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2 Solar Constant Solar Constant is the intensity of the solar radiation hitting one square meter of the Earth Or it is the intensity of radiation from the spherical black body, whose temperature is 5785 o K and diameter is m, per square meter on a spherical surface whose radius is m and with the Sun placed at its centre.

3 The Solar Constant Where 4 4π. R G sc = σ. T. = 1367 W / m 4π. D σ= W/m 2.K 4 is the Stefan- Boltzmann constant. R= m is the Sun radiuses D= m is the average distance between the Sun and the earth 2 What is the average intensity per square meter of the Earth s surface? 2

4 1- Latitude φ latitude is used to state how far north or south you are, relative to the equator. If you are on the equator your latitude is zero. If you are near the north pole or the south pole your latitude is nearly 90 degrees. Latitud e Longitu de

5 1- Latitude φ Latitude is the angle measured at the centre of the Earth, between the Equator plane and where you are. It is expressed either north or south, and varies from 0 to 90.

6 2- Longitude L Longitude shows your location in an east or west direction, relative to the Greenwich meridian. Places to the east of Greenwich have longitude angles up to 180 degrees east. Places to the west of Greenwich have negative angles up to 180 deg west. Latitud e Longitu de

7 2- Longitude L Longitude is the angle at centre of the Earth, between where you are and Greenwich. It can be measured either east or west and varies from 0 to 180.

8 3- Declination δ Declination is the angle made between the plane of the equator and the line joining the two centres of the earth and the sun: δ sin n

9 3- Declination δ The Declination varies between δ and is positive during summer and negative during winter On the same day the declination is equal everywhere on the Earth What is the declination angle today?

10 3- Declination δ Changing this angle causes the seasons, how is that?

11 4- Hour Angle ω The hour angle is the sun s angular deviation from south ω = 15 ( Solar Time 12) -180 ω 180, negative before Solar Noon

12 4- Hour Angle ω Two corrections must be applied If the longitude is different from the current time zone meridian of the location. E = ( cosB sinB cos2b sin 2B) because the earth's orbit and rate of rotation are subject to small fluctuations. B = (n-1)360/365 What is the hour angle in Luleå at 3 PM?

13

14 5- Sun altitude hs Angle between horizontal plane and line joins the site with the centers of the sun (sun elevation). hs = Arcsin [ cos( ϕ ).cos( δ ).cos( ω) + sin( ϕ).sin( δ )] What is the Sun altitude in Luleå at 10 AM?

15 6- Solar azimuth γ Angle between the projection of the straight line joins the site with the centers of the sun on the horizontal plane and due south. γ = cos( δ ).sin( ω) Arcsin cos( hs) What is the Solar azimuth in Luleå at 3 PM?

16 7- Incident Beam Radiation θ

17 8- Incidence Angle on Sloped Plane The angle of tilted surface β is angle between the surface and the horizontal. Incidence angle on a surface of tilt β and azimuth γ on the latitude φ at a time when the declination is δ and the hour angle is ω, is: cos θ = sin δ sin φ cosβ sin δ cosφ sin β cos γ + cosδ cosφ cosβ cosω + cosδ sin φ sinβ cos γ cosω + cosδ sinβ sin γ sin ω What is the incidence angle on a sloped surface in Luleå β = 45?

18 9- Zenith Angle θz Zenith Angle, θ z is incidence angle of sunbeam on a horizontal surface θ z It is found by inserting β=0 in incidence angle equation cosθ z = cosφ cosδ cosω + sinφ sinδ θ z 0 θz 90 What is the relationship between zenith angle and Sun altitude?

19 9- Zenith Angle θz During the same day, zenith angel determines amount of radiation received by surface What is the zenith angle today in Luleå at 10 AM?

