Canadian Geography Chapter 2 Beyond Your Space

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1 Canadian Geography 1202 Chapter 2 Beyond Your Space 1

2 Canada 2

3 General Information 1. Canada has an area of 9, 970, 600 km squared. (second largest country in the world ) - there are 5514 km between easternmost (Cape Spear, NL.) and westernmost ( Beaver Creek, Yukon) points in Canada - the greatest distance north ( Alert in NWT ) to south ( Point Pelee in Ontario) is 4634 km. 3

4 Question Students complete question 1 on pg. 12! 4

5 2. Geographic Center This is the center point of the country measured from north to south and from east to west. It is Coats Island, Hudson Bay!!! 5

6 3. Effects of Canada s Size - Cost of transporting goods is high because of the distance (size), this affects the prices that consumers pay for goods. - Large areas are also hard to govern. 6

7 Question List three positive effects of Canada s size and three negative effects of our size??? 7

8 a. Positive effects of Canada s size: - more space to live - more agricultural land to grow crops - diverse landscape - diverse climate - large coastline with many fishing areas - many natural resources - great economic diversity 8

9 b. Negative effects of Canada s size: - high cost of building and maintaining highways, phone lines, pipelines etc, over long distances - high cost of cross country transportation and travel - large area to defend in the event of war - difficulty of communicating over long distances - six time zones 9

10 4. Dividing Canada In Canada, there are ten provinces and three territories. (Nunavut) Each province has it s own legislature while the territories are controlled by the federal government in Ottawa. - Political Map shows boundary lines between areas with different governments. 10

11 Political Boundary of Canada 11

12 5. Boundaries A. Natural boundary is a political boundary that follows physical features. Ex. mountains, rivers, lakes, seas or deserts. 12

13 B. Artificial Boundary is a political boundary that does not follow a natural feature. Many of these boundaries follow lines of latitude and longitude. 13

14 6. Regions Region is an area that shares certain features or characteristics. They are created through the physical landscape. It can separate people as mountains do or unite them like the seas do. 14

15 15

16 A. Single factor region - is a region based on a single characteristic, such as climate. B. Multi- factor region- is a region that is based on many different characteristics, such as climate, industry and language. 16

17 Question List the provinces and or territories that are located in Eastern Canada, Central Canada, Western Canada and Northern Canada!!! 17

18 7. A Regional Perspective A. Time Zones are a division of the earth s surface, usually extending across 15 degrees longitude, that establishes a uniform time. 18

19 Canadian Time Zones 19

20 B. Focal point- is the place from which people view their surroundings. C. Geographic Location is the map coordinates or spatial description of a place. 20

21 8. Latitude and Longitude A. the world is divided into four hemispheres Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western. 21

22 B. Line of Latitude is an imaginary horizontal line showing positions, measured in degrees, north and south of the equator. 22

23 C. Line of Longitude are imaginary vertical lines drawn between the poles showing positions, measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds, east and west from the Prime Meridian. 23

24 24

25 D. Equator is the o degrees line of latitude that circles the earth from west to east. 25

26 E. Prime Meridian is the 0 degrees line of longitude that circles the earth from north to south. 26

27 27

28 Questions Students do questions 12 a and b and 13 a and b on pg. 19. Also complete latitude and longitude handouts!!! 28

29 F. Lines of latitude and longitude are called co-ordinates. ( ex. 45 degrees N, 75 degrees W.) G. Gazetteer is an index found in an atlas, it lists countries, cities and physical features alphabetically. 29

30 H. Absolute Location is the exact location of a place or feature. ( Remember : degrees of latitude are 111km apart ) ( Each degree of latitude and longitude can be further divided into sixty minutes. Ex N. ) 30

31 i. Relative location this describes the general location of a place in relation to another physical feature or place. (ex. Next to the Avalon Mall when describing where Tom Woodford s car dealership is located) 31

32 9. Canada s Global Position A. Direction can be defined as movement in relation to the North Pole. B. Cardinal Points are the four main directions North, South, East and West. 32

33 C. Great Circle Route is a line drawn on the surface of a globe showing the shortest distance between two points. 33

34 10. Time and Space A. Time Zones a Canadian Sir Sanford Fleming developed the international time zones system. He divided the earth into 24 time zones, one for every 15 degrees of longitude which equals 360 degrees. Since then, time zone boundaries have been modified to make divisions more convenient. ( ex. Newfoundland) 34

35 World Time Zones 35

36 B. Greenwich Mean Time is the 0 degrees line of longitude. Time zones west of 0 degrees are successively one hour earlier, time zones east of 0 degrees are successively one hour later. 36

37 Greenwich Mean Time 37

38 C. International Date Line is the division line at 180 degrees longitude as one day ends and next begins. (Found in the Pacific Ocean ) ( changes one day ahead or one day back depending on the direction traveled) 38

39 International Date Line 39

40 Questions Students complete questions 20 and 21 on pg. 23!!!! 40

41 D. Time Distance is the time it takes to travel between two places.( Add up travel time for all modes of transportation used ) 41

42 Questions Have students complete time zone handouts!!! 42

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