergrdute Curriculum Evlution with the Anlytic Hierrchy Process Les Frir Jessic O. Mtson Jck E. Mtson Deprtment of Industril Engineering P.O. Box 870288 University of Albm Tuscloos, AL. 35487 Abstrct

More information

A.7.1 Trigonometric interpretation of dot product... 324. A.7.2 Geometric interpretation of dot product... 324

A.7.1 Trigonometric interpretation of dot product... 324. A.7.2 Geometric interpretation of dot product... 324 A P P E N D I X A Vectors CONTENTS A.1 Scling vector................................................ 321 A.2 Unit or Direction vectors...................................... 321 A.3 Vector ddition.................................................

More information

Appendix D: Completing the Square and the Quadratic Formula. In Appendix A, two special cases of expanding brackets were considered:

Appendix D: Completing the Square and the Quadratic Formula. In Appendix A, two special cases of expanding brackets were considered: Appendi D: Completing the Squre nd the Qudrtic Formul Fctoring qudrtic epressions such s: + 6 + 8 ws one of the topics introduced in Appendi C. Fctoring qudrtic epressions is useful skill tht cn help you

More information

Lecture 1: Introduction to Economics

Lecture 1: Introduction to Economics E111 Introduction to Economics ontct detils: E111 Introduction to Economics Ginluigi Vernsc Room: 5B.217 Office hours: Wednesdy 2pm to 4pm Emil: gvern@essex.c.uk Lecture 1: Introduction to Economics I

More information

Square Roots Teacher Notes

Square Roots Teacher Notes Henri Picciotto Squre Roots Techer Notes This unit is intended to help students develop n understnding of squre roots from visul / geometric point of view, nd lso to develop their numer sense round this

More information

Addition and subtraction of rational expressions

Addition and subtraction of rational expressions Lecture 5. Addition nd subtrction of rtionl expressions Two rtionl expressions in generl hve different denomintors, therefore if you wnt to dd or subtrct them you need to equte the denomintors first. The

More information

2 DIODE CLIPPING and CLAMPING CIRCUITS

2 DIODE CLIPPING and CLAMPING CIRCUITS 2 DIODE CLIPPING nd CLAMPING CIRCUITS 2.1 Ojectives Understnding the operting principle of diode clipping circuit Understnding the operting principle of clmping circuit Understnding the wveform chnge of

More information

Chapter 5: Elasticity. measures how strongly people respond to changes in prices and changes in income.

Chapter 5: Elasticity. measures how strongly people respond to changes in prices and changes in income. Chpter 5: Elsticity Elsticity responsiveness mesures how strongly people respond to chnges in prices nd chnges in income. Exmples of questions tht elsticity helps nswer Wht hppens to ttendnce t your museum

More information

Object Semantics. 6.170 Lecture 2

Object Semantics. 6.170 Lecture 2 Object Semntics 6.170 Lecture 2 The objectives of this lecture re to: to help you become fmilir with the bsic runtime mechnism common to ll object-oriented lnguges (but with prticulr focus on Jv): vribles,

More information

Section 5-4 Trigonometric Functions

Section 5-4 Trigonometric Functions 5- Trigonometric Functions Section 5- Trigonometric Functions Definition of the Trigonometric Functions Clcultor Evlution of Trigonometric Functions Definition of the Trigonometric Functions Alternte Form

More information

Integration by Substitution

Integration by Substitution Integrtion by Substitution Dr. Philippe B. Lvl Kennesw Stte University August, 8 Abstrct This hndout contins mteril on very importnt integrtion method clled integrtion by substitution. Substitution is

More information

According to Webster s, the

According to Webster s, the dt modeling Universl Dt Models nd P tterns By Len Silversn According Webster s, term universl cn be defined s generlly pplicble s well s pplying whole. There re some very common ptterns tht cn be generlly

More information

Graphs on Logarithmic and Semilogarithmic Paper

Graphs on Logarithmic and Semilogarithmic Paper 0CH_PHClter_TMSETE_ 3//00 :3 PM Pge Grphs on Logrithmic nd Semilogrithmic Pper OBJECTIVES When ou hve completed this chpter, ou should be ble to: Mke grphs on logrithmic nd semilogrithmic pper. Grph empiricl

More information

today s society because some as well. is no This question Method of Study survey to ask people questions about consistent information and

today s society because some as well. is no This question Method of Study survey to ask people questions about consistent information and Sgle Prent Households Reserch Question Wht socil olted, the impct tht prent fmilies tht re motherled hve on children s emotionl nd development? support, fncil struggles nd emotionl overwhelm. When stressed,

More information

Bayesian Updating with Continuous Priors Class 13, 18.05, Spring 2014 Jeremy Orloff and Jonathan Bloom

Bayesian Updating with Continuous Priors Class 13, 18.05, Spring 2014 Jeremy Orloff and Jonathan Bloom Byesin Updting with Continuous Priors Clss 3, 8.05, Spring 04 Jeremy Orloff nd Jonthn Bloom Lerning Gols. Understnd prmeterized fmily of distriutions s representing continuous rnge of hypotheses for the

More information

Small Business Networking

Small Business Networking Why Network is n Essentil Productivity Tool for Any Smll Business TechAdvisory.org SME Reports sponsored by Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse their productivity. Computer

More information

Matrix Inverse and Condition

Matrix Inverse and Condition Mtrix Inverse nd Condition Berlin Chen Deprtment of Computer Science & Informtion Engineering Ntionl Tiwn Norml University Reference: 1. Applied Numericl Methods with MATLAB for Engineers, Chpter 11 &

More information

Algebra Review. How well do you remember your algebra?

