The Knee - Chapter 18 Outline

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1 The Knee - Chapter 18 Outline A. Bones/Joints (See Knee Anatomy A-Z Handout for Related Bony Structures you should know) Bones that Compose the Knee Joint: Another name for knee joint: Type of joint: Why is it Modified? Name of Joint between proximal fibula and tibia: Type of Joint: Joint between kneecap and femur: Type of Joint: Function of patella: B. Soft Tissues of the Knee Two types of Cartilage Related to the Knee a. b. 4 Functions of Menisci: Characteristics of Medial Meniscus: Characteristics of Lateral Meniscus: Ligaments Related to the Knee Joint (note attachments/functions/misc ) a. b. c. d. Mnemonics to Remember ACL and PCL attachments: ACL - APEX PCL - PAIN

2 Muscles Related to the Knee Joint (label structures on illustrations below) a. Quadriceps Femoris Muscles 4. Functions at the knee joint: What additional function does the rectus femoris have at the hip joint? Where is the vastus intermedius in relation to the illustration of the quadriceps above? b. Tensor Fascia Latae and Iliotibial Band (ITB) Inserts on. Helps support femur on tibia during stance. c. Sartorius and Gracilis Assist with knee. The attachment of the tendons of these 2 muscles and the semitendinosis on the tibia is called the.

3 d. Hamstrings The hamstrings are composed of 3 muscles:, and. Which of the 3 hamstring muscles attaches mainly on the fibula? What is the main action of the hamstring muscles on the knee joint? e. Popliteus The popliteus muscle serves to knee flexion. the knee joint to allow When the foot is fixed on the ground, the popliteus unlocks the knee joint by rotating the femur. When the foot is free, the popliteus unlocks the knee joint by rotating the tibia.

4 II. Knee Injuries A. Patello-femoral dysfunctions Def'n - Abnormal tracking of the patella within the. Patella Glide: A shifting of the patella which causes increased pressure and resultant pain and decreased function. Patella Tilt: A shift and of the patella causing increased pressure on the lateral facet and resultant pain and decreased function. Signs and Symptoms of Patello-femoral dysfunction: X-rays of individuals having patella-femoral dysfunctions might show femoral torsion with " " patella or tibial torsion. When Evaluating for Patello-femoral dysfunction, assessment should include: lateral structures; structures Test: Displacement of patella less than 2 quadrants medially = tight Displacement of patella more than 3 quadrants = hypermobility Test: Inability to tilt lateral patella to horizontal = tight lateral Treatments: 4. 5.

5 B. Jumper's Knee/ Tendonitis Def'n: Inflammation of the tendon. Mechanism of Injury (MOI): Signs and Symptoms (S&S) Treatment (Rx) Decrease inflammation using, & Decrease stress on tendon using exercise like cycling/swimming. Stretch tight structures: Check Rectus Femoris length using. 4. Taping or bands 5. Cross massage C. Fat Pad Syndrome/ Syndrome Def'n Inflammation of the fat pad S&S: Pain in region distal to patella If compression of patellar tendon with athlete's quads causes pain, it's + for fat pad syndrome Rx: Avoid. Decrease Inflammation; Taping to unload fat pad D. MCL Sprain/Rupture Force S&S: Tenderness over ; Positive Test Rx: PRICE and avoid & stresses E. LCL Sprain/Rupture force S&S: Tenderness over ; Positive Test Rx: PRICE and avoid and stresses F. ACL Sprain/Rupture Special tests must be done within minutes of injury or swelling/guarding will mask results. Special Tests include: and. Rx: PRICE; surgery and rehab S&S: " ", rapid swelling; instability Tibia pushed or Femur pushed

6 G. PCL Sprain/Rupture Tibia pushed or Femur pushed. Special Tests: & Rx: PRICE, Rehab H. Meniscus Tears: Aging puts one at risk S&S: Swelling,, pain, popping,. Rx: PRICE; possible removal of some of meniscus Special Tests: & I. Growth Plate Injuries Common in young athletes because the & are 2-5 x stronger than the growth plate. J. Osgood Condition Def'n: Inflammation of caused by traction Common in males & females. S&S: Pain/Swelling over. Rx: PRICE and stretching of. K. ITB Syndrome Def'n: Inflammation of the ITB near epicondyle. Increasing too quickly &. Rx: Change, Stretch Tight Structures; Strengthen structures. Special Tests: &. L. Fractures Fracture is the most common

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