14th International Conference on Software Quality (14ICSQ) 23 March 2005, 1:30-2:30p, Session Q

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1 14th International Conference on Quality (14ICSQ) 2 March 2005, 1:0-2:0p, Session Q The point isn t to build software without defects, but to build software solutions that can be kept from producing defectives in spite of their defects. Richard E. Biehl, CSSBB, CSQE Data-Oriented Quality Solutions

2 Key Question #1 What is the difference between using Six Sigma to improve our IT processes and using to engineer better systems? 2

3 Underlying Lifecycle Rationale IT & Product Relationships Analysis Build Implement Function System Operation

4 Lifecycle Perspectives Improving our IT project processes Analysis Define Optimizing Build Implement Measure Information Technology Improvement Analyze Lifecycle + Lifecycle = (DMAIC) Improve Control Q. Managed Defined Managed Initial Improving Maturity (CMMI -based) Improving our IT products and services Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Improvement Lifecycle (DMAIC) Analysis Build Implement Function System Operation DMAIC DMAIC DMAIC DMAIC for Six Sigma (DFSS) Define, Model, Optimize, Verify, Control (DMOVC) Define, Measure, Analyze,, Verify (DMADV) Identify, Define, Develop, Optimize, Verify (IDDOC) Business Product A systematic and integrated approach to applying DMAIC improvement to each level of a systems design. 4

5 IT Project Perspectives for (DFSS Lifecycle) Improvement (DMAIC Lifecycle) Radical process or system redesign in conjunction with business changes. (Improve Cpk) or system implementation in conjunction with business process improvement. (Improve Cp) IT Project (Traditional IT Lifecycle) Project tailoring guidelines assist project managers in selecting and documenting their organizational standard process selection and project process definition choices and rationale. Augment or automate portions of business process steps as an Improve phase activity within a business DMAIC initiative. 5

6 IT Project Tailoring & Implementation Risk (DFSS Project) Define Measure Analyze Improve Improvement Lifecycle (DMAIC) Analysis Build Function System DMAIC DMAIC DMAIC for Six Sigma (DFSS) Control Implement Operation DMAIC Implementation Risk Only (DMAIC Project) Define Measure Analyze Improve Improvement Lifecycle (DMAIC) Analysis Build Function System Control Implement Operation Analysis Little Risk (IT Project) Function Build System Implement Operation 6

7 Key Question #2 How do the levels of DFSS, particularly QFD, correspond to the levels of systems definition and design that are typically encountered on IT projects? DFSS = for QFD = Quality Function Deployment 7

8 Conceptual Tool Map 1 42 Problem Statement TMAP Scorecard Charter Voice of the Customer Benchmarking Voice of 41 4 Control Plan (Consolidated) SIPOC 7 Customer CTQs C&E Matrix 10,12 1 Customer Business 5,11 PMAPs FMEA House of Quality (QFD Matrix 1) CTQs Control Plan () Dashboard () 16 P u g h Functional Specification 17,20 18 FMAPs CRUD 19,21 FMEA Functional House of Quality (QFD Matrix 2) Functional CTQs Control Plan (Functional) Dashboard (Functional) 26 P u g h 2 Functional 4 Technical 28 Prototyping 27 DoE Conjoint CRUD 0,1 FMEA Technical House of Quality (QFD Matrix ) Technical CTQs Control Plan (Technical) Dashboard (Technical) P u g h 8 Technical 9 40 Implementation & Support 6,7 FMEA Operational House of Quality (QFD Matrix 4) Operational CTQs Control Plan (Operational) Dashboard (Operational) 8

9 DFSS: QFD Backbone Customer CTQs Customer Needs Business (QFD Matrix 1) CTQs Functional Functional Specification (QFD Matrix 2) Functional CTQs Functional Characteristics System (QFD Matrix ) CTQs Characteristics Operational Characteristics Operations Planning (QFD Matrix 4) Operational CTQs QFD = Quality Function Deployment CTQ = Critical to Quality 9

