1 Phylicia Kelly Professor Schilling EDUC. 327 October 21, 2010 Student Teaching Reflection On October 14, 2010, I taught a social studies lesson about Latitude and Longitude to 5 th grade students at my student teaching placement in Huntington, Indiana. In this class, there are about 50 students which include several Caucasian students, one African American, and one Arabic student. Out of the entire class of 50, there are about 11 exceptional students mostly with learning disabilities of some sort. There are a couple of students who are considered to be high ability in mathematics, but other than that, this group of students does not really have high ability learners. When my cooperating teacher asked me to teach the lesson about latitude and longitude, I was kind of excited. Then, the more I researched the topic of latitude and longitude, I grew worried about the process of teaching the concept; this is typically a concept in which students have a hard time understanding. After researching different ways that other elementary education teachers have taught this lesson, I realized that I had acquired 8 important elements that a student should know in order to be able to plot specific locations on a map. Then, after organizing these essential elements, I began to look for a good way to compile this information so that students would understand it clearly. I started looking through several different types of graphic organizers on the web, and I found one that was called a Describing Wheel; it consisted of a wheel that was split into 8 different sections. From there I
2 filled in each section of the wheel for myself and realized that this would be the best strategy for teaching this complex process to these 50 students. According to the researcher David P. Ausubel, research shows that graphic organizers are key to assisting students to improve academic performance (1963). He compares graphic organizers to how the mind works. For instance, he says that the mind arranges and stores information in an orderly fashion in which new information about a concept is filed into an existing framework called schema. Graphic organizers arrange information in a visual pattern that complements this framework, making information easier to understand and learn (Ausubel, 1963). After teaching this lesson and seeing how smoothly the lesson progressed with the graphic organizer, I realize that I completely agree with David Ausubel; this particular graphic organizer allowed the students to arrange the information in an orderly form with enough space for drawings to aid in their understanding. Every part of the graphic organizer was connected in one way or another and allowed for a great flow throughout the lesson. In addition, the notes for this organizer were compiled by the student (with my teacher guidance) so that the information could be written in a way that they would remember. When teaching this particular lesson, I definitely felt like the graphic organizer was a useful teaching strategy. As previously stated, I was very worried about teaching this Latitude and Longitude lesson before I even taught it. My worries actually came about after giving the pre test to the class. My pre test consisted on 10 multiple choice questions, 5 plotted points in which the students had to write the coordinates, and 5 sets of coordinates for the students to plot. This was a 20 question pre test, but I created it after organizing the information into the graphic organizer. My intentions were that the students would be able to answer each and every
3 question on that pre test with the information presented on the organizer. Yes, I knew and understood that the students would not have that information attached to any of their schema at the time of taking the pre test, but my hopes were that the students would soon gain this knowledge after the lesson was taught. After the completion of the pre tests, I had a brief discussion with my cooperating teacher about my future lesson, and he worried that I would be presenting too much information at once. Knowing this, I naturally worried more, but I still decided to stick to my original plan for the lesson; however, I did add a PowerPoint to guide the students through the graphic organizer (a suggestion from my cooperating teacher). Before I began teaching the actual lesson, I feel like I briefly stated the objectives. I reminded each student of the pre test they had recently taken and that today they were going to learn all of the information that they did not know from the pre test. I explained that they would fill out the graphic organizer as we proceeded through the lesson and I explained that they would be able to plot latitude and longitude points by the end of the lesson. With those simple expectations for this lesson, I started teaching. Knowing that this lesson is a cut and dry topic, I knew that I had to find a creative way to get the students engaged in this lesson. To begin the lesson, I pulled a small ping pong ball out of my pocket, showed the entire class this small that had a small dot on one side, and then I tossed it to a student. When I tossed this ball out to a student, I could just see excitement forming. Every student wanted the ball. I asked the student holding the ball to describe the location of the dot on that ball to the whole class. That was pretty tough because there were not any other distinguishing marks on the ball to describe the dot. I gave a few different students the opportunity to take a shot at describing, and then I had them toss the ball back.
