# University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Macroeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi

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1 University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Macroeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi CH 23 Finance Saving Investment 1) Capital is A) the tools, instruments, machines, buildings, and other items that have been produced in the past and that are used today to produce goods and services. B) financial wealth. C) net investment. D) gross investment. E) the sum of investment and government expenditure on goods. 2) Gross investment A) is the change in the value of capital B) includes only replacement investment. C) is the total amount spent on new capital. D) equals saving minus wealth. E) equals wealth minus saving. 3) The total amount spent on new capital is A) depreciation. B) net investment. C) saving. D) gross investment. E) wealth. 4) In January 2008, Tim's Gyms, Inc. owned machines valued at \$1 million. During the year, the market value of the machines fell by 30 percent. During 2008, Tim spent \$200,000 on new machines. During 2008, Tim's gross investment was A) \$1 million. B) \$300,000. C) \$100,000. D) \$900,000. E) \$200,000 5) Net investment equals A) gross investment minus depreciation. B) the total quantity of plant, equipment, and buildings. C) capital minus depreciation. D) wealth minus saving. E) gross investment/depreciation. 1

2 6) The increase in the value of capital is A) net investment. B) wealth. C) depreciation. D) private sector spending. E) gross investment. 7) Capital stock increases when A) gross investment exceeds net investment. B) net investment exceeds gross investment. C) gross investment is negative. D) net investment is zero. E) net investment is positive. 8) If the economy's capital increases over time, A) gross investment equals depreciation. B) depreciation is less than zero. C) net investment is positive. D) depreciation exceeds gross investment. E) gross investment is zero. 9) If the economy's capital decreases over time, A) depreciation is less than zero. B) gross investment is zero. C) gross investment equals net investment. D) net investment is positive. E) depreciation exceeds gross investment. 10) In January 2008, Tim's Gyms, Inc. owned machines valued at \$1 million. During the year, the market value of the machines fell by 10 percent. During 2008, Tim spent \$200,000 on new machines. During 2008, Tim's net investment was A) \$1 million. B) \$200,000. C) \$300,000. D) \$1.1 million. E) \$100, ) The Acme Stereo Company had a capital stock of \$24 million at the beginning of the year. At the end of the year, the firm had a capital stock of \$20 million. Thus its A) net investment was -\$4 million for the year. B) net investment was some amount but we need more information to determine the amount. C) gross investment was zero. D) depreciation was \$4 million. E) net investment was \$4 million for the year. 2

3 12) At the beginning of the year, Tom's Tubes had a capital stock of 5 tube-inflating machines. During the year, Tom scrapped 2 old machines and purchased 3 new machines. Tom's net investment for the year totaled A) 2 machines. B) 6 machines. C) 3 machines. D) 5 machines E) 1 machine. 13) At the beginning of the year, Tom's Tubes had a capital stock of 5 tube-inflating machines. During the year, Tom scrapped 2 old machines and purchased 3 new machines. Tom's gross investment for the year totaled A) 1 machine. B) 3 machines. C) 8 machines. D) 2 machines. E) 6 machines. 14) At the beginning of the year, Tom's Tubes had capital of 5 tube-inflating machines. During the year, Tom scrapped 2 old machines and purchased 3 new machines. Tom's capital at the end of year was A) 3 machines. B) 6 machines. C) 2 machines. D) 8 machines. E) 1 machine. 15) Which of the following is false about saving? A) Saving is the source of funds used to finance investment. B) Saving adds to wealth. C) Saving supplies funds in loan markets, bond markets, and stock markets. D) Income left after paying taxes can either be consumed or saved. E) Saving equals wealth minus consumption expenditure. 16) At the beginning of the year, your wealth is \$10,000. During the year, you have an income of \$90,000 and you spend \$80,000 on consumption goods and services. You pay no taxes. Your wealth at the end of the year is A) \$90,000. B) \$10,000. C) \$100,000. D) \$0. E) \$20, ) At the beginning of the year, your wealth is \$10,000. During the year, you have an income of \$80,000 and you spend \$90,000 on consumption goods and services. You pay no taxes. Your wealth at the end of the year is A) \$10,000. B) \$20,000. C) \$0. D) \$90,000. E) \$100,000. 3