10 4 QFD Levels in IT Business (QFD1 Columns) Daily transactions Functional Specification (QFD2 Columns) Daily Function transactions Transaction Data Store batched transactions Function System (QFD Columns) Daily Module Extract Module Interface Feed keyword delimited control totals by day Module Operations Planning (QFD4 Columns) Daily Procedure Extract Procedure Interface Feed Procedure scheduled daily skip off/slow days incremental until used retain 5 generations verify control totals 10

11 QFD1 Business Customer Needs Lower Costs Better Service More Functionality Higher Quality Reduced Cycle Time Increased Reliability QFD1 Customer Needs Importance Daily Bus. Req'ts transactions Lower Costs Better Service More Functionality Higher Quality Reduced Cycle Time Increased Reliability Relative Importance Business (QFD1 Columns) Daily transactions 11

12 QFD1 Business Business (QFD1 Columns) Daily transactions Transactions Value Volume Units Value/Trans. Vol./trans. Units/Trans. Transactions Dashboard 12

13 QFD2 Functional Specification Business (QFD2 Rows) Daily transactions QFD2 Functional Specs Business Req'ts Importance Daily Function transactions Transaction Data Store batched transactions Daily transactions Function Relative Importance Functional Specification (QFD2 Columns) Daily Function transactions Transaction Data Store batched transactions Function 1

14 QFD2 Functional Specification Functional Specification (QFD2 Columns) Daily Function transactions Transaction Data Store batched transactions Function Batches Value/Batch Units/Batch Vol./Batch Trans/Batch Batch Freshness Value Freshness Unit Freshness Volume Freshness Trans. Freshness Batched Transactions Dashboard 14

15 QFD System Functional Specification (QFD Rows) Daily Function transactions Transaction Data Store batched transactions Function QFD Specifications Functional Specifications Importance Daily Module Extract Module Interface Feed Keword delimitation Control totals by day Daily Function transactions Transaction Data Store batched transactions Function Module Relative Importance System (QFD Columns) Daily Module Extract Module Interface Feed keyword delimited control totals by batch Module 15

16 QFD System System (QFD Columns) Daily Module Extract Module Interface Feed keyword delimited control totals by batch Module Run Time CPU Time Disk I/O Network Packets Records Keywords Run Time by X CPU Time by X Disk I/O by X Packets by X Records by X Keywords by X Batched Transactions Extract-Feed Dashboard 16

17 QFD4 Operations Planning System (QFD4 Rows) Daily Module Extract Module Interface Feed keyword delimited control totals by batch Module QFD4 Operations Specifications Importance Daily Procedure Extract Procedure daily schedule skip off/slow days Interface Feed increment until used 5 generation retention Procedure Daily Module Extract Module Interface Feed Keyword delimitation Control totals by day Module control total verification Relative Importance Operations Planning (QFD4 Columns) Daily Procedure Extract Procedure Interface Feed Procedure scheduled daily skip off/slow days incremental until used retain 5 generations verify control totals 17

18 QFD4 Operations Planning Operations Planning (QFD4 Columns) Daily Procedure Extract Procedure Interface Feed Procedure scheduled daily skip off/slow days incremental until used retain 5 generations verify control totals Skipped Days Increments batched Frequency of run Verification errors Skip Days by X Increments by X Runs Freq. by X Verif. errors by X Batched Transactions Extract-Feed Procedure Dashboard 18

19 4 QFD Levels in IT Business (QFD1 Columns) Daily transactions Functional Specification (QFD2 Columns) Daily Function transactions Transaction Data Store batched transactions Function System (QFD Columns) Daily Module Extract Module Interface Feed keyword delimited control totals by day Module Operations Planning (QFD4 Columns) Daily Procedure Extract Procedure Interface Feed Procedure scheduled daily skip off/slow days incremental until used retain 5 generations verify control totals 19

