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1 NST 1B Experimental Psychology Statistics practical 5 Statistics: revision Rudolf Cardinal & Mike Aitken 3 / 4 May 2005 Department of Experimental Psychology University of Cambridge Slides at pobox.com/~rudolf/psychology

2 We suggest you practise with example questions (booklet 1 5, 7) and the past exam questions ( 6). Please note that the description of the exam on p85 is wrong the NST IB exam has changed this year. Papers 1 & 2: each three hours, six essays; Paper 3: 1.5h, one stats question (no choice), one experimental design question (choice). See Teaching Resources Examination Details NST 1B 2005 exam details

3 Background: null hypothesis testing

4 Reminder: the logic of null hypothesis testing Research hypothesis (H 1 ): e.g. measure weights of 50 joggers and 50 nonjoggers; research hypothesis might be there is a difference between the weights of joggers and non-joggers. Null hypothesis (H 0 ): e.g. there is no difference between the population means of joggers and non-joggers; any observed differences are due to chance. Calculate probability of finding the observed data (e.g. difference) if the null hypothesis is true. This is the p value. If p very small, reject null hypothesis ( chance alone is not a good enough explanation ). Otherwise, retain null hypothesis (Occam s razor: chance is the simplest explanation). Criterion level of p is called α.

5 Reminder: α, errors we can make, and power True state of the world Decision H 0 true H 0 false Reject H 0 Type I error probability = α Correct decision probability = 1 β = power Do not reject H 0 Correct decision Type II error probability = 1 α probability = β α is the probability of declaring something significant when there s no genuine effect (of making a Type I error). Power is the probability of finding a genuine effect (of not making a Type II error). Power is higher with a big effect! large samples (big n) small variability (small σ)

6 Reminder: one- and two-tailed tests

7 Correlation and regression

8 Scatter plots show the relationship between two variables Positive correlation Negative correlation Zero correlation (and no relationship) Zero correlation (nonlinear relationship)

9 r, the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient r XY r varies from 1 to +1. r does not depend on which way round X and Y are. Your calculator calculates r. You should know how to use your calculator for statistical functions, including r and SDs.

10

11 Never give up! Never surrender! Never forget... Zero correlation doesn t imply no relationship. So always draw a scatter plot. Correlation does not imply causation.

12 Adjusted r You ve calculated r, the correlation in your sample. What is your best estimate of the correlation in the population? (1 r 2 )( n 1) r adj = 1 n 2

13 Is my correlation significant? Our first t test. Null hypothesis: the correlation in the population is zero (ρ = 0). Calculate t: r n 2 t n 2 = 1 r 2

14 Assumptions you make when you test hypotheses about ρ Basically, the data shouldn t look too weird. We must assume that the variance of Y is roughly the same for all values of X. that X and Y are both normally distributed that for all values of X, the corresponding values of Y are normally distributed, and vice versa

15 r s : Spearman s correlation coefficient for ranked data This is a nonparametric version of correlation. You can use it when you obtain ranked data, or when you want to do significance tests on r but your data are not normally distributed. Rank the X values. Rank the Y values. Correlate the X ranks with the Y ranks. (You do this in the normal way for calculating r, but you call the result r s.) To ask whether the correlation is significant, use the table of critical values of Spearman s r s in the Tables and Formulae booklet.

16 How to rank data Suppose we have ten measurements (e.g. test scores) and want to rank them. First, place them in ascending numerical order: Then start assigning them ranks. When you come to a tie, give each value the mean of the ranks they re tied for for example, the 12s are tied for ranks 4 and 5, so they get the rank 4.5; the 16s are tied for ranks 7, 8, and 9, so they get the rank 8: X: rank:

17 Regression: e.g. predicting Y from X ( predicting X from Y) Y ˆ = a + bx

18 r 2 means something important the proportion of the variability in Y predictable from the variability in X

19 Parametric difference tests (t tests)

20 The one-sample t test df for this test t n 1 = x s x µ x µ = s X n sample SD sample mean standard error of the mean (SEM) (standard deviation of the distribution of sample means) test value The null hypothesis is that the sample comes from a population with mean µ. Look up the critical value of t (for a given α) using your tables of t for the correct number of degrees of freedom (n 1). If your t is bigger, it s significant.