4 18) In 2008, Tim's Gyms needs to finance the building of a new gym. Suppose Tim secures this financing from a bank, and the bank receives ownership if Tim fails to make payments. This type of funding is A) a stock issued in the bond market. B) a stock issued in the loan market. C) a mortgage obtained in the loan market. D) a mortgage obtained in the stock market. E) a bond issued in the bond market. 19) The funds used to buy physical capital are A) investment. B) saving. C) financial capital. D) wealth. E) net investment. 20) This year Pizza Hut spent \$1.3 billion on new capital in its stores. Depreciation during the year was \$300 million. Pizza Hut's gross investment was and its net investment was. A) \$1.0 billion; \$1.3 billion B) \$1.3 billion; \$1.6 billion C) \$1.3 billion; \$1.0 billion D) \$1.0 billion; \$0.7 billion E) \$1.3 billion; \$0.3 billion 21) If a bank's net worth is negative, then the bank is A) insolvent. B) liquid. C) solvent. D) liquid. E) none of the above. 22) In which market would you find mortgage-backed securities? A) loan market B) stock market C) capital market D) housing market E) bond market 23) Elena owns a Canada Savings Bond with a a price of \$5,000, which pays \$500 per year. The price of the bond rises in the bond market to \$7,500. What is the new interest rate on the bond? A) 5% B) 500% C) 20% D) 6.67% E) 10% 4

5 24) Investment is financed by which of the following? I. Government spending. II. Household saving. III. Borrowing from the rest of the world. A) I, II, and III. B) I and III only. C) II and III only. D) I and II only. E) None of the above. 25) National saving equals A) private saving + government saving. B) investment. C) private saving - net taxes. D) government saving. E) private saving + private wealth. 26) If national saving equals \$100,000, net taxes equal \$100,000 and government expenditure equals \$25,000, what is private saving? A) -\$25,000 B) \$175,000 C) \$225,000 D) \$25,000 E) zero 27) Suppose Canada spends more on foreign goods and services than foreigners spend on our goods and services. Then A) the rest of the world may or may not finance Canada's trade deficit. B) Canada must borrow an amount equal to imports minus exports. C) Canada must borrow an amount equal to national saving. D) Canada must borrow an amount equal to consumption expenditure plus investment. E) none of the above. 28) In 2008, Country A has net taxes of \$30 million and government expenditures of \$35 million. Private saving in Country A is \$5 million and consumption expenditure is \$80 million. The government of Country A is running a budget and national saving is. A) surplus; \$25 million B) deficit; zero C) deficit; -\$5 million D) deficit; \$5 million E) surplus; \$5 million 5

6 Refer to the table below to answer the following questions. Table Item Consumption expenditure Government expenditure on goods and services Net taxes Investment Imports Exports Millions of dollars ) Refer to Table Private saving is A) -\$15 million. B) \$20 million. C) \$80 million. D) \$40 million. E) \$25 million. 30) Refer to Table Government saving is A) -\$5 million. B) \$15 million. C) \$5 million. D) \$20 million. E) \$45 million. 31) Approximately, the real interest rate the inflation rate the nominal interest rate. A) minus; equals B) plus; equals C) times; divided by 100 equals D) equals; plus E) equals; minus 32) The real interest rate A) increases when the inflation rate increases. B) is approximately equal to the nominal interest rate plus the inflation rate. C) can never be negative. D) is approximately equal to the nominal interest rate minus the inflation rate. E) none of the above. 33) Suppose that you took out a \$1,000 loan in January and had to pay \$75 in annual interest. During the year, inflation was 6 percent. Which of the following statements is correct? A) The nominal interest rate is 7.5 percent and the real interest rate is 13.5 percent. B) The nominal interest rate is 7.5 percent and the real interest rate is 1.5 percent. C) The real interest rate is 6 percent and the nominal interest rate is -1.5 percent. D) The real interest rate is 7.5 percent and the nominal interest rate is 1.5 percent. E) The real interest rate is 6 percent and the nominal interest rate is 7.5 percent. 6

7 34) If the nominal interest rate is 11 percent and the inflation rate is 9 percent, then the real interest rate is approximately A) 2 percent. B) 4 percent. C) 18 percent. D) 20 percent. E) -2 percent. 35) A firm's decision to invest in a project is based on the A) nominal interest rate and expected total revenue. B) nominal interest rate and the expected profit. C) real interest rate and expected total revenue. D) real interest rate and the expected profit. E) expected future income, wealth, and default risk. 36) Suppose a firm has an investment project which will cost \$200,000 and result in \$30,000 profit. The firm will not undertake the project if the interest rate is. A) greater than 5 percent B) greater than 15 percent C) greater than 7.5 percent D) greater than 10 percent E) positive 37) As the interest rate increases, the quantity of loanable funds demanded. A) nominal; increases B) real; increases C) nominal; decreases D) real; decreases E) None of the above. There is no relationship between interest rates and loanable funds. 38) The demand for loanable funds is the relationship between the quantity of loanable funds demanded and the other things remaining the same. A) quantity of loanable funds supplied B) real interest rate C) inflation rate D) nominal interest rate E) price level 39) The demand for loanable funds curve A) is horizontal. B) has a negative slope. C) slopes downward at high real interest rates and slopes upward at low real interest rates. D) is vertical. E) has a positive slope. 7

