What is a map? A Map is a two or three-dimensional model or representation of the Earth s surface. 2-Dimensional map

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2 What is a map? A Map is a two or three-dimensional model or representation of the Earth s surface. 2-Dimensional map

3 Types of Maps: (just a few that we may be using) Political Maps Shows borders of states, countries, etc., may have lat and long. Could be road maps, may show buildings, etc. Topographic Maps Use contour lines to show different physical landscape features and their elevations (like mountains, rivers, canyons, etc.) Climate Maps Shows information about the climate of an area. May use contour lines or isobars to show pressure, temperatures, fronts, rainfall, etc. Resource Maps Shows the specific type of economic activity or natural resources present in an area through the use of different symbols or colors

4 What is a Map Projection? Planar Projection

5 Projection A Projection is a mathematical means of transferring information from the Earth s threedimensional curved surface to a twodimensional map.

6 Types of Map Projections All map projections are flawed by distortions that are created during projection. Different map projections have been developed to reduce this distortion to different areas of the map for different purposes.

7 Cylindrical Projections Notice the effect that different types of projections have on the shape of meridians (lines of longitude) and parallels (lines of latitude).

8 Mercator Projection (Cylindrical Projection Example) Great Distortion of area and shape at high latitudes. True shapes and distances, where it is most accurate is within 15 of the Equator.

9 Map Distortions Greenland Mercator map size True size of Greenland

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11 Planar or Polar Projections Has little distortion, so most accurate, towards poles or the plane you are looking at. Distortion increases as you get further from the poles or the plane you are viewing.

12 Conical Projections When several conic projections are put together shapes and sizes of land masses are almost the same as a globe.

13 Robinson Projection Makes things look right, it comprises a few different types to try to balance out distortions Better balance of size and shape of high latitudes, but most accurate within 45 degrees of the Equator. Used by National Geographic for world maps since 1988, and replacing Mercator in schools.

14 Robinson Projection Can still see some distortion at poles see the dots are larger near the polar region.

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17 Latitude and Longitude Cartographers (mapmakers) have established a set of vertical and horizontal grid lines that cover the globe called: Parallels- Lines of Latitude (horizontal) Meridians- Lines of Longitude (Perpendicular) Because the Earth is a sphere, each line represents a 1 degree slice of the 360 degrees in a the sphere.

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19 Lines of Latitude Parallels dissect the Globe like a a tomato is cut. Equator

20 Latitude Line Rules Run East to West Measure distance in degrees from the Equator. Each line forms a circle around the Earth that are the same distance apart. Numbered from 0 to 90 Degrees north or south of equator. (0 being the equator, and 90 being the poles)

21 Lines of Longitude International Date Line Prime Meridian

22 I N T E R N A T I O N A L D A T E L I N E

23 Longitude Line Rules Run North to South Measure distance in degrees from the Prime- Meridian Form half-circles that are equidistant from each other at the Equator, but converge at the poles. 0 Degrees Longitude is at Greenwich, England (established in 1883); 180 Degrees is in the Pacific, and is called the International Date Line (divides the Globe between two days).

24 How big is a Degree? Each degree in Latitude and Longitude is approximately 69 miles wide at the equator. Each degree can be divided into 60 subdivisions called minutes (1.15 miles in width ). 45 Each minute can be divided into 60 subdivisions (.019 miles, or 100 feet!). 35 So, your location on the globe can be very precisely identified, and would look like this: N, W

25 Let s Practice (remember latitude goes first) What is the location of the following points? A = N, W B = N, W 5 5 5

26 Map Scale Map Scale expresses the relationship between the distance on a map and the true, corresponding distance of the same area of the Earth s surface. Cartographers, mapmakers, can't draw maps the same size as the area they represent; the maps would be too big. So they draw features smaller than they actually are.

27 A map scale is usually given as a fraction (1/10000) or a ratio (1:10000) USGS maps contain scales that have the same units on both sides of the ratio. Fractional scale

28 The larger the number on the right, the greater the amount of land that the map represents.

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30 1: scale 1:24000 scale

31 Bar Scale A bar scale is just a line drawn on a map of known ground length. There are usually distances marks along the line. Bar scales allow for quick visual estimation of distance.

32 Magnetic Declination Because Magnetic North and Geographic- North (which is the north pole) are only the same in very few places, the direction in which the compass needle points is called Magnetic North, and the angle between magnetic north and true north is called Magnetic Declination.

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34 Magnetic North True North

35 So here in VA our magnetic declination is almost 10 W. (so there is almost 10 difference between true north and magnetic north where we are located).

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37 Effect of Magnetic Declination Declination or Degrees Off Course Error Off Target after Walking 10 Miles feet (280meters) 5 4,600 feet (1,402 meters) 10 9,170 feet (2,795 meters) So here in VA, if we did not take into account for magnetic declination, then we may be close to 9,000 feet away from the destination we are aiming for.

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39 Topographic maps show distance relationships and elevation. Topography actually means, the shape, elevation and slope of the land.

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41 We use survey tools and satellites to make contour lines and topographic maps.

42 Survey Tools

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45 Satellites

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47 There are several different kinds of contour lines. Index Contour (darker, has elevation written) Intermediate Contour (lighter; does not always have elevation identified)

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50 Depression Contour Lines Perp. Lines point downhill, into the depression Lip of depression is highest point

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55 Contours will also come into play with other types of maps we look at like for weather. These contours show temperature. These contours (isobars) show pressure.

56 Contours will also come into play with other types of maps we look at like for weather. Contour lines that show pressure on a weather map are called isobars. The H is area of high pressure and the L is area of low pressure. Areas of low pressure usually have storms.

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