4-H. Natural Resource. Club

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1 4-H Natural Resource Club Weather

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3 Weather Note: the Indiana 4-H Weather curriculum is currently being rewritten. The new curriculum, Indiana 4-H Weather and Climate Science, will be pilot-tested in 2014 and used state-wide in The activities chosen for the Natural Resource Science kit are from the new manuals and are currently in draft form. Everyone needs to know what the weather will be so they can dress appropriately and to help plan their day. Gardeners and farmers need to understand the climate so that they know what they should plant. Homeowners also need to understand their climate, not only for plantings around their house, but also to understand heating and cooling requirements and choices in different climates. Level 1 introduces basic weather terminology and concepts. Activities focus on understanding the signs of weather around you. Level 2 introduces more complex weather topics. Level 3 delves even deeper into weather and introduces climate science concepts to help prepare youth for studying these topics at a college or university. In Level 3 youth are encouraged to direct your learning by doing research using the scientific method and consulting reference people and materials. Indiana 4-H Weather manuals The new Indiana 4-H Weather and Climate Science manuals will be available (draft form for the pilot-test) from Natalie Carroll in 2014 and may be ordered from Purdue s The Education Store, in Invited Speaker Suggestions q CoCoRaHS member (volunteer weather observers and data collectors), see click on states under the title; Indiana; and Find Your Local Coordinator q Local weather watcher q Local TV meteorologist Resources q Indiana 4-H Weather webpage: edu/natural_resources/ q National Weather Service: q Community Collaborative Rain, Hail, & Snow (Co- CoRaHS) Network, Instructor notes Prepared by Natalie Carroll, Professor, and Tyler Wilson, Graduate Student, Department of Youth Development and Agricultural Education, Purdue University. Copyright Purdue University, 2013.

4 Activities The following activities were selected from the Indiana 4-H Weather and Climate Science manual that will be introduced state-wide in Page Activity Suggestions Materials Needed Time (min.) Tis the Season Youth consider our four seasons: spring, summer, fall, and winter. The activity sheet shows a table 2-3 where you can draw but any paper will work and can be divide by drawing 4 sections, folding to make 4 sections, or drawing one picture per side. Where is the Heat? Youth study the effect of the angle of light on a 4-5 piece of paper and then consider how the angle of the sun could affect temperature. Earth 6-7 Youth study the effect of color on the speed that it will warm up and consider how this phenomenon might affect weather. Weather or Not Youth learn the difference between weather and 7-8 climate and determine if a particular statement is about weather or climate. Paper, markers, crayons, colored pencils, scissors, magazines, glue, pencils, and paper Flashlight, paper, ruler, pennies, pencil Thermometer, desk lamp, clock, construction paper, chart as on page 5 30 Pencil, copy of page 7 for each youth or team 15

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6 Weather Activities Please note: The activities contained in this manual are from the new curriculum that is currently under development. They are in draft form and have not yet been pilot tested, nor professionally edited, so they may be quite different in their final form. Corrections and suggestions (through August 1, 2014 when we plan to go to printing) are appreciated. Contact Natalie Carroll via or send suggestions through your county Extension Youth Educator. Page 1

7 Activity 2: Tis the Season How do the changing seasons affect the way we live? Can you name the four Indiana seasons? The weather in Indiana changes with the seasons. These changes cause people to wear different clothes and do different outdoor activities. The seasons also affect the plants and animals that live outside. Objective: Identify the effects of changing seasons. Do It: Draw what each season means to you in the boxes provided. You might show how plants change, the different clothes people wear, sports and activities people do in different seasons, the view outside your window, or any other way you can show seasonal differences. Weather Tote: Paper Markers, crayons, or colored pencils Scissors Magazines Glue Pencil Spring Summer Winter Fall Page 2

8 Talk it Over: Share what happened: Was it hard to decide how to draw the seasons? Was one season more difficult to show than others? Apply: What is your favorite season? Why? Generalize to your life: How does the season affect what you wear? How does the season affect your outside activities? How does the season affect plants? Fly Higher: Take photographs or find pictures in magazines or the Internet that show the different Indiana seasons. Page 3