8 40) As the interest rate rises. A) nominal; the demand for loanable funds curve shifts rightward B) real; the demand for loanable funds curve shifts rightward C) real; a movement occurs down along the demand for loanable funds curve D) nominal; the demand for loanable funds curve shifts rightward E) real; a movement occurs up along the demand for loanable funds curve 41) If the real interest rate rises from 3 percent to 5 percent, A) the demand for loanable funds curve shifts rightward. B) there is a movement up along the demand for loanable funds curve. C) the supply of loanable funds curve shifts rightward. D) there is a movement down along the supply of loanable funds curve. E) the nominal interest rate falls. 42) A rise in the real interest rate A) shifts the demand for loanable funds curve rightward. B) creates a movement up along the demand for loanable funds curve. C) creates a movement down along the demand for loanable funds curve. D) shifts the demand for loanable funds curve leftward. E) none of the above. 43) A fall in the real interest rate A) creates a movement down along the demand for loanable funds curve. B) shifts the demand for loanable funds curve leftward. C) none of the above. D) shifts the demand for loanable funds curve rightward. E) creates a movement up along the demand for loanable funds curve. 44) The quantity of loanable funds demanded increases when A) the supply of loanable funds decreases. B) the real interest rate falls. C) the real interest rate rises. D) expected profit decreases. E) wealth increases. 45) A decrease in the real interest rate leads to a the demand for loanable funds curve, and a decrease in expected profit leads to a the demand for loanable funds curve. A) movement down along; movement up along B) movement down along; rightward shift of C) rightward shift of; movement up along D) movement down along; leftward shift of E) rightward shift of; leftward shift of 8

9 46) A decrease in the demand for loanable funds occurs when A) the government raises taxes. B) expected profit decreases. C) expected profit increases. D) the real interest rate rises. E) the government cuts taxes. 47) During a recession, firms decrease their profit expectations. As a result, there is a shift of the loanable funds curve. A) rightward; demand for B) rightward, supply of C) leftward; demand for loanable funds curve and supply of D) leftward; demand for E) rightward; supply of Refer to the figure below to answer the following question. Figure ) Refer to Figure In Figure , the economy is at point A on the initial demand for loanable funds curve DLF0. What happens if the real interest rate rises? A) There is a movement to a point such as B on the demand for loanable funds curve DLF0. B) The demand for loanable funds curve shifts rightward to curve DLF2. C) The demand for loanable funds curve shifts leftward to curve DLF1. D) Either A or B can occur. E) Either A or C can occur. 9

10 Refer to the figure below to answer the following questions. Figure ) Refer to Figure In Figure , a decrease in the real interest rate will result in a movement from point E to A) point F. B) point G. C) point I. D) either point G or point F. E) point H. 50) Refer to Figure In Figure , an increase in expected profit will result in a movement from point E to A) point H. B) point F. C) either point I or point F. D) point G. E) point I. 51) Refer to Figure In Figure , a decrease in expected profit will result in a movement from point E to A) either point G or point H. B) point F. C) point I. D) point G. E) point H. 10

11 Refer to the figure below to answer the following questions. Figure ) Refer to Figure In Figure , if the real interest rate is 6 percent, the quantity of loanable funds demanded is A) \$150 billion. B) \$450 billion. C) only amount less than \$450 billion. D) \$600 billion. E) \$300 billion. 53) In Figure , if the real interest rate is constant at 6 percent and expected profit falls, the quantity of loanable funds demanded will be A) greater than \$600 billion. B) less than \$450 billion. C) zero. D) \$450 billion. E) between \$450 billion and \$600 billion. 54) In Figure , if the real interest rate is constant at 6 percent and and expected profit rises, the amount of loanable funds demanded will be A) between \$300 billion and \$450 billion. B) \$450 billion. C) zero. D) less than \$450 billion. E) greater than \$450 billion. 55) All of the following are sources of loanable funds except A) private saving. B) business investment. C) government budget surplus. D) international borrowing. E) none of the above. 11

12 56) Which of the following influences household saving? I. The real interest rate. II. Disposable income. III. Expected future income. A) I only. B) I, II, and III. C) I and II. D) I and III. E) None of the above. 57) If households' disposable income decreases, then A) households' saving will decrease. B) households' saving will increase. C) the supply of loanable funds decreases. D) a movement occurs down along the supply of loanable funds curve. E) both A and C are correct. 58) Households will choose to save more if A) expected future income decreases. B) current disposable income increases. C) current disposable income decreases. D) both A and B are correct. E) both A and C are correct. 59) Which of the following is correct? A) As disposable income increases, the real interest rate rises. B) As disposable income decreases, saving decreases. C) The higher a household's wealth the greater is its saving. D) Both B and C are correct. E) Both A and C are correct. 60) increases households' saving. A) A tax cut that increases disposable income B) An increase in wealth C) An increase in default risk D) A decrease in the real interest rate E) Higher expected future income 61) The greater a household's the less is its saving. A) wealth B) return from saving C) disposable income D) expected future profit E) all of the above 12