20 Incidence Angle on Sloped Plane The incidence angle on surfaces with slope β due north or south at latitude φ is equivalent to the Zenith Angle at an artificial latitude (φ -β) for the northern hemisphere, or (φ +β) for the southern hemisphere. cosθ = cos(φ - β ) cosδ cosω + sin(φ - β ) sinδ cosθ = cos(φ + β ) cosδ cosω + sin(φ + β ) sinδ

21 Sunset, Sunrise & Day Length The sunset hour angle is the hour angle when θz=90 cosθ z = cosφ cosδ cosω + sinφ sinδ cosω s = tanϕ tanδ Since the hour angle increases 15 /hour, ω s can be used to define the day length through the relation Earth θ z =90 0 N 2 = Arcos 15 ( tanϕ tanδ ) Sun How long does the sun shine in Luleå today?

22 Sunset Hour Angle of Sloped Surface The sunset hour angle for a plane tilted towards the south is defined as the hour angle when θ = 90 : cosθ = cos(φ - β ) cosδ cosω + sin(φ - β ) sinδ cosω st = tan ( ϕ β ) tanδ

23 Slope surface effect of slope angle on the incident angle & day long incidend angle slope angle Number of hour sunshine Increasing β is decreases θ this is positive effect simultaneously it decreases day long which it is negative effect.

25 Solar Radiation Radiation is a composition of many wavelengths Waves of different length carry different amount of energy 98% of SR is carried by wave of length 0.3 λ 3 µm UV Visibl e IR 27

26 Solar Spectrum Ultraviolet: 0.2 µm < λ < 0.38 µm Visible light: 0.38 µm < λ < 0.78 µm Infrared: λ > 0.78 µm 28

27 Solar Spectrum 1- What is the fraction of the solar radiation in: the ultraviolet (λ<0.38μm), the visible (0.38μm<λ<0.78μm), and the infrared (λ>0.78μm). 29

28 Solar Spectrum 30

29 Solar Spectrum Conclusion About 6.5% of the total energy is contained in the ultraviolet region (λ < 0.38 μm); another 47.9% is contained in the visible region (0.38 μm < λ < 0.78 μm); and 45.6% is contained in the infrared region (λ > 0.78 μm). 31

30 Solar Constant Solar Constant, G sc : is radiation received per square meter of the atmosphere at incidence angle θ = 0 when the earth is at the mean distance from the sun Solar Constant: 1367 W/m 2 The solar constant is a mean value: the earth's orbit is elliptical the distance between the sun and earth varies by 3.3% Solar irradiation must vary approximately over the year 32

31 Solar Constant The exact irradiation incident on a surface of θ=0 just outside the atmosphere, G on [W/m 2 ], is calculated from the solar constant, G sc, and the day number as follows: G on = G sc cos 360 n 365 Solar constant during an entire year solar constan (w/m2) time (day) Solar irradiation varies approximately ±45 W/m2 over the year 33

32 Extraterrestrial Radiation Extraterrestrial radiation G o [W/m2] is the radiation incident on the surface tangent to the outer surface of the atmosphere. It is function of zenith angle, θz, thus, it is function of: latitude, time during the day and number of the day ER is given by: G o = Gon cosθz = Gon ( cosφ cosδ cosω + sinφ sinδ) 2- What is the ET radiation, G o, at 2 PM in Luleå? 34

33 Extraterrestrial Radiation Integrating ET over a specified time, usually an hour or a day, we obtain hourly or daily radiation: I o n π (ω ω1) = Gsc cos cosφ cosδ 2 1 sinδ π ( sinω sinω ) + sinφ H o n π ωs = Gsc cos cosφ cosδ sinωs + sinφ sinδ π Solar constant: G sc [W/m 2 ] Hourly radiation: I 0 [J/m 2 ] Daily radiation: H 0 [J/day. m 2 ] 35

34 Extraterrestrial Radiation 3- What is the daily solar radiation on a horizontal surface in the absence of the atmosphere today in Luleå? 4- What is the solar radiation on a horizontal surface in the absence of the atmosphere today in Luleå between the 13 &14? 36

35 Atmosphere Influence on Solar Radiation - The atmosphere is ~ km thick and consists of gas molecules, particles and dust of different concentration The composition varies with height, weather, location and number of pollution sources - The density of the atmosphere decreases with the altitude The atmosphere has no sharp border to space 75% of the atmosphere s mass below 10 km 37