4 This is when my lesson truly began; this is when the latitude and longitude lines came into play. As a class, we discussed that the dot would be easier to describe if we drew lines on the ball so that we could tell exactly where the dot was located. I really liked getting the students engaged in this manner. I think that the students appreciate more hands on, visual items rather than just paper, pencil, and books. Then, throughout my lesson I continued to ask several questions with every new element the students learned. If I am asking questions out loud, the students are participating. If the students are participating, they are more than likely going to retain more of the information. However, during the lesson, I felt like I was getting lots of the same hands raised over and over again. These students were not all necessarily the higher students, but they were the ones who were grasping the concept rather quickly. Yes, I did call on them during the lesson, but any time that I saw a new hand, I would definitely go to that person first. I would even say out loud that I wanted somebody who has not been called on; then, occasionally, I would get few more participants. Finally, another way that I was able to get the students engaged was during my lesson when I taught the students that the latitude and longitude lines on a globe are measured in 360 degrees of a circle. I wanted the students to know exactly what 360 degrees meant; therefore, I had every student get up off of the floor, stand facing me, and we made a full 360 degree turn. This was not a huge amount of engagement, but being a group of 50 students they do not get many opportunities to get up and move around. I could tell that they really enjoyed this simple activity because they moaned when they realized that was all they got to do. Now I know to try to include some movement in future lessons!
5 During my lesson, I was mostly surprised with how well the lesson proceeded. First off, the students are really not as intimidating as they seem (there are 50 of them); they seemed rather excited that I was teaching them. Then, I also felt like the students were catching on to the information really quickly; that was completely unexpected from me. The students were able to understand the process as we went through the lesson. The way I knew this was based on the types of questions I received. For example, I taught the students that the Prime Meridian goes from north to south; however, after that I had to teach them that when one measured the longitude of a location, they first looked at the Prime Meridian and had to move either east or west. A student questioned this because he thought that we would measure north and south since that is the direction of the Prime Meridian. That was a very good question to address during this lesson, and it actually made me rather excited to hear that question because that told me that the students were really listening and trying to understand. The students were engaging in critical thinking because they were taking in the information, and applying this new information so that they could make further connections as we progressed to the deeper parts of the lesson. As the lesson continued to evolve, I grew out of my worried stage and was really excited to see learning happening. I approached any confusing aspects for the lesson to the best of my ability and I really felt like I was able to make clarifications for the students as we got in deeper. All in all, I knew that every student was not going to have this concept mastered at the end of the lesson; therefore, my main goal was simply to get the students to understand how we plot specific locations on a map. After finishing the lesson, we practiced our plotting skills as a whole group. I had a transparency made of a Latitude and Longitude worksheet and the students worked with me to
6 complete the worksheet. To begin this practice, I decided to work with the class; I went through our 3 important steps (noted on our graphic organizer) to find latitude and then repeated them for longitude. Basically, I did a think aloud only for a social studies concept. I wanted the students to see exactly how one should approach this concept. Then, for the second set of coordinates, I asked a student to explain how they would find the latitude and longitude coordinates and I would orally review what the students said. For the third set of coordinates, I had every student do the problem individually then we would come back together to discuss it. Gradually, as we progressed through the worksheet, I gave the students more and more independence. After doing the first three problems together, I sent each student back to their own seat to complete the worksheet. Before the end of the day, we quickly reviewed the answers so that the students could use this and the graphic organizer before the post test. By approaching the practice sheet this way, I felt like I was scaffolding the instruction because the goal was to get the students to be able to do this without guidance. After looking at the results of the post tests, I was truly able to see growth in learning. The scores of every student improved dramatically. On the pre tests, the highest score was an 88 percent and the lowest score was a 4 percent. Then, on the post tests, the highest score improved to several 100 percents and the lowest score still improved to 35 percent. I know the lowest score is still not necessarily a good letter grade, but the point is that every student still managed to show growth. However, after examining these post tests, I would look to see where most of the struggles were and use that to drive my future instruction. For instance, I noticed that several of the students were getting the Prime Meridian and Equator mixed up in the fill in the blank section of the post test. That would tell me that the students need a little