13 62) As the rises, the supply of loanable funds other things remaining the same. A) inflation rate; increases B) inflation rate; decreases C) real interest rate; decreases D) real interest rate; increases E) nominal interest rate; increases 63) The supply of loanable funds is the relationship between the quantity loanable funds supplied and other things remaining the same. A) the price level B) the real interest rate C) the inflation rate D) the nominal interest rate E) real GDP 64) The supply of loanable funds curve A) has a positive slope. B) is upward sloping at low real interest rates and downward sloping at high real interest rates. C) is vertical. D) is horizontal. E) has a negative slope. 65) Changes in all of the following shift the supply curve of loanable funds except A) expected future income. B) wealth. C) the real interest rate. D) default risk. E) disposable income. 66) Which of the following will shift the supply of loanable funds curve leftward? A) a decrease in the real interest rate B) a decrease in disposable income C) a decrease in real wealth D) a decrease in expected future income E) a decrease in default risk 67) An increase in will shift the supply of loanable funds curve. A) wealth; leftward B) disposable income; leftward C) default risk; rightward D) expected future income; rightward E) the real interest rate; rightward 13

14 68) As a result of a recession, the default risk increases. How does this change affect the loanable funds market? A) There is a movement up along the supply of loanable funds curve. B) There is a rightward shift of the supply of loanable funds curve. C) There is a leftward shift of the supply of loanable funds curve. D) There is a movement down along the demand for loanable funds curve. E) There is a movement down along the demand for loanable funds curve. 69) When the real interest rate increases, A) the supply of loanable funds curve shifts rightward. B) the supply of loanable funds curve shifts leftward. C) there is a movement up along the supply of loanable funds curve. D) the demand for loanable funds curve shifts leftward. E) there is a movement down along the supply of loanable funds curve. 70) Which of the following is true? I. As the real interest rate increases, people increase the quantity they save. II. The supply of loanable funds curve is downward sloping. III. As disposable income increases, the supply of loanable funds curve becomes steeper. A) I only. B) I and III only. C) I, II, and III. D) III only. E) II and III only. 71) A decrease in disposable income. A) creates a movement up along the supply of loanable funds curve B) has no effect on the supply of loanable funds curve C) shifts the supply of loanable funds curve leftward D) creates a movement down along the supply of loanable funds curve E) shifts the supply of loanable funds curve rightward 72) If households believe they will experience higher income in the near future, there is a A) rightward shift of the supply of loanable funds curve. B) rightward shift of the demand for loanable funds curve. C) movement up along the supply of loanable funds curve. D) movement up along the demand for loanable funds curve. E) leftward shift of the supply of loanable funds curve. 14

15 Refer to the figure below to answer the following questions. Figure ) Refer to Figure In Figure , the economy is at point A on the supply of loanable funds curve SLF0. What happens if disposable income decreases? A) There is a movement to a point such as B on the supply of loanable funds curve SLF0. B) The supply of loanable funds curve shifts rightward to a curve such as SLF2. C) Nothing; the economy would remain at point A. D) The supply of loanable funds curve shifts leftward to a curve such as SLF1. E) None of the above. 74) Refer to Figure In Figure , the economy is at point A on the supply of loanable funds curve SLF0. What happens if the real interest rate rises? A) The supply of loanable funds curve shifts rightward to a curve such as SLF2. B) The supply of loanable funds curve shifts leftward to a curve such as SLF1. C) There is a movement to a point such as B on the supply of loanable funds curve SLF0. D) Nothing; the economy would remain at point A. E) None of the above. 75) In the market for loanable funds, as the real interest rate rises the and the. A) quantity of loanable funds supplied decreases; quantity of loanable funds demanded increases B) supply of loanable funds increases; demand for loanable funds decreases C) supply of loanable funds decreases; demand for loanable funds increases D) quantity of loanable funds supplied increases; quantity of loanable funds demanded decreases E) quantity of loanable funds supplied increases; supply of loanable funds increases 76) The equilibrium real interest rate is determined by the A) banks and insurance companies. B) demand for loanable funds curve and real GDP. C) government expenditure curve and the taxation curve. D) supply of loanable funds curve and financial institutions. E) demand for loanable funds curve and the supply of loanable funds curve. 15