Algebra Review. How well do you remember your algebra? Algebr Review How well do you remember your lgebr? 1 The Order of Opertions Wht do we men when we write + 4? If we multiply we get 6 nd dding 4 gives 10. But, if we dd + 4 = 7 first, then multiply by then

More information

DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON DIC

DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON DIC 1 Chpter 2 Geochemicl Rections DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON Inorgnic or minerlized crbon in its most oxidized stte crries vlence of 4. In minerls C 4 coordintes covlently with oxygen toms s the crbonte nion

More information

DlNBVRGH + Sickness Absence Monitoring Report. Executive of the Council. Purpose of report

DlNBVRGH + Sickness Absence Monitoring Report. Executive of the Council. Purpose of report DlNBVRGH + + THE CITY OF EDINBURGH COUNCIL Sickness Absence Monitoring Report Executive of the Council 8fh My 4 I.I...3 Purpose of report This report quntifies the mount of working time lost s result of

More information

Prevalence of Skin Disease among Nursing Home Staff in Southern Taiwan

Prevalence of Skin Disease among Nursing Home Staff in Southern Taiwan Industril Helth 2002, 40, 54 58 Short Communiction Prevlence of Skin Disese mong Nursing Home Stff in Southern Tiwn Derek Richrd SMITH 1, 2, Yue-Ling Leon GUO 2, 3, Yung-Ling LEE 2, 3, Fu-Sen HSIEH 4,

More information

Operations with Polynomials

Operations with Polynomials 38 Chpter P Prerequisites P.4 Opertions with Polynomils Wht you should lern: Write polynomils in stndrd form nd identify the leding coefficients nd degrees of polynomils Add nd subtrct polynomils Multiply

More information

JaERM Software-as-a-Solution Package

JaERM Software-as-a-Solution Package JERM Softwre-s--Solution Pckge Enterprise Risk Mngement ( ERM ) Public listed compnies nd orgnistions providing finncil services re required by Monetry Authority of Singpore ( MAS ) nd/or Singpore Stock

More information

Gene Expression Programming: A New Adaptive Algorithm for Solving Problems

Gene Expression Programming: A New Adaptive Algorithm for Solving Problems Gene Expression Progrmming: A New Adptive Algorithm for Solving Prolems Cândid Ferreir Deprtmento de Ciêncis Agráris Universidde dos Açores 9701-851 Terr-Chã Angr do Heroísmo, Portugl Complex Systems,

More information

Project 6 Aircraft static stability and control

Project 6 Aircraft static stability and control Project 6 Aircrft sttic stbility nd control The min objective of the project No. 6 is to compute the chrcteristics of the ircrft sttic stbility nd control chrcteristics in the pitch nd roll chnnel. The

More information

2 If a branch is prime, no other factors

2 If a branch is prime, no other factors Chpter 2 Multiples, nd primes 59 Find the prime of 50 by drwing fctor tree. b Write 50 s product of its prime. 1 Find fctor pir of the given 50 number nd begin the fctor tree (50 = 5 10). 5 10 2 If brnch

More information

a John s Health Action

a John s Health Action Essentil lifestyle plnning You might lso like to red the following: John s Helth Action Plnning our qulity of life everydy is determined by the presence or bsence of things tht re importnt to us our choices,

More information

Net Change and Displacement

Net Change and Displacement mth 11, pplictions motion: velocity nd net chnge 1 Net Chnge nd Displcement We hve seen tht the definite integrl f (x) dx mesures the net re under the curve y f (x) on the intervl [, b] Any prt of the

More information

Finite Automata. Informatics 2A: Lecture 3. John Longley. 25 September School of Informatics University of Edinburgh

Finite Automata. Informatics 2A: Lecture 3. John Longley. 25 September School of Informatics University of Edinburgh Lnguges nd Automt Finite Automt Informtics 2A: Lecture 3 John Longley School of Informtics University of Edinburgh jrl@inf.ed.c.uk 25 September 2015 1 / 30 Lnguges nd Automt 1 Lnguges nd Automt Wht is

More information

Mechanics Cycle 1 Chapter 5. Chapter 5

Mechanics Cycle 1 Chapter 5. Chapter 5 Chpter 5 Contct orces: ree Body Digrms nd Idel Ropes Pushes nd Pulls in 1D, nd Newton s Second Lw Neglecting riction ree Body Digrms Tension Along Idel Ropes (i.e., Mssless Ropes) Newton s Third Lw Bodies