20 SIPOC to QFD Traceability SIPOC Outputs Financial reports Timely Available on time Be careful not to hard code target values in the SIPOC that might be subject to negotiation or revision during DFSS Optimization. QFD1 Customer Needs Timely financial reports Available financial reports Target Value(s) Prior day close-of-business By 8:00am on work days Separating the characteristic from the value of the characteristic supports clearer understanding during the deployment of requirements through the QFD backbone, and greater experimentation during design optimization. 20

21 SIPOC QFD Optimization of SIPOC Outputs Financial reports Timely Available on time QFD1 Customer Needs Timely financial reports Available financial reports Target Value(s) Prior day close-of-business By 8:00am on work days Target A USL = 8:00am TGT = 7:0am, LTB σ = 10 minutes Sigma Score = σ Target B USL = 8:00am TGT = 7:00am, LTB σ = 20 minutes Sigma Score = σ The customer needs will drive the definition and setting of design targets across the DFSS lifecycle. DFSS Optimization Target C USL = 8:00am TGT = 7:00am, LTB σ = 15 minutes Sigma Score = 4σ Target D USL = 8:00am TGT = 7:00am, LTB σ = 10 minutes Sigma Score = 6σ Target E USL = 8:00am TGT = 7:0am, LTB σ = 5 minutes Sigma Score = 6σ Target delivery time (TGT) will be an optimized function of anticipated delivery variation (σ) and desired quality level (Sigma Score) against the available windows for report production (i.e. overnight batch window, production job schedule, database availability, etc.) 21

22 Key Question # What are the three types of IT projects, and how do they interact and support each other? 22

23 Perspectives on IT Automation Business process is embedded in IT systems and functions. The process is automated by the system. ing Augmentation Business process depends on using certain IT systems or functions. The process is augmented by the system. ing System Enablement Business process includes making IT systems or functions available. The process enables the customers. ing Capability 2

24 Automation vs. Augmentation Valid Orders Valid Orders Order Entry Dashboard Customer Service Scorecard Take Orders N Customer Requests N Product Inventory (Future) S Customer Profiles S Prices & Promotions S Shipping Schedules Automation Take Orders N Customer Requests N Product Inventory (Future) S Customer Profiles S Prices & Promotions S Shipping Schedules S Order Entry System S Customer Service Representative S Customer Service Policies Augmentation Augmentation is more encompassing of a full DFSS design than simple automation. 24

25 Augmentation Impact Systems require users who operate under policies. 1 Take Orders Valid Orders Order Entry Dashboard Customer Service Scorecard N Customer Requests N Product Inventory (Future) S Customer Profiles S Prices & Promotions S Shipping Schedules S Order Entry System S Customer Service Representative S Customer Service Policies Every system gets a dashboard, and every user gets a scorecard, to measure policy compliance. New outputs mean additional customer requirements, and possibly new customers. SIPOC 4 New inputs mean additional process requirements, and possibly new suppliers. 2 25

26 Augmentation Metric Examples Order Entry Dashboard Response & cycle times Number of screens required Remote processing demand Network bandwidth used Pop-up conditions encountered Help functions invoked Field errors by type Customer Service Scorecard Pickup rings & abandon rate Cycle time per transaction Transactions per hour Error rates by type Satisfaction ratings Callbacks per transaction Exceptions handled w/ & w/o supervisor intervention Unit Definition Order for SKU from Warehouse via Shipment on Date Unit Metrics order counts customer service rep Unit value by product by transaction volume warehouse time period date Take Orders Valid Orders Order Entry Dashboard Customer Service Scorecard 26

27 Enablement Enablement Business process includes making IT systems or functions available. The process enables the customers. ing Capability Technology Infrastructure Configuration Support ing Capability Enablement Focus Enablement processes aren t about producing software systems or components. systems are produced, installed, and operated from within the process to provide the processing capability. Decisions to buy, build, or adapt are visible only within the process. 27

28 Automation Example ing Data Warehousing Supplier Legacy Systems Analysts System Administrator Customer Management Input Data to be transformed and loaded into the warehouse. Regular and ad hoc analysis report and query specifications. User and group authorizations and profiles. Output Analysis of the data stored in the warehouse. 28