16 77) Suppose the current real interest rate is 4 percent and the equilibrium real interest rate is 3 percent. Choose the correct statement. A) There is a surplus of loanable funds. B) There is neither a shortage nor surplus of loanable funds. C) The demand for loanable funds decreases. D) There is a shortage of loanable funds. E) The supply of loanable funds increases. 78) If the quantity of loanable funds supplied exceeds the quantity of loanable funds demanded, then. A) the demand for loanable funds increases B) the real interest rate will fall C) the supply of loanable funds increases D) people will save more E) the real interest rate will rise 79) If the real interest rate is above the equilibrium real interest rate, A) a shortage of loanable funds exists. B) lenders are unable to find borrowers willing to borrow all of the available funds and the real interest rate falls. C) borrowers are unable to borrow all of the funds they want to borrow and the real interest rate rises. D) borrowers are unable to borrow all of the funds they want to borrow and the real interest rate falls. E) lenders are unable to find borrowers willing to borrow all of the available funds and the real interest rate rises. 80) If the real interest rate is below the equilibrium real interest rate, A) borrowers are unable to borrow all of the funds they want to borrow and the real interest rate falls. B) a surplus of loanable funds exists. C) borrowers are unable to borrow all of the funds they want to borrow and the real interest rate rises. D) lenders are unable to find borrowers willing to borrow all of the available funds and the real interest rate rises. E) lenders are unable to find borrowers willing to borrow all of the available funds and the real interest rate falls. 81) If the real interest rate is below the equilibrium real interest rate, A) lenders will be unable to find borrowers willing to borrow all of the available funds and the supply of loanable funds curve shifts rightward. B) lenders will be unable to find borrowers willing to borrow all of the available funds and the supply of loanable funds curve shifts leftward. C) a shortage of of loanable funds exists, and the real interest rate rises. D) borrowers will be unable to borrow all of the funds they want to borrow and the demand for loanable funds curve shifts leftward. E) borrowers will be unable to borrow all of the funds they want to borrow and the demand for loanable funds curve shifts rightward. 82) In the market for loanable funds, if the interest rate is above the equilibrium level A) expected profit falls. B) a surplus of loanable funds exists. C) wealth increases. D) government expenditure decreases. E) a shortage of loanable funds exists. 16

17 83) An increase in disposable income shifts the supply of loanable funds curve A) rightward and increases the real interest rate. B) rightward and decreases the real interest rate. C) leftward and increases the real interest rate. D) rightward and the demand for loanable funds curve leftward. E) leftward and decreases the real interest rate. 84) Technological progress that increases expected profit shifts the demand for loanable funds curve A) rightward and decreases the real interest rate. B) leftward and decreases the real interest rate. C) rightward and the supply of loanable funds curve leftward. D) rightward and increases the real interest rate. E) leftward and increases the real interest rate. 85) What is the effect of a decrease in expected profit? A) The demand curve for loanable funds shifts rightward and the real interest rate rises. B) The supply curve of loanable funds shifts rightward and the nominal interest rate rises. C) The demand curve for loanable funds shifts leftward and the real interest rate falls. D) A movement down along the demand curve for loanable funds occurs. E) The real interest rate rises as saving increases. 86) If disposable income increases, people saving, the supply of loanable funds will and the real interest rate will. A) increase; decrease; rise B) increase; increase; fall C) decrease; increase; fall D) decrease; decrease; rise E) increase; increase; rise or fall depending on the shift of the demand curve for loanable funds 87) Suppose the market for loanable funds is in equilibrium. If expected profit falls, the equilibrium real interest rate and the quantity of loanable funds. A) rises; increases B) falls; increases C) falls; increases or decreases but we don't know for sure D) rises; decreases E) falls; decreases 17

18 Refer to the figure below to answer the following questions. Figure ) Refer to Figure In Figure , the supply of loanable funds curve is SLF0 and the demand for loanable funds curve is DLF0. An expansion that increases disposable income and expected profit A) shifts the demand for loanable funds curve rightward to curve DLF1 and does not shift the supply of loanable funds curve. B) has no effect on either the demand for loanable funds curve or the supply of loanable funds curve. C) shifts the supply of loanable funds curve rightward to curve SLF1, and shifts the demand for loanable funds curve rightward to curve DLF1. D) shifts the supply of loanable funds curve rightward to curve SLF1 and does not shift the demand for loanable funds curve. E) none of the above. 89) Refer to Figure In Figure , the initial supply of loanable funds curve is SLF0 and the initial demand for loanable funds curve is DLF0. An increase in the expected profit A) shifts the supply of loanable funds curve rightward to curve SLF1 and does not shift the demand for loanable funds curve. B) shifts the demand for loanable funds curve rightward to curve DLF1 and does not shift the supply of loanable funds curve. C) has no effect on either the demand for loanable funds curve or the supply of loanable funds curve. D) shifts the supply of loanable funds curve rightward to curve SLF1, and shifts the demand for loanable funds curve rightward to curve DLF1. E) none of the above. 90) Which of the following is false? A)Y = C + I + G + M - X B)Y + M = C + I + G + X C)Y = C + I + G + X -M D)Y = C + S + T E)I = S + (T - G) + (M - X) 18