7 more attention in those specific areas. Also, I noticed that a few of the lower students could use a review of the plotting of points, probably more on an individual basis rather than whole group. With this knowledge, I would use this in my future classroom to provide further instruction in the necessary areas. By the end of the lesson, I feel like I successfully met each of the learning objectives. The students completed the graphic organizer and nearly every student was able to understand the process of how latitude and longitude worked. I definitely feel like there is room for improvement, but I am pretty happy with how things turned out. From the very beginning to the final assessment, I could truly see a positively large amount of growth. Test Results: References Ausubel, D. P. (1963). The psychology of meaningful verbal learning. Retrieved from organizers.php
8 Student Teaching Lesson Plan Lesson: Latitude and Longitude Length: 45 minutes to 1 hour Source: Using Latitude and Longitude Atlas: Xpeditions /xpeditions/atlas/index.html?parent=world&rootmap=&mode=d&submode=w Graphic Organizers Age or Grade Intended: 5 th grade Academic Standard(s): Social Studies: Demonstrate that lines of latitude and longitude are measured in degrees of a circle, that places can be precisely located where these lines intersect, and that locations can be stated in terms of degrees north or south of the equator and east or west of the prime meridian. Performance Objectives: Given a graphic organizer, the students will write 8 essential parts for plotting coordinates of the intersecting latitude and longitude lines. Given a worksheet, the students (with guidance from the teacher) will write the latitude and longitude coordinates for 10 different locations. Assessment: Before teaching the lesson, the students will be given a pre-test concerning the lines of latitude and longitude. It will include these elements: o the lines are measured in degrees o that places can be precisely located where the lines intersect o that places are stated in terms of degrees north or south of the equator and east or west of the prime meridian o practice for plotting locations The graphic organizer and worksheet will be done with guidance from the teacher. The teacher can follow the provided answer keys. After teaching the lesson, the students will be given a different post-test concerning the lines of latitude and longitude containing the same elements, but with different questions. Advanced Preparation by Teacher: Pre-test Post-test Ping Pong Ball (with a single red dot on it) Graphic Organizer
9 Globe Worksheet to do together -pg. 300 (to practice) PowerPoint (information on graphic organizer) Procedure: Introduction/Motivation: Hold up a small ping pong ball with a single, red dot on it. Explain to the students that you have this little ball with a dot on it. Then, toss the ball to a student in the class. Ask that student, How would you describe the location of the dot on this ball? (Bloom: Knowledge; Gardner: Verbal/Linguistic) Wait for a reply. Toss the ball to another student and ask the same question to see what other replies there may be. Tell the students that it is quite difficult to explain the location of this little dot on this ball. Then, tell the students that the same is true when describing locations on the Earth s surface. Ask the students, Does anyone know how we would find an exact location on the Earth s surface? (Bloom: Knowledge; Gardner: Verbal/Linguistic) Listen for answers. Point to a location on the globe and reiterate the question, Does anyone know how we would find this exact location on the Earth? (Bloom: Knowledge; Gardner: Verbal/Linguistic) Listen for answers. Tell the students that Geographers solved this problem by creating lines of latitude and longitude for the Earth so that we could have a way to describe an exact location somewhere on the Earth. Step-by-Step Plan: 1. Pass out the Wheel Graphic Organizer for this lesson. Tell the students that they are going to use this organizer to help them to remember how to measure exact locations with latitude and longitude lines. 2. Tell the students to write this topic in the center of the graphic organizer: How to measure locations on Earth. Use PowerPoint to guide you through the different elements 3. Tell the students not to write anything else on the organizer just yet. Listen and then we will discuss as a class what to write so that it is useful to you in the future. 4. Tell the students that before we discuss which lines represent latitude and which represent longitude, we first need to discuss which directions are north, east, south, and west. 5. Just review that north is up, east is to the right, south is down, and west is to the left. The students should know this already (Bloom: Knowledge; Gardner: Verbal/Linguistic). 6. Then, tell the students that first we are going to talk about the latitude lines on the Earth. Ask the students, Does anyone know which lines, on this globe, represent latitude? (Bloom: Knowledge; Gardner: Verbal/Linguistic) Listen for answers. Allow a student to come up and demonstrate. (Bloom: Knowledge; Gardner: Visual/Spatial) 7. Show the students that the latitude lines on the globe are the ones that go from east to west (horizontally). 8. Tell the students that they need to remember which lines represent latitude. Ask the students, How should we show or write about latitude in our first box on our graphic organizer so that we remember what it is? (Bloom: Comprehension, Application; Gardner: Verbal/Linguistic, Visual/Spatial) Listen for answers. 9. After listening to replies, the students can choose to write whatever they want in that box to help them remember the latitude lines. One way would be to have the students write
