Pollination: Flower to Fruit

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1 Pollination: Flower to Fruit Answer Key Vocabulary: anther, cross pollination, filament, fruit, nectar, ovary, ovule, pedicel, petal, pistil, pollen, pollen tube, pollination, receptacle, self pollination, sepal, stamen, stigma, style Prior Knowledge Question (Do this BEFORE using the Gizmo.) [Note: The purpose of these questions is to activate prior knowledge and get students thinking. Students are not expected to know the answers to the Prior Knowledge Questions.] Plants use sunlight to produce sugar. Flowering plants make some of this sugar available to animals in the form of nectar (a sweet liquid found in flowers) and fruit. 1. Why do plants provide bees, butterflies, hummingbirds, and other animals with nectar? Answers will vary. [Plants make nectar to attract pollinators such as bees, butterflies, and hummingbirds. The animals carry pollen from one flower to another, thus helping the plants reproduce.] 2. Why do plants provide animals with fruits such as strawberries, apples, and mangoes? Answers will vary. [Plants provide animals with fruit because animals help to spread a plant s seeds. After a fruit is eaten, the seeds pass through the digestive tract and are eventually deposited in the animal s excrement, often far away from the parent plant.] Gizmo Warm-up Plants don t produce nectar and delicious fruit just to be nice. As you will learn, bees and other pollinators play a critical role in helping plants to reproduce. Fruits play a role in allowing plants to spread to new locations. The Pollination: Flower to Fruit Gizmo will take you through the reproductive cycle of flowering plants. To familiarize yourself with some of the parts of a flower, begin on the IDENTIFICATION tab. 1. Look at the list of Flower Parts on the left. Which of these parts have you heard of before? Answers will vary. 2. On the Closed view, drag the Petal, Pedicel, and Sepal terms into the correct spaces. (Use trial and error.) Turn on Show information about selected parts of the flower. A. Which structure protects a maturing bud? Sepal B. Which structure is a stalk that supports a single flower? Pedicel

2 Activity A: Flower anatomy Get the Gizmo ready: On the IDENTIFICATION tab, select Opened view. Goal: Identify the parts of the flower. 1. Label: Drag the terms you have learned so far (Petal, Pedicel, and Sepal) into the diagram of the opened flower. The text at the top should say Current status: 3 correct out of 14. Add these terms to the diagram below. Opened view A. The receptacle is a cup-like structure that holds the flower. Label the receptacle on the Gizmo and then add this term to the diagram above. B. The male part of the flower is called the stamen. It consists of two structures, a long, thin filament topped by an anther. Label these three structures in the Gizmo, and then add these terms to the diagram above. C. The female part of the flower is called the pistil. It consists of a sticky top surface called the stigma, a shaft called the style, and an ovary that encloses small structures called ovules. Label all five parts in the Gizmo and in the diagram above. D. Male sperm cells are contained within pollen grains. After a pollen grain moves from the anther to the stigma, a pollen tube grows through the style to an ovule. Label the last two structures in the Gizmo and in the diagram above. If the current status now reads 14 correct out of 14, then congratulations! You have identified all of the flower parts correctly. If not, revise your labels until they are correct. (Activity A continued on next page)

3 Activity A (continued from previous page) 2. Identify: If necessary, turn on Show information about selected parts of the flower, and read the information for each part. Identify the following parts from their descriptions. A. These grains contain male gametes (sperm cells): Pollen B. This structure contains female gametes (egg cells): Ovule C. This colorful structure attracts pollinators to the flower: Petal D. This structure has a sticky surface to trap pollen grains: Stigma E. This structure produces and stores pollen: Anther (or stamen) F. These structures allow sperm cells to move through the style: Pollen tubes G. This cup-like structure holds the flower: Receptacle H. These structures protect the maturing flower bud: Sepals I. This structure contains the female organs of a flower: Pistil J. This structure contains the male organs of a flower: Stamen

4 Activity B: Pollination Get the Gizmo ready: Select the POLLINATION/FERTILIZATION tab. Check that Self pollination is selected. Question: How do flowering plants reproduce? 1. Describe: Flowering plants reproduce by a process called pollination. Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the male to the female parts of the flower. How do you think pollination takes place in flowering plants? Answers will vary. 2. Summarize: Follow the directions in the Gizmo to observe the steps of self pollination. In your own words, describe what happens in each step. 1 Pollen is transferred from the anther to the stigma. 2 Pollen tubes grow from the pollen grains to the ovules. 3 Sperms cells move from the pollen tubes into ovules. The sperm cells fertilize the eggs in the ovules. 4 The petals fall off of the flower. 5 The fertilized ovules become seeds. The ovary grows into a fruit to surround and protect the seeds. (Activity B continued on next page)

5 Activity B (continued from previous page) 3. Explain: What is the purpose of a fruit? The purpose of a fruit is to protect the developing seeds and to help to spread the seeds once they are mature. 4. Think and discuss: Think about what might happen to an apple when a deer finds it. How do you think this will help to spread the seeds in the apple? If possible, discuss your answer with your classmates and teacher. Answers will vary. [The deer may eat and digest the apple along with its seeds. Later the deer will deposit the seeds in a different location. The seeds will then germinate in the new location.] 5. Compare: Click Reset, and select Cross pollination. Go through the steps of cross pollination. How does cross pollination differ from self pollination? In self pollination, pollen is transferred from the anther to the stigma of a single flower. In cross pollination, pollen is transferred from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another. 6. Think and discuss: Think about how pollen might travel from one flower to another. A. What are some of the ways that pollen can travel from one flower to another? Answers will vary. Sample answer: Pollen can be carried in the wind or can be transferred from one flower to another by a pollinator such as a bee, a butterfly, or a hummingbird. B. Based on your answer to part A, why do you think many plants produce sweet nectar? Answers will vary. Sample answer: Plants produce nectar to attract pollinators such as bees, butterflies, or hummingbirds. 3. Infer: Some flowers are pollinated by wind or water. How do you think the petals of these flowers will be different from the petals on flowers pollinated by animals? Sample answer: The petals of wind-pollinated flowers will probably not be as brightly colored as the petals of animal-pollinated flowers. These petals might also be smaller and less conspicuous. Many petals are brightly colored to attract animal pollinators.

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