Quantum Leap in Defect Reduction Six Sigma / DMAIC Application. Z.Mousavi SSBB, CQE, CRE (ASQ Certified)

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1 Quantum Leap in Defect Reduction Six Sigma / DMAIC Application Z.Mousavi SSBB, CQE, CRE (ASQ Certified)

2 Agenda Introduction Applying DMAIC Steps in a MFG Environment to Improve Quality Review & Analyze a Case Study ZMTECHNICAL 2

3 What Is Six Sigma? First, What is Six Sigma? Six Sigma is a highly disciplined process that helps us focus on developing and delivering near-perfect products and services. Why "Sigma"? The word is a statistical term that measures how far a given process deviates from perfection. The central idea behind Six Sigma is that if you can measure how many "defects" you have in a process, you can systematically figure out how to eliminate them and get as close to "zero defects" as possible. To achieve Six Sigma Quality, a process must produce no more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities. ZMTECHNICAL 3

4 Key Concepts of Six Sigma At its core, Six Sigma revolves around a few key concepts. Critical to Quality: Attributes most important to the customer Defect: Failing to deliver what the customer wants Process Capability: What your process can deliver Measure of variation is a measure that describes how spread out or scattered a set of data Stable Operations: Ensuring consistent, predictable processes to improve what the customer sees and feels Design for Six Sigma: Designing to meet customer needs and process capability ZMTECHNICAL 4

5 What is DMAIC? D Define M.Measure A.Analyze I Improve C Control/check ZMTECH 5

6 Case Study Review Project History Company X manufactures printed circuit boards which are used in later stages of assembly lines as building blocks of microwave radios. Components are soldered on Printed Circuit Boards (PCB s) with a wave soldering machine. Although this is considered the best method of soldering, a number of defective boards may be produced. ZMTECH 6

7 Project Goal The original goal, was to find the root cause of the problems, hence improving the efficiency of the wave soldering process and subsequently improving product quality ZMTECH 7

8 Problem: Defective Boards Bridging defects ZMTECHNICAL 8

9 Apply DMIAC steps : D: Define problem: Large number of defective boards are produced in PCB manufacturing area of the company ZMTECHNICAL 9

10 Measure : Data collection The first and the most important issue at the beginning was the correct definition of the problem and gathering of valid data, which were carried out during the first month. Analyze Next, using some analytical tools the problem was defined more precisely. Then by using quality tools such as a Pareto and root-cause diagram, the potential causes of the defects in the wave soldering process were noted. ZMTECHNICAL 10

11 Process Flow Wave Soldering Flow Line Un populated PCB Masking Wave.Soldering populated PCB In Put Out Put Inspection /Quality Control ZMTECHNICAL 11

12 Process Characteristics The following are characteristics of the wave soldering process: The solder connection is very reliable and also a clean connection The process is automated The process reuses the flux and solder that is left over It does require inspection, some touch ups, and also testing The productivity and efficiency is increased ZMTECHNICAL 12

13 Analysis Continue scientifically valid data were collected over 2-3 weeks. Pareto analysis was carried out and brainstorming sessions were held to find the possible causes of the problem. The solution to the problem (corrective action) was the main topic of all the meeting in the 2 nd & 3 rd months from the beginning of the project. ZMTECHNICAL 13

14 At this stage the problem board (the one with the highest number of defects) and the type of the defect were clearly identified. ZMTECH 14

15 Data Collection Defective PCB Data The proportion defective solder joints for each board P/N were obtained: Target, or no #1 problem identified P/N # of Joints/ Board SAMPLE SIZE(# BD) SAMPLE SIZE # DEFECTIVE JOINTS/Bd PROPOTION DEFECTIVE ZMTECHNICAL 15

16 Route Cause Analysis Diagram /Fish Bone for the Wave Soldering Process Parameters Affecting W.S process Man Training Shift Machine Profile Temperature Environment Material PCB quality W.S out put ZMTECH 16

17 Continue analyze phase.. Analyze. A Design Of Experiment committee was formed in the company in the following month. The objective of this committee was to investigate and find the prime reason for deficiency in the process regarding the number of defective boards produced by the wave soldering process. The members of the committee were the quality engineer, the manufacturing engineer, the project lead, the quality specialist, and the operator. Two brainstorming sessions were held every week for one month. ZMTECHNICAL 17

18 Analysis continued Process Parameters of the wave soldering machine changed Various Design Of Experiments used, but not much improvements were obtained in the process. Research on alternative ways on defective joints prevention in the wave soldering process started 18

19 Improvement Phase alternative approach, using other process changes in the PCB assembly line After weeks of research, Dynamic Solder Management was introduced and presented by the Project lead. During this month the preliminary experiment and the actual experiment were carried out and the final results were recorded on the last day of the 3 rd month. ZMTECHNICAL 19

20

21 ZMTECHNICAL 21

22 ZMTECH 22

23 ZMTECHNICAL 23

24 SPC charts before and after implementation of Process Improvement Reduction of defective joints on the same board shown on SPC chart after process improvement ZMTECHNICAL 24

25 Results Sample n Number Defective # DEFECTIVE AFTER Implementation of DSM SUM ZMTECHNICAL 25

26 Results Recommendation Defective Joints decreased to 11% An improvement of ~ 90% Reduced process time Reduced Cost Implementing the method by means of robotics will improve it even further ZMTECHNICAL 26

27 Final Result Perfect Quality ZMTECH 27

28 Cost Savings Company X had a cost savings of nearly $40,000 on the specific board discussed after the first month of the implementation of the project. This method can be used for different geometries of the PCB consequently improving product quality and efficiency of the component integration process on Printed Circuit Boards using wave soldering machines. ZMTECH 28

29 Back Up References ZMTECHNICAL 29

30 References HzaJIE7-4 ZMTECH 30

31 Defn: An "opportunity" is defined as a chance for nonconformance, or not meeting the required specifications. This means we need to be nearly flawless in executing our key processes. ZMTECHNICAL 31

32 Definition of Defect By definition, a defect is an individual nonconformity on a product that causes it to fail to meet a quality specification. A zero defect product refers to a product which meets all technical or engineering specifications, and hence has no defects. An item or article is defective if it fails to conform to specifications to some respect. ZMTECHNICAL 32

33 Yield to Sigma Conversion Table Yield % Sigma Defects Per Million Opportunities

34 ZMTECHNICAL 34

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