29 vs. Enablement Example Technology Infrastructure ing Capability Data Warehousing System Configuration Support Customer Legacy Systems Analysts System Administrator Management Output Capability to send required data to be transformed and loaded into the warehouse. Capability to specify regular and ad hoc analysis reports and queries. Capability to define and manage user and group authorizations and profiles. Capability to request and receive analysis of the data stored in the warehouse. 29

30 Key Question #4 How does use the dashboard and scorecard measures to build 6-sigma levels of quality into software systems? 0

31 Goal-based Improvement High variability of results across different time periods. Backorders (Percentage of Orders) TGT 12% Goal: Reduce by 50% Current 24% 1

32 TQM-based Improvement (σ) Desired target level is LTB target is worst case for σ Backorders (Percentage of Orders) Customer Defective Backorder rate > 12% Defect Backorder rate > 12% LSL/LCL 0% TGT 6% σ = 2% USL/UCL 12% Goal: Reduce by 50% Current 24% 2

33 Improvement (6σ) Desired target level is LTB target is worst case for 6σ Backorders (Percentage of Orders) Customer Defective Backorder rate > 12% Defect Backorder rate > 9% Improvement Zone 9% < Backorder rate > 12% LSL 0% LCL % TGT 6% σ = 1% UCL 9% USL 12% Goal: Reduce by 50% Current 24%

34 Video Store Example ABANDON RATE QFD QFD1 (Business ) Maximize Visits with Rentals (Rental Rate = Rental Visits / Total Visits Abandon Rate = 1 - Rental Rate < 24% QFD2 (Functional Spec) Count Visits (Individuals/Groups renting as a Unit, not necessarily arriving or departing together) Monitor Rate (Rolling hrs, skip closings, compute every 20 minutes) Alert Zone (AR > 18%) LSL LCL TGT UCL USL 0% 6% 12% 18% 24% QFD (System ) Data for Visit Counts (timestamp event, or 20 minute buckets incremented, boundary error for uncount) Alerts for staff when in Zone (Pop-up window for client-registers) F8 for counts (Record event, or increment current bucket) F9 for uncounts (Record unevent, or decrement current bucket) Java Scripts for monitoring (Background tasks) Zone Defect Defective QFD4 (Operations) Zone Procedure Staff Training 4

35 QFD4 Abandon Rate Alert Zone Active for Defects Active for Defectives LSL 0% LCL 6% TGT 12% σ = % UCL 18% USL 24% Control Plan USL Review by management for service/inventory weakness UCL Immediate customer-focused reaction by staff in store LCL Review by management for possible growth options LSL n.a. 18% < Abandon Rate < 24% Abandon Rate > 24% 5

36 don t allow staff to double count visits QFD2 Count Visits Multi-user Multi-count Gap LSL LCL 6 TGT 9 σ = 1 second. UCL 12 USL 15 Control Plan USL n.a. UCL n.a. LCL Review frequency for possible double counting LSL Presume erroneous double count by staff LSL=, MTB, TGT=9, σ=1 second 6

37 Implications for Organizations As processes are redesigned to align with thinking, software engineers have an opportunity to implement controls that take advantage of the improvement zone between σ and 6σ process performance. By building critical customer metrics into software solutions, applications can be made self-correcting by enabling specific actions to be taken when process defects are seen in the improvement zone. These actions need not always involve sophisticated technical solutions to be beneficial. Controls can be as simple as an notifying support staff of defects above the σ level, or a periodic report highlighting activity in the σ to 6σ zone. The point isn t to build software without defects, but to build software solutions that can be kept from producing defectives in spite of their defects. That is the essence of for software. 7

38 Thank you! Richard E. Biehl, CSSBB, CSQE Quality Advisor Data-Oriented Quality Solutions 2105 Whitfield Lane Orlando, FL USA Quality Management TQM,, ISO 9000 Systems Engineering DFSS, Lean, CMMI, IEEE Organizational Development P-CMM, Baldrige, OPM, PMBOK 8

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