19 91) In Canada's economy, investment is financed by A)C + S + T. B)S + (T - G) + (M - X). C)S + (T - G) + (X - M). D)S + T + M. E)C + I + G + X - M. 92) Investment will be higher if A) government spending is higher. B) national saving is higher. C) the real interest rate is higher. D) the government deficit is higher. E) net exports are higher. 93) Southton has investment of \$100, private saving of \$90, net taxes of \$25, government expenditure of \$30, exports of \$25 and imports of \$10. What is national saving? A) \$100 B) \$85 C) \$90 D) \$95 E) \$105 94) If net taxes exceed government expenditures, the government sector has a budget and government saving is. A) deficit; negative B) surplus; negative C) balance that is zero; zero D) surplus; positive E) deficit; positive 95) When a government has a budget surplus, the surplus A) decreases the demand for loanable funds. B) crowds-out private saving. C) helps finance investment. D) must be subtracted from private saving. E) increases the world real interest rate. 96) When government saving is negative, A) the real interest rate falls. B) investment increases. C) the real interest rate rises. D) the supply of loanable funds increases. E) the real interest rate falls if crowding-out occurs. 19

20 97) The tendency for a government budget deficit to decrease investment is called the A) government dissaving effect. B) deficit effect. C) Ricardo-Barro effect. D) capital investment effect. E) crowding-out effect. 98) The crowding-out effect refers to A) private investment crowding out government saving. B) private saving crowding out net taxes. C) government spending crowding out private spending. D) a government deficit crowding out investment. E) private saving crowding out government saving. 99) Crowding out leads to all of the following except A) a decrease in investment. B) a smaller quantity of capital in the future. C) a decrease in private saving. D) a higher real interest rate. E) crowding out leads to all of the above. 100) If the government begins to run a larger budget deficit, the demand for loanable funds and the real interest rate. A) increases; falls B) decreases; rises C) decreases; falls D) increases; rises E) increases; rises or falls depending on the change in the supply of loanable funds 101) A government budget deficit the demand for loanable funds and investment. A) decreases; decreases B) increases; decreases C) increases; increases D) increases; rises or falls depending on the change in the supply of loanable funds E) decreases; increases 102) A government budget deficit the demand for loanable funds, the real interest rate, and investment. A) increases; increases; crowds out B) decreases; increases; increases C) increases; decreases; increases D) decreases; increases; crowds out E) increases; decreases; crowds out 20

21 103) If China's government increases its budget surplus, there is in the supply of loanable funds, private saving and investment. A) a decrease; decreases; increases B) a decrease; increases; increases C) an increase; decreases; increases D) an increase; increases; increases E) an increase; decreases; is crowded out 104) The tendency for private saving to increase in response to growing government deficits is known as the A) crowding out effect. B) Keynes effect. C) Ricardo-Barro effect. D) money illusion effect. E) Mulroney-Harper effect. 105) According to the Ricardo-Barro effect, A) taxpayers fail to foresee that government deficits imply higher future taxes. B) a government deficit decreases the supply of loanable funds. C) government deficits raise the real interest rate. D) government budget deficits increase households' expected future disposable income. E) households increase personal saving when governments run budget deficits. 106) The Ricardo-Barro effect of a government budget deficit is A) a large crowding-out effect that decreases investment. B) a decrease in private saving. C) a decrease in net exports. D) a large crowding-out effect that decreases national saving. E) an increase in private saving. 107) The Ricardo-Barro effect holds that A) a government budget deficit crowds out private investment. B) a government budget deficit induces a decrease in saving that magnifies the crowding out effect. C) equal increases in taxes and government expenditures have no effect on equilibrium real GDP. D) a government budget deficit has no effect on the real interest rate. E) none of the above. 108) According to the Ricardo-Barro effect, government deficits A) lead to a fall in the equilibrium real interest rate and an increase in investment. B) lead to a rise in the equilibrium real interest rate, crowding out investment. C) lead to simultaneous increases in private saving and have no effect on the equilibrium real interest rate and investment. D) lead to simultaneous decreases in private saving and decreases in the equilibrium real interest rate and investment. E) raise the real interest rate but have no effect on the nominal interest rate. 21

22 109) According to the Ricardo-Barro effect, A) the government budget has no effect on the real interest rate. B) financing government spending with taxes has a less severe effect on private investment than financing through government borrowing. C) a government budget deficit crowds out private investment. D) All of the above. E) None of the above. 110) If the Ricardo-Barro effect occurs, in private saving finances the government budget deficit and the real interest rate. A) an increase; rises B) an increase; remains the same C) a decrease; increases D) a decrease; remains the same E) an increase; falls 111) If the Ricardo-Barro effect occurs, a government budget deficit raises the equilibrium real interest rate by and decreases the equilibrium quantity of investment by if the Ricardo-Barro effect is absent. A) the same amount; the same amount as B) more; less than C) less; less than D) less; more than E) more; more than 112) A decrease in the government budget deficit decreases the loanable funds and an increase in the government budget surplus increases the loanable funds. A) demand for; demand for B) supply of; supply of C) demand for; supply of D) demand for loanable funds and the supply of; supply of loanable funds and the demand for E) supply of; demand for 22