36 Atmosphere Influence on Solar Radiation Thermosphere ( Upper Atmosphere ) Temperature > 1700 C due to solar radiation but the particles are so few that heat transfer is low Meteors and shooting stars burn up while passing Mesosphere Altitude km above ground Temperature falls to -93 C Stratosphere Altitude from km Includes the ozone layer (19-30 km) Temperature increases due to UV-absorption Troposphere ( Lower Atmosphere ) About 10 km high Temperature drops from 15 C to about -55 C 38

37 Atmosphere Influence on Solar Radiation Significant amount of solar radiation is attenuated as it travels through the atmosphere. This attenuation is due to: absorption of solar radiation by different particles in the atmosphere backward scattering and reflection of solar radiation by air particles, water vapor, dust... 39

38 Atmosphere Influence on Solar Radiation 30% is reflected. 17% is absorbed by the atmosphere. 53% reaches the earth surface: 31% direct radiation 22% diffuse radiation. 40

39 Atmosphere Influence on Solar Radiation Beam Radiation G cb Solar rays reaching the ground without change in direction Diffuse Radiation G cd Solar rays reaching the ground after a change in direction by particles in the atmosphere Reflected Radiation Solar rays reflected from surrounding Albedo, ρ g, is ground reflectance of both beam and diffuse radiation Only sloped surfaces receives reflected radiation from the surrounding 41

40 Atmosphere Influence on Solar Radiation Air Mass m The ratio of the path length, which beam radiation passes through the atmosphere, to the path it would pass through if the Sun were at the zenith, i.e. directly overhead. m = C h = 1 cosθ z 42

41 Radiation on Ground Surface Clear day Total radiation received on horizontal surface at ground surface is: G = G + G c cb cd 43

42 Radiation on Ground Surface Clear day 1- Beam Radiation G cb The atmospheric transmittance for beam is the ratio of the transmitted direct radiation to the total radiation incident at the top of atmosphere: τ b = G G cb o = a o + a 1 e ( k / cosθ ) z G cb = τ b Gon. ( cosφ cosδ cosω + sinφ sinδ) 44

43 Radiation on Ground Surface Clear day Where a 0, a 1 and k are constant calculated suing next equations: a a ( ( 6 ) 2 ) 0 = r0 A k ( ( 6.5 ) 2 ) ( ( 2.5- A) 2 ) 1 = r1 A = r k Climate Type r 0 r 1 r k Tropical Midlatitude summer Subarctic summer Midlatitude winter

44 Radiation on Ground Surface Clear day 0.7 transmittance for beam air mass 46

45 Radiation on Ground Surface Clear day 5- Calculate the transmittance for beam radiation of the standard clear atmosphere at Luleå (altitude 0 m) today at 1:30 PM solar time. Estimate the intensity of beam radiation at that time and its component on a horizontal surface. 47

46 Radiation on Ground Surface Clear day 2- Diffuse Radiation G cd The atmospheric transmittance for diffuse radiation is the ratio of the transmitted diffuse radiation to the total radiation incident at the top of atmosphere The transmission coefficient for diffuse radiation is: Gcd τ d = = τb G o G cd = τ d Gon. ( cosφ cosδ cosω + sinφ sinδ) 48

47 Radiation on Ground Surface Clear day 6- Estimate the standard clear-day radiation on a horizontal surface for Luleå today at 13:30 PM solar time 49

48 Radiation on Ground Surface Clear day Total radiation received on horizontal surface at ground surface is: G = G + G c cb cd G c = 360 n ( τ b + τd ) Gsc cos 365 ( cosφ cosδ cosω + sinφ sinδ) 50

49 Radiation on Ground Surface Clear day The hourly radiation on a horizontal surface is written I = I b + I d b: Beam component d: Diffuse component I c n π (ω ω1) = ( τ b + τd ) Gsc cos cosφ cosδ 2 1 sinδ π ( sinω sinω ) + sinφ 7- What is the solar radiation on a horizontal surface today in Luleå between the 13 &14? 51

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