World War II. Chapter 36

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1 World War II Chapter 36

2 Allied Strategy Axis Powers - Germany, Italy, Japan Allied Powers - U.S., G.B., France, U.S.S.R.,# of others Many in the U.S. wanted to go after Japan b/c of Pearl Harbor Decided to begin the main thrust in Europe

3 Getting Ready for WWII Country was more united behind the war effort.why? Needed to prepare for war before it was too late Had to feed and arm the U.S. military and Europe and also fight a two theatre war Was very little witch-hunting compared to WWI The HUGE exception was U.S. treatment of Japanese Americans

4 Japanese Internment Was a great deal of suspicion towards Japanese-Americans and sabotage Combined with long-standing racism Thousands of Japanese-Americans and Japanese were placed in internment camps throughout the U.S. Some actually asked to serve in the Army - Nisei 442nd Regiment - most decorated in history Was found constitutional in the Supreme Court case Korematsu v. U.S. Was a military necessity U.S. govt. later apologized and gave $200,000 to each camp survivor

5 Building the War Machine War Production Board Oversaw production of war materials Halted the manufacture of non-essential materials Rationing - meat, butter, nylon, rubber Office of Price Administration Dealt with inflation People were making lots of $ and was nothing to spend it on

6 World War II & Labor War Labor Board Dealt with labor issues during the war Placed ceilings on wages to help with inflation Labor Union membership went way up Large # of walkouts Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act Govt. could seize and operate industries tied up with labor disputes Strikes against govt. operated industries were illegal

7 Manpower & Womanpower 15 million men were in the military 216,000 women (WAACS, WAVES, SPARS) Workers in certain key industries were exempt from the draft Still short of personnel Braceros - was a deal made with Mexico for immigrant workers to come to the U.S. Agreement lasted for 20 years

8 Manpower & Womanpower Much of the labor loss in factories was filled by women 6 million women worked during WWII Were paid less than men Rosie the Riveters Not just single women anymore either About 2/3 left the workforce after the war Still, most women stayed home

9 Shifting Population WWII caused a huge demographic shift in the U.S. From rural to urban areas Migration North by many Southern blacks to fill factory jobs This made race more of a national issue

10 African-American Rights During WWII A. Philip Randolph Threatened a march on D.C. to protest discrimination in the workplace & hiring FDR want to prevent this Created the Fair Employment Practices Comm. Monitored compliance with Exec. Order that prohibited discrimination in defense industries Blacks were drafted, saw little action Served in segregated units Membership in the NAACP & CORE went up

11 Other Minority Groups During WWII Native Americans Also left reservations for urban areas Some served in the military Navajo Code Talkers Hispanic Americans Conflict in the SW Zoot-Suit Riots

12 Changes in America After WWII The U.S. came out of WWII more powerful than ever Business healthy, people had lots of $ Govt. became more involved in daily lives of Americans Draft, rationing, jobs in defense industries, govt. health care, etc. Govt./University partnership in research

13 Major Battles - Europe Battle of the Atlantic - sonar Battle of El Alamein stopped German advance in North Africa Battle of Stalingrad Soviets stopped the German advance in the east Soviets wanted a second front opened to ease their fight - Europe or Africa? Operation Torch Allied invasion of N. Africa - against E. Rommel British pushed from the East (Egypt), U.S. from the West (Morocco)

14 Major Battles - Europe Decision was made to open a second front in N. Europe up against the Atlantic Wall - defenses set up by Rommel Operation Overlord - D-Day invasion Largest invasion of its type in history Battle of the Bulge Hitler s last ditch effort at winning Was running out of supplies and oil A major counter-offensive to the Allied advance Eventually pushed back - Battle of Bastogne

15 WWII Europe Map

16 WWII in the Pacific Midway Coral Sea Guadalcanal Leyte Gulf

17 WWII in the Pacific Iwo Jima Okinawa

18 Use of the Atomic Bomb Used first on Hiroshima and then Nagasaki Why? Saved lives from an invasion of main islands of Japan Stop the war before the Soviets got too involved Should it have been used?

19 Wartime Conferences Tehran Conference The Big Three ( FDR, Churchill, Stalin) Agreed to open a second front and attack simultaneously with the Soviets Potsdam Conference FDR has died, new Prez Truman attends Agree to give an ultimatum to Japan Surrender or face total annihilation bomb?

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