23 Use the table below to answer the following question. Table Data from Northland Real Interest Rate 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% Demand for Loanable Funds (billions of dollars) Supply of Loanable Funds (billions of dollars) ) Refer to Table Table shows the market for loanable funds in Northland. The government budget is balanced. If the government moves from a balanced budget to a surplus of \$20 billion, the new equilibrium has a real interest rate of and quantity of loanable funds traded equal to. A) 6.5%; \$110 billion B) 5.5%; \$110 billion C) 6%; \$120 billion D) 6.5%; \$90 billion E) 5.5%; \$90 billion 114) In the market for loanable funds, a larger government surplus leads to A) a higher real interest rate, and increased investment. B) no effect on the real interest rate or investment. C) a lower real interest rate, and decreased investment. D) a higher real interest rate, and decreased investment. E) a lower real interest rate, and increased investment. 115) Choose the statement that is incorrect A) According to the Ricardo-Barro effect, a budget deficit has no effect on either the real interest rate or investment. B) According to the Ricardo-Barro effect, the quantity of loanable funds demanded increases when a government budget deficit occurs, and private saving and the private supply of loanable funds increase to match the quantity of loanable funds demanded. C) According to the Ricardo-Barro effect, taxpayers are rational people who know that a budget deficit today means that future taxes will be higher and future disposable incomes will be smaller. D) Most economists believe that the Ricardo-Barro effect holds in the market for loanable funds. E) All of the above statements are correct. 116) A government budget surplus occurs, which loanable funds. The real interest rate, household saving, and investment. A) decreases the demand for; falls; decreases; increases B) increases the demand for; rises; increases; decreases C) decreases the supply of; decreases; decreases; increases D) increases the supply of; falls; increases; decreases E) increases the supply of; falls; decreases; increases 23

24 Refer to the table below to answer the following question. Table Real interest rate (percent per year) Loanable funds demanded (trillions of 2002 dollars) Loanable funds supplied (trillions of 2002 dollars) ) Refer to Table The table shows an economy's demand for loanable funds and supply of loanable funds schedules when the government's budget is balanced. The quantity of loanable funds demanded increases by \$1 trillion at each real interest rate and the quantity of loanable funds supplied increases by \$2 trillion at each real interest rate. If the government wants investment to be \$9 trillion, it must its budget balance by trillion. A) decrease; \$1 B) increase; \$1.5 C) increase; \$2 D) increase; \$1 E) decrease; \$1.5 Refer to the table below to answer the following question. Table Real interest rate (percent per year) Loanable funds demanded (trillions of 2002 dollars) Loanable funds supplied (trillions of 2002 dollars) ) Refer to Table The table shows the demand for loanable funds schedule and the private supply of loanable funds schedule when the government's budget is balanced. If the Ricardo-Barro effect occurs, and if the government budget deficit is \$2.0 trillion, the real interest rate is percent a year and the quantity of investment is trillion. A) 9.0; \$7.0 B) 5.0; \$5.0 C) 7.0; \$6.0 D) 5.0; \$7.0 E) 3.0; \$7.5 24

25 Refer to the table below to answer the following question. Table Real interest rate (percent per year) Loanable funds demanded (trillions of 2002 dollars) Loanable funds supplied (trillions of 2002 dollars) ) Refer to Table The table shows an economy's demand for loanable funds schedule and the private supply of loanable funds schedule when the government's budget is balanced. If the government budget deficit is \$1.0 trillion, the real interest rate is percent a year, the quantity of investment is trillion, and the quantity of private saving is trillion. A) 7; \$8.5; \$5.5 B) 3; \$6.5; \$7.0 C) 5; \$6.5; \$7.5 D) 7; \$5.5; \$8.5 E) 5; \$7.5; \$6.5 Refer to the table below to answer the following question. Table Real interest rate (percent per year) Loanable funds demanded (trillions of 2002 dollars) Loanable funds supplied (trillions of 2002 dollars) ) Refer to Table The table shows an economy's demand for loanable funds schedule and supply of loanable funds schedule when the government's budget is balanced. If the government budget surplus is \$2.0 trillion, the real interest rate is percent a year, the quantity of investment is trillion, and the quantity of private saving is trillion. A) 10; \$7.5; \$5.5 B) 8; \$6.5; \$6.5 C) 6; \$7.5; \$5.5 D) 6; \$7.5; \$7.5 E) 10; \$5.5; \$7.5 25

