Socialization. Socialization. Social and Motor Development. Chapter 3. A duel process of interaction and development through which humans learn:

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1 Social and Motor Development Chapter 3 Define socialization Today Explain self-esteem development and its relationship to physical activity and motor development Describe the main social influences during infancy Describe the main social influences during childhood Describe the main social influences during older childhood and adolescence If time: Describe the factors that influence exercise in adulthood (c) Brand X Pictures/PunchStock A duel process of interaction and development through which humans learn: Who they are How they are connected to the social worlds in which they live The orientations used as a basis for behaviour and group life helps us to learn who we are and how we are connected to our world

2 Social Behaviour and Movement Reciprocal Relationship Learning society s rules and expectations Influence on child s movement abilities Parents Siblings Teachers Friends Coaches Movement activities we choose affect our ability to fit in Dominant social values What activities, sports are valued in our society? Notions of masculinity and femininity teaches members of a society their social role Social role ~ expected behavior by a social group in a particular situation Occupational roles (doctor, lawyer, engineer) Professionalism gender Family roles Mother s role in family Father s role in family Norm ~ a set of expectations Physical activity norms Young boys are active, rambunctious Older adults (ie. seniors) not expected to be active, vigorous. The norm is that we slow down as we age As much societal expectation as biology

3 Society s role expectations influence human motor development Societal norms can facilitate or impede an individual s movement development Self- Self-esteem ~ how much we believe ourselves to be competent, successful, significant, and worthy How much we like ourselves Involvement in directed play or physical education can enhance self-esteem in children Self- Self-concept ~ perception of self Self-worth ~ overall value that one places on oneself as a person The feeling of accomplishment in movement and/or participation can positively affect the self-concept Self-Concept and PA Children who are: Emotionally disturbed Mentally challenged Economically disadvantaged Seem to derive huge benefits from PA/motor enrichment programs, as measured by self-concept and self-esteem Kids who need it most, derive most benefits

4 PA, Self-esteem, and Kids Self-worth Evolves Developmentally Real benefits, although researchers not sure why. Simple distraction? Physiological change? Affect endorphins, neurotransmitters? Early Childhood Mid-late Childhood Adolescence College Age Adulthood Cannot make judgments about self-worth Has difficulty discerning between cognitive and physical skills Physical appearance and social acceptance are the most important elements of self-worth Can distinguish feelings about friendship, romantic appeal, and job competence Friend- and teacher-support are major contributors to self worth Global self-worth becomes a function of perceived selfworth Further distinction among elements of self-worth attained during previous stage continues Harter, 1988 Self-worth Evolves Developmentally Social Influences ~ Infancy Scholastic competence Intellectual ability Creativity Job competence Athletic competence Physical appearance Romantic appeal Peer social acceptance Close friendships Parent relationships Sense of humor Morality Total reliance on caregivers Egocentric and asocial period Infant becomes more actively involved in the environment College-age individuals can differentiate and articulate 12 elements of self-worth

5 Social Influences ~ Infancy Stage 1: 0-3 months Infant reflexes - grasping, sucking, visually tracks Cries, smiles all efforts to establish bond with the caregiver, create social attachment Stage 2: 3-6 months Infant distinguishes between strangers and familiar figures Social Influences ~ Infancy Stage 3: 7 months 2 years Infant is adept at locomotion Can actively seek close physical proximity with objects of attachment Stage 4 Baby learns to control use of arms and hands in order to respond to or pursue human touch Movement activity results in social interaction Social Influences ~ Childhood Play Family School Social Influence ~ Childhood Play Motivation to play is intrinsic (ie. no external reward) Unproductive, spontaneous, and voluntary Involves active participation by the player Crucial part of learning the rules of society

6 Social Influence ~ Childhood Social Influence ~ Childhood Play Orphanage in India kids 2.5 thru 5 years of age Structured daily play program implemented 3 months Solitary play Between 24 and 30 months Child is more interested in her own activity Children improved motor, mental, physical and social maturity, more independent Royalty-Free/CORBIS Social Influence ~ Childhood Social Influences ~ Childhood Parallel play 2½ to 3 ½ years More aware of other children around them More likely to play by self Family From 3 ½ to 4 ½ the child may begin to exchange toys No group goal The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Jill Braaten, photographer Cooperative play 4 ½ to 5 years Digital Vision

7 Social Influences ~ Childhood Social Influences ~ Childhood Primary socializing agent Preschool, TV, and babysitters have lessened the impact of family Family s view on physical activity determines child s movement habits Family can be an important predictor of a child s future involvement in sport What do you remember about your earliest sport experience? Sports socialization begins in childhood Predictors for boys sport participation (all studies) Fathers, teachers, peers, self-efficacy, enjoyment, sports media, nonauthoritarian parents Predictors for girls sport participation Fathers, mothers, sisters, knowledge about exercise, level of social support, nonauthoritarian parents Social Influences ~ Childhood Physical activity habits in girls (p. 56) Mothers provide logistic support for daughters Fathers provide modeling for daughters One or both parents can have positive contribution to physical activity habits of daughter Social influences - Childhood School School may become the major socializing force Influence of peer groups Opinions?

8 Social Influences ~ Adolescence Family s influence diminishes Peer group is important socially Movement ability helps to determine peer group Peer group pressures members to conform Athletic activity Social acceptability by peer group Boys participation in sports, appearance, academic ability, career expectation, ethnicity, special talents Girls are at risk physical inactivity and obesity Barriers to girls participation in physical activity (p. 58) Self-consciousness Lack of motivation Limited amount of time Lack of social support Opinions? Team play Adolescents tend to seek group and/or team activities more frequently as they get older Benefits of team play. Works toward team/group goals Learns division of labor Learns that intellectual demands are greater Assumes greater social responsibility Learns how to fail and to succeed

9 Team participation..all beneficial? Talented players are rewarded Less-talented often are scorned or blamed for failure Pressure from parents, coaches, teammates, friends Gender role identification Gender identification begins early in childhood Gender role conflict (p. 60) Experienced by girls who participate in activity and for boys who do not Gender role identification Boys are more easily socialized into sports Boys are supposed to be aggressive and independent; this behavior is not acceptable for girls To what extent is this still the case? Are there still boy sports and girl sports?

10 Attribution (p. 60) Girls and women attribute positive performance to external sources (ie luck) and negative performance to internal ones (ie. not talented enough) Boys and men attribute positive performance to internal sources (hard work) and negative performance to external ones (my coach is an idiot) Opinion? What has been the effect of Title IX on girls and women s sports participation? Title IX 1972 Reduce gender discrimination in education Equalized number of athletic and physical education programs for boys and girls % of all high school athletes were girls Now over 35% Number of college scholarships to women has increased 10X since 1972 Social Factors ~ Adulthood Adulthood begins at approx. age 20 y Movement activity begins to decline.. The physical inactivity trend begins between 18 and 34 y Staying engaged in physical activity requires a conscious effort for many people Professional sports..

11 Social Factors ~ Adulthood As the adult becomes physically inactive, health components decrease Cardiovascular endurance Muscular strength and endurance Flexibility Social Factors ~ Adulthood Negative social forces on physical activity (more apparent in women ) Leaving school/going to work Permanent relationship (marriage) Having a family Research suggests physical decline is as much about disuse as about biology Social Factors ~ Adulthood Fallacy that having children increases physical activity in the parent In effect, life becomes more restricted and sedentary Avoiding the Exercise-Aging Cycle Getting older doesn t necessarily mean being sedentary.

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