21 The two-sample, paired t test Calculate the differences between each pair of observations. Then perform a one-sample t test on the differences, comparing them to zero. (Null hypothesis: the mean difference is zero.) t n 1 = x µ s X test value for the differences (zero for the null hypothesis there is no difference ) n

22 Confidence intervals using t If we know the mean and SD of a sample, we could perform a t test to see if it differed from a given number. We could repeat that for every possible number... Since t n 1 = x µ s X n therefore µ = x ± t critical for n 1 df s X n This means that there is a 95% chance that the true population mean is within this confidence interval.

23 The two-sample, unpaired t test Two independent samples. Are they different? Null hypothesis: both samples come from underlying populations with the same mean. Basically, if the sample means are very far apart, as measured by something that depends (somehow) on the variability of the samples, then we will reject the null hypothesis.

24 The two-sample, unpaired t test The format of the t test depends (unfortunately) on whether the two samples have the same variance. Formulae are on the Formula Sheet.

25 Are the variances equal or not? The F test To perform an F test, put the bigger variance on top: F n 1 1, n 2 1 = if 2 1 swap everything around if s s s > s s < s 2 2 Null hypothesis is that the variances are the same (F = 1). If our F exceeds the critical F for the relevant number of df (note that there are separate df for the numerator and the denominator), we reject the null hypothesis. Since we have ensured that F 1, we run a one-tailed test on F so double the stated onetailed α to get the two-tailed α for the question are the variances different?.

26 Assumptions of the t test The mean is meaningful. The underlying scores (for one-sample and unpaired t tests) or difference scores (for paired t tests) are normally distributed. Large samples compensate for this to some degree. Rule of thumb: if n > 30, you re OK. If n > 15 and the data don t look too weird, it s probably OK. Otherwise, bear this in mind. To use the equal-variance version of the unpaired two-sample t test, the two samples must come from populations with equal variances (whether or not n 1 = n 2 ).

27 Nonparametric difference tests Parametric test Two-sample unpaired t test Two-sample paired t test One-sample t test Equivalent nonparametric test Mann Whitney U test Wilcoxon signed-rank test with matched pairs Wilcoxon signed-rank test, pairing data with a fixed value

28 The median The median is the value at or below which 50% of the scores fall when the data are arranged in numerical order. If n is odd, it s the middle value (here, 17): If n is even, it s the mean of the two middle values (here, 17.5): the two middle values The median is (17+18) 2 = 17.5

29 Medians are less affected by outliers than means

30 Ranking removes distribution information

31 Two unrelated samples: the Mann Whitney U test Calculating U: see formula sheet. Determining a significance level from U: see formula sheet. If n 2 20, look up the critical value for U in your tables. (The critical value depends on n 1 and n 2.) If your U is smaller than the critical value, it s significant (you reject the null hypothesis). If n 2 > 20, use the normal approximation (see formula sheet). Null hypothesis: the two samples were drawn from identical populations. If we assume the distributions are similar, a significant Mann Whitney test suggests that the medians of the two populations are different.

32 Time-saving tip If the ranks do not overlap at all, U = 0. Example: U = 0

33 If you find a significant difference If you conduct a Mann Whitney test and find a significant difference, which group had the larger median and which group had the smaller median? You have to calculate the medians; you can t tell from the rank sums.