10 the word latitude horizontally so they remember that those lines are horizontal on the globe, and then have the students draw a circle with horizontal lines only. 10. Then, ask the students, Does anyone know which lines, on this globe, represent longitude? (Bloom: Comprehension; Gardner: Verbal/Linguistic) Listen for answers. Allow a student to come up and demonstrate. (Bloom: Knowledge; Gardner: Visual/Spatial) 11. Show the students that the longitude lines on the globe are the ones that go from north to south (vertically). 12. Tell the students that they need to remember which lines represent longitude and have them fill in another section of the graphic organizer for longitude. One way would be to have the students write the word longitude vertically so they remember those lines are vertical on the globe, and then have them draw a circle with vertical lines only. 13. Now, explain to the students that both of these lines are measured in degrees. The lines of latitude are measure in degrees north and south of the equator. Ask the students, Can anyone show me where the equator is on the globe? (Bloom: Knowledge, Application; Gardner: Visual/Spatial) Allow a student to demonstrate. 14. Tell the students that when measuring the lines of latitude, you always start at the equator. The equator is considered to be 0 degrees. Since the lines of latitude are horizontal, you always measure a location of latitude either north or south of the equator. For example, you might say that a location is 45 degrees N. That means you would first go to your starting line (equator). Then, determine which direction to go (north). Finally, you would determine how many degrees you must go (45). 15. Tell the students that they need to use another section of their graphic organizer for the equator. Ask the students how they would show the equator? (Bloom: Application; Gardner: Verbal/Linguistic, Visual/Spatial) Listen for answers. One way to show the equator is to draw a circle with a horizontal line through the center and label it 0 degrees. 16. Then, ask the students, To measure the lines of longitude, what line represents 0 degrees? (Bloom: Knowledge; Gardner: Verbal/Linguistic) Listen for answers. The Prime Meridian is the vertical, center line that is considered 0 degrees. Have a student demonstrate where the Prime Meridian is located on the globe. 17. Tell the students that when measuring the lines of longitude, you always start at the Prime Meridian. Since the lines of longitude are vertical, you always measure a location of longitude either east or west of the Prime Meridian. For example, you might say that a location is 30 degrees E. Ask the students, How would you find that location? (Bloom: Comprehension; Gardner: Verbal/Linguistic) Listen for answers. You would first go to your starting line (Prime Meridian). Then, determine which direction to go (east). Finally, determine the degrees you must go (30). 18. Tell the students to add the Prime Meridian as a point on their graphic organizer. 19. Then, for the next two sections on their graphic organizer, tell the students to write which directions go with the Equator and which correlate with the Prime Meridian. (Bloom: Application; Gardner: Visual/Spatial, Logical) a. Equator: North and South b. Prime Meridian: East and West 20. For the next section on the graphic organizer, tell the students to write the word degrees because it is important to remember that the earth latitude and longitude lines are measured in degrees.
11 21. Just like a circle is measured as 360 degrees, the earth is treated the same way. Demonstrate for the students: If I were to stand straight facing the door and make a 360 degree turn, I would end up right back where I started. 22. When measuring latitude, I start at the equator and I can go up to the top, which is the North Pole. Demonstrate on the globe: From the equator to the top, this is 90. Then, from the equator to the South Pole (bottom), this is 90 degrees. The entire globe is equal to 360 degrees. 23. This is the same as measuring with the Prime Meridian. All the way around the globe from the Prime Meridian (which represents 0 degrees), you make a 360 degree circle. 24. Have the students write 360 degrees in the degree section of the graphic organizer so that they remember a globe is like a circle. 25. Tell the students that the last section of the graphic organizer will be for coordinates. Have the students write that down. 26. Ask the students, Who can tell me what coordinates are? (Bloom: Knowledge; Gardner: Verbal/Linguistic) Listen for answers. 27. Tell the students that coordinates are two sets of degrees and directions. For example, one might be given the coordinates 20 degrees S and 60 degrees W. Ask the students how to plot those coordinates. (Bloom: Knowledge; Gardner: Verbal/Linguistic) Listen for answers and plot the points on a world map as the student says how. 28. Then, pass out the worksheet to do as a class. Tell the students that we are going to practice plotting latitude and longitude together. 29. Use answer key to find the correct answers as you fill it out as a class. Closure: Review with the students what they need to remember. Ask the students, What starting line is associated with latitude? (Bloom: Analysis; Gardner: Verbal/Linguistic) Listen for answers. (Equator) Ask the students, What starting line is associated with longitude? (Bloom: Analysis; Gardner: Verbal/Linguistic) Listen for answers. (Prime Meridian) Ask the students, What is the process for plotting coordinates? (Bloom: Analysis; Gardner: Verbal/Linguistic) Listen for answers. (Find your starting line. Determine which direction you must go. Determine the degrees you must go.) Write these on the board and have the students write this on the graphic organizer under coordinates so they remember the process. Tell the students to refer to their graphic organizer to study. Adaptations/Enrichment: Girl with ADHD: When it is time to hand out the papers, I will let the girl distribute them to the class. Also, during the lesson, I can allow this student to come up to the front and demonstrate where the lines of latitude and longitude are located, the prime meridian, etc. Girl with Visual Impairment: For this student, I would have her sit in the front of the classroom nearest the board where I will be filling in the graphic organizer with the students so that she can see what information is important. For her maps, I would enlarge them so that she can see and read them more clearly.