More information

1.2 c. = or 58.7% Similarly weight fraction of Se is. = or 41.3%

1.2 c. = or 58.7% Similarly weight fraction of Se is. = or 41.3% 1. c Consider the semiconducting II-VI compound cdmium selenide,. Given the tomic msses of nd, find the weight frctions of nd in the compound nd grms of nd needed to mke 100 grms of. The tomic mss of nd

More information

Factoring Polynomials

Factoring Polynomials Fctoring Polynomils Some definitions (not necessrily ll for secondry school mthemtics): A polynomil is the sum of one or more terms, in which ech term consists of product of constnt nd one or more vribles

More information

The IS-LM Model. Underlying model due to John Maynard Keynes Model representation due to John Hicks Used to make predictions about

The IS-LM Model. Underlying model due to John Maynard Keynes Model representation due to John Hicks Used to make predictions about The S-LM Model Underlying model due to John Mynrd Keynes Model representtion due to John Hicks Used to mke predictions bout nterest rtes Aggregte spending ( ggregte output) mportnt ssumption: price is

More information

The Quadratic Formula and the Discriminant

The Quadratic Formula and the Discriminant 9-9 The Qudrtic Formul nd the Discriminnt Objectives Solve qudrtic equtions by using the Qudrtic Formul. Determine the number of solutions of qudrtic eqution by using the discriminnt. Vocbulry discriminnt

More information

Cell Cycle Control 116. Tumor Suppressors Prevent Uncontrolled Cell Division. Regulation of the Cell Cycle: A Closer Look

Cell Cycle Control 116. Tumor Suppressors Prevent Uncontrolled Cell Division. Regulation of the Cell Cycle: A Closer Look 6 Cncer EV IE W O N LY Chpter 6.1 ctress ngelin Jolie crries cncer-cusing gene which puts her, nd some of her children, t high risk of getting cncer. Wht Is Cncer? 108 6.4 Tumor Suppressors Prevent Uncontrolled

More information

Learning Disabilities

Learning Disabilities Mking difference in the lives of children, youth nd fmilies Lerning Disbilities Lynn s story Lynn is typicl 10 yer old who likes sports nd hnging out with her friends. She is n verge student, getting B

More information

Dalmatians have a well-described change in purine metabolism

Dalmatians have a well-described change in purine metabolism J Vet Intern Med 2004;18:483 487 Inheritnce of Urinry Clculi in the Dlmtin D.L. Bnnsch, G.V. Ling, J. Be, nd T.R. Fmul Dlmtins re unique mong dogs in tht they excrete uric cid in their urine s the end

More information

Exponentiation: Theorems, Proofs, Problems Pre/Calculus 11, Veritas Prep.

Exponentiation: Theorems, Proofs, Problems Pre/Calculus 11, Veritas Prep. Exponentition: Theorems, Proofs, Problems Pre/Clculus, Verits Prep. Our Exponentition Theorems Theorem A: n+m = n m Theorem B: ( n ) m = nm Theorem C: (b) n = n b n ( ) n n Theorem D: = b b n Theorem E:

More information

The Velocity Factor of an Insulated Two-Wire Transmission Line

The Velocity Factor of an Insulated Two-Wire Transmission Line The Velocity Fctor of n Insulted Two-Wire Trnsmission Line Problem Kirk T. McDonld Joseph Henry Lbortories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 Mrch 7, 008 Estimte the velocity fctor F = v/c nd the

More information

Number Systems & Working With Numbers

Number Systems & Working With Numbers Presenting the Mths Lectures! Your best bet for Qunt... MATHS LECTURE # 0 Number Systems & Working With Numbers System of numbers.3 0.6 π With the help of tree digrm, numbers cn be clssified s follows

More information

Volumes of solids of revolution

Volumes of solids of revolution Volumes of solids of revolution We sometimes need to clculte the volume of solid which cn be obtined by rotting curve bout the x-xis. There is strightforwrd technique which enbles this to be done, using

More information

Plotting and Graphing

Plotting and Graphing Plotting nd Grphing Much of the dt nd informtion used by engineers is presented in the form of grphs. The vlues to be plotted cn come from theoreticl or empiricl (observed) reltionships, or from mesured

More information

N Mean SD Mean SD Shelf # Shelf # Shelf #

N Mean SD Mean SD Shelf # Shelf # Shelf # NOV xercises smple of 0 different types of cerels ws tken from ech of three grocery store shelves (1,, nd, counting from the floor). summry of the sugr content (grms per serving) nd dietry fiber (grms

More information

FAULT TREES AND RELIABILITY BLOCK DIAGRAMS. Harry G. Kwatny. Department of Mechanical Engineering & Mechanics Drexel University

FAULT TREES AND RELIABILITY BLOCK DIAGRAMS. Harry G. Kwatny. Department of Mechanical Engineering & Mechanics Drexel University SYSTEM FAULT AND Hrry G. Kwtny Deprtment of Mechnicl Engineering & Mechnics Drexel University OUTLINE SYSTEM RBD Definition RBDs nd Fult Trees System Structure Structure Functions Pths nd Cutsets Reliility

More information