34 Two related samples: Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test Calculating T: see formula sheet. Determining a significance level from T: see formula sheet. If n 25, look up the critical value for T in your tables. If your T is smaller than the critical value, it s significant (you reject the null hypothesis). If n > 25, use the normal approximation (see formula sheet). Null hypothesis: the distribution of differences between the pairs of scores is symmetric about zero. Since the median and mean of a symmetric population are the same, this can be restated as the differences between the pairs of scores are symmetric with a mean and median of zero.

35 One sample: Wilcoxon signed-rank test with only one sample Very easy. Null hypothesis: the median is equal to M. For each score x, calculate a difference score (x M). Then proceed as for the two-sample Wilcoxon test using these difference scores.

36 The χ 2 test: for categorical data

37 Goodness of fit test: ONE categorical variable 100 people choose between chocolate and garibaldi biscuits. Expected (E): 50 chocolate, 50 garibaldi. Observed (O): 65 chocolate, 35 garibaldi. 2 2 ( O E) χ = E If χ 2 is big enough, we will reject the null hypothesis. df = categories 1

38 Contingency test: TWO categorical variables E( rowi, column j ) = R C i n j 2 2 ( O E) χ = E df = (rows 1) (columns 1)

39 Assumptions of the χ 2 test Independence of observations. Mustn t analyse data from several subjects when there are multiple observations per subject. Need one observation per subject. Most common cock-up? Can analyse data from only one subject then all observations are equally independent but conclusions only apply to that subject. Normality. Rule of thumb: no E value less than 5. Inclusion of non-occurrences. Petrol station example:

40 Experimental design questions

41 Experimental design questions: tips (see also booklet 9) No right answer. Need to understand the science behind the question. What will you measure? What numbers will you actually write down? Subjects? Correlative (measurement) or causal (interventional, true experimental ) study? For interventional studies, will you use a between- or within-groups design? Within-subjects designs are often more powerful but order effects may be a problem: need appropriate counterbalancing. Consider confounds (confounding variables). What is the appropriate control condition? Remember blinding and placebo/sham techniques. Keep it simple. Is your design the simplest way to answer the question? If you find an effect, will it be simple to interpret? If you don t, what will that tell you? How will you analyse your data? What will your null hypothesis be? But remember, this is not the main focus of the questions! Will you need a series of experiments? Will you alter your plans based on the result of the first few experiments? Do you need to outline a plan? Consider ethics and practicality. If you think of problems with your design, discuss them.

42 Numerical past paper questions

43 Approach to numerical exam questions Read the question carefully. Where appropriate, consider steps in choice of test. e.g. What is question/hypothesis? Type of data? Number of groups/conditions? Correlation or differences between groups? Related or unrelated samples? Parametric/non-parametric test? Direction of test? Choice of formula? Any other considerations? e.g. perform F test to choose equal-/unequal-variance form of t test? Which data to put in formulae? if χ 2 : draw table and note how to work out expected frequencies not all data has to go into each test (depends on question) sometimes you need to calculate difference scores sometimes you need to convert scores (e.g. percentages raw scores)

44 (one-sample tests not shown here) categorical (= nominal, classificatory) data: use χ 2. parametric tests preferred (more sensitive) when assumptions are met. Need data on an interval/ratio scale; scores with roughly a normal distribution; etc. nonparametric tests have fewer assumptions (so use if the assumptions of a parametric test are violated) and can deal with ranked data.

45 Examples 6, Q1 (2000, Paper 1) In a treatment trial for depression all patients received treatment with imipramine, an antidepressant drug. In addition, half received cognitive therapy (Cogth) while half received counselling (Couns). Patients were assessed on the Beck Depression Inventory prior to (Pre) and following (Post) the treatment programme. The results are shown overleaf. (a) Which treatment is more effective? (b) Are there any differences between the levels of depression in men and women prior to treatment? (c) Is there a relationship between depression before and after treatment in the cognitive therapy group?

46 Examples 6, Q2 (2003, Paper 1)

47 Examples 6, Q4 (2002, Paper 1)

48 Examples 6, Q6 (2001, Paper 1)

49 Good luck!

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