12 Boy with Listening Comprehension Disability: For this student, I would explain the directions for the graphic organizer one at a time. This student most likely struggles with hearing too much information at once so I would walk him through it. Boy with Hearing Impairment: For this student, I would make sure that I type out rules for plotting coordinates because this is a hard task if the student cannot understand how I explain it. I am using the PowerPoint so that this student has a visual. Self-Reflection: 1. Was there too much information in this one lesson? 2. Did the students grasp the individual concepts and the concepts mixed together? Did they understand latitude and longitude lines? Then, did they understand how to plot coordinates for latitude and longitude intersecting lines? 3. Will the students be able to understand how to plot coordinates on their own? 4. Does there need to be more review or teaching for this lesson since there is so much content involved in one standard? 5. Was a graphic organizer a good tool to use with this lesson?
18 Name Date Latitude and Longitude Pre Test Multiple Choice Directions: For questions, 1 10 circle the answer that letter that best answers the question. Each question is worth 1 point each. 1. To locate exact places on the earth, one must look at a. the intersecting lines of latitude and longitude b. the lines of latitude only c. the lines of longitude only d. a neighboring area to describe the location 2. Lines of latitude and longitude are measured in a. only north and south b. degrees of a circle c. only east and west d. degrees of a compass 3. Latitude lines on a globe run from a. north to south b. east to west c. north to east d. south to west 4. lines on a globe run from east to west. a. North pole b. South pole c. Latitude d. Longitude 5. When measuring the lines of latitude, always begin with the, which represents 0 degrees. a. Prime Meridian b. Equator c. Longitude d. North Pole 6. When measuring the lines of longitude, always begin with the, which represents 0 degrees. a. South Pole b. Equator
19 c. Prime Meridian d. Latitude 7. On a globe, the Equator is the a. Horizontal, center line b. Vertical, center line c. 30 degree line d. 180 degree line 8. On a globe, the Prime Meridian is the a. Horizontal, center line b. Vertical, center line c. 180 degree line d. 15 degree line 9. Coordinates are a. a degree only b. a cardinal direction only c. two degrees only d. two sets of degrees and cardinal directions 10. Coordinates can be written like this: a. 20 degrees S, 140 degrees W b. 40 degrees N, 120 degrees W c. 20 degrees S, 160 degrees E d. All of the above Fill in the Blank Directions: For questions 11 15, write the exact coordinates for the plotted locations (on the map). Each question is worth 2 points. 11., 12., 13., 14., 15.,
20 Plotting Coordinates: Directions: For questions 16 20, use a Red marker to plot the points of these given coordinates using the provided map. Each question is worth 1 point degrees S, 40 degrees E degrees N, 60 degrees W degrees S, 100 degrees W degrees N, 20 degrees E degrees N, 100 degrees W Name Date Mail Box Latitude and Longitude Post Test P art 1 Directions: Using the word bank, choose the word that best completes the sentence. Write the correct word on the blank line. Word Bank Latitude Equator Coordinates Prime Meridian Longitude 1. When measuring latitude, begin at the starting line of the, which represents 0 degrees. 2. To measure latitude and longitude, one must find the, which consists of two sets of degrees and two different directions.
21 3. To locate exact places on earth, one must look at the intersecting lines of and. 4. When measuring longitude, begin at the starting line of the, which represents 0 degrees. Part 2 Directions: On the given map, there are 5 different points representing different locations. For questions 5 9, write the coordinates for the plotted locations. For example, find number 5 on the map, and write down the coordinates that are used to plot that point. The first coordinate is done for you. 5., 40 degrees S 6., 7., 8., 9., Part 3 Directions: For questions 10 14, use a different colored writing utensil to plot the points of these given coordinates on the same map used in part 2. Be sure to label put the correct number next to your plotted point degrees N, 140 degrees W degrees N, 20 degrees E degrees S, 140 degrees W degrees N, 60 degrees E degrees S, 100 degrees E