26 121) If we import more than we export from the rest of the world we A) have a surplus of funds at the world equilibrium interest rate. B) are a net lender of funds to the rest of the world. C) are running a trade surplus. D) are helping to finance investment in the rest of the world. E) are a net borrower of funds from the rest of the world. Topic: The Global Loanable Funds Market 122) Real interest rates around the world tend to A) differ because inflation rates differ across countries. B) be equal because trading partners would not do business otherwise. C) be quite different because no two countries are exactly the same. D) be equal after adjusting for differences in risk because financial capital seeks the highest possible return. E) none of the above. Topic: The Global Loanable Funds Market 123) The real interest rate is in Canada compared to Zimbabwe because. A) lower; Canada is a net borrower B) higher; more firms want to borrow financial capital in Canada than in Zimbabwe C) lower; there is a lower risk premium in Canada D) higher; the supply of loanable funds is greater in Canada E) higher; Zimbabwe is a net borrower Topic: The Global Loanable Funds Market 124) A small country is a net foreign borrower. Its real interest rate without foreign borrowing is the world real interest rate. A) lower than B) either higher than or equal to C) equal to D) higher than E) not comparable to Topic: The Global Loanable Funds Market 125) A very small country is a net foreign borrower and its supply of loanable funds increases. As a result, the equilibrium quantity of loanable funds used in the country and the country's foreign borrowing. A) increases; decreases B) does not change; does not change C) increases; does not change D) does not change; decreases E) does not change; increases Topic: The Global Loanable Funds Market 126) A very small country is a net foreign borrower and its demand for loanable funds increases. As a result, the equilibrium quantity of loanable funds used in the country and the country's foreign borrowing. A) does not change; does not change B) does not change; increases C) increases; increases D) increases; does not change E) increases; decreases Topic: The Global Loanable Funds Market 26

27 127) A very small country is a net foreign lender and its supply of loanable funds increases. As a result, the equilibrium quantity of loanable funds used in the country and the country's foreign lending. A) does not change; decreases B) increases; decreases C) does not change; does not change D) does not change; increases E) increases; does not change Topic: The Global Loanable Funds Market 128) If the world real interest rate falls, then a country that is a net foreign lender A) changes from being a net foreign lender to a net foreign borrower. B) increases the amount of its lending. C) does not change the amount of its lending. D) decreases the amount of its lending. E) none of the above. Topic: The Global Loanable Funds Market 129) Loanable funds flow among countries because. A) including differences in risk, the real interest rate is always higher in some countries than in others and this real interest rate differential will not change B) funds flow into the country with the highest real interest rate and out of the country in which the real interest rate is lowest C) it creates more stability for domestic businesses to have foreign investors D) funds flow into the country with the highest nominal interest rate and out of the country in which the nominal interest rate is lowest E) rational investors want diversified portfolios Topic: The Global Loanable Funds Market 130) In an individual economy that is integrated into the global market, the demand for loanable funds is determined by the demand and the supply of loanable funds is determined by the supply. A) world's; country's B) world's; World Bank's C) country's; world's D) country's; country's E) world's; world's Topic: The Global Loanable Funds Market 131) If a country has a shortage of loanable funds at the world real interest rate. A) the demand for loanable funds in this country decreases B) the country increases its net exports C) the world interest rate falls D) world suppliers of loanable funds move funds to this country E) the country decreases its net exports Topic: The Global Loanable Funds Market 132) An increase in the government budget deficit. If the country is an international borrower, the government budget deficit. If the country is an international lender, the government budget deficit. A) increases the country's supply of loanable funds; decreases foreign lending; increases foreign borrowing B) decreases the country's demand for loanable funds; decreases foreign lending; increases foreign borrowing C) decreases the country's supply of loanable funds; increases foreign borrowing; decreases foreign lending D) increases the country's demand for loanable funds; decreases foreign borrowing; increases foreign lending E) increases the country's demand for loanable funds; increases foreign borrowing; decreases foreign lending Topic: The Global Loanable Funds Market 27

28 Answer Key Testname: 23 FINANCE SAV INV 1) A 2) C 3) D 4) E 5) A 6) A 7) E 8) C 9) E 10) E 11) A 12) E 13) B 14) B 15) E 16) E 17) C 18) C 19) C 20) C 21) A 22) E 23) D 24) C 25) A 26) D 27) B 28) B 29) E 30) C 31) B 32) D 33) B 34) A 35) D 36) B 37) D 38) B 39) B 40) E 41) B 42) B 43) A 44) B 45) D 46) B 47) D 48) A 49) B 50) B 51) E 52) B 53) B 54) E 55) B 56) B 57) E 58) D 59) B 60) A 61) A 62) D 63) B 64) A 65) C 66) B 67) A 68) C 69) C 70) A 71) C 72) A 73) D 74) C 75) D 76) E 77) A 78) B 79) B 80) C 81) C 82) B 83) B 84) D 85) C 86) B 87) E 88) C 89) B 90) A 91) B 92) B 93) B 94) D 95) C 96) C 97) E 98) D 99) C 100) D 101) B 102) A 103) C 104) C 105) E 106) E 107) D 108) C 109) A 110) B 111) C 112) C 113) B 114) E 115) D 116) E 117) D 118) C 119) C 120) C 121) E 122) D 123) C 124) D 125) D 126) C 127) D 128) D 129) B 130) C 131) D 132) E 28

29 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 98) 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 128) 129) 130) 131) 132) 29

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