9 Activity 3: Where is the Heat? Why is it warmer in the summer than the winter? In this activity we will explore how the change of the angle of the sunlight and the amount of daily sunlight affects our seasons. Objective: Understand how changes in the angle of sunlight and length of daylight contribute to the changing seasons. Part 1 Question: If you shine a flashlight on the center of a piece of paper from two different places, will the shape of the lighted area stay the same? Weather Tote: Flashlight Paper Ruler Pennies Pencil Do It 1: Mark the center of a piece of paper by drawing an from the corners of the paper. Using the ruler as a guide, hold a flashlight six inches above the center of the paper and turn on the flashlight. Draw the shape of the light on the paper. Keep the flashlight six inches above your paper and move the flashlight to the bottom of the paper. Shine the flashlight back toward the center of the paper. Draw the shape of the new lighted area. Count the number of pennies you can fit in each of the shapes you drew. Part 2 Question: How does the amount of daylight change over the year? Do It 2: On the following table calculate the total daylight time for the first day of each season: FIRST DAY OF Sunrise Sunset Daylight length WINTER 8:06 am 5:23pm SPRING 7:50 am 8:00 pm SUMMER 6:17 am 9:21 pm FALL 7:35 am 7:46 pm Talk it Over Share What Happened: o What happened to the shape of the light when you moved the flashlight? o How many pennies could you fit in each shape? o How will the angle of the light affect the temperature? Weather skills: Which season has the shortest amount of daylight? Which season has the longest amount of daylight? Page 4

10 Why would the amount of daylight make a difference in the seasons? During which season do we get the most direct sunlight? Apply: Explain why we have cold winters and warm summers. Generalize to Your Life: How does the amount and direction of sunlight received effect what you wear in January or June? Fly Higher: Compare the location of the sun when it rises and sets in January and July at your house. Compare the length of a shadow at about noon during different seasons throughout the year. Do people living south of the equator have seasons at the same time we do? Ask someone to help you calculate the area of each shape. Are the areas different? If so, why do you think they are different? Page 5

11 Activity 6: Earth Will light energy heat different colored surfaces in the same way? Sunlight warms the surfaces of the Earth. Those surfaces warm the air above them. Look around you: Are all of the earth surfaces the same? The Earth has many surfaces: forests, sand, water, snow, ice, and many others. Some of those surfaces have been created by humans: pavement, plowed fields, cities and towns, and many others. All of these surfaces are warmed by sunlight, but they all warm differently. Because they all warm differently, the air above each surface will warm differently and cause changes in our weather. Objective: Study the effect of surface color on the speed that an object warms up Do It: o Record the temperature on the thermometer as the beginning temperature in the chart o Place the thermometer under the white paper. o Position the desk lamp 6 inches above the paper over the bulb of the thermometer o Turn on the light and wait five minutes. o Record the temperature on the thermometer as the ending temperature in the chart o Calculate the change in temperature by subtracting the first temperature from the second o Allow the thermometer to cool for 5 minutes and repeat for the other colors of paper. o Complete the chart: Surface Color White Black Brown Green Blue Beginning Temperature Weather Tote: Thermometer (an exposed bulb that can touch the paper works best) Desk lamp with a 40 or 60 watt bulb Clock or Watch with a second hand Construction paper: white, blacks, brown, green, and blue Ending Temperature Temperature Change Talk it Over: Shared What Happened: Which color did you think would heat the most? Which color heated the most? Which color heated the least? What surfaces on earth would be like each of the colors used in your experiment? Which earth surfaces would heat the air above them the most?..the least? Page 6

12 Apply: How does the uneven heating of surfaces effect breezes? Hint: Have you ever been to a sandy beach on a hot, sunny day? Be careful, if you go barefooted on the sand, you could burn your feet. How does it feel when you sink your feet in the water? Both surfaces (sand and water) receive the same amount of sunlight but heat up much differently. Study the diagram of a sea breeze to the right: Why is the air over the land rising? What is causing the sea breeze? How does the surface effect breezes? Generalize to Your Life: Think of other differences in surfaces. Could those differences cause changes in the local winds? Figure adapted from: what-is-a-sea-breeze/ Consider these: a plowed field next to a forest or a large parking lot next to a city park. Can you think of others? How have humans changed some of the heating patterns of earth surfaces? Flying Higher: Take your thermometer outside on a sunny, calm day. Put the thermometer on several different surfaces to see how the sunlight is causing these surfaces to warm. Use something to shade the thermometer so that the sunlight does not affect the thermometer (like an umbrella). Page 7

13 Activity 7: Weather or Not What is the difference between weather and climate? Climate and weather are often confused to mean the same thing. The temperature today is considered part of today s weather; the average temperature over the last 30 years is considered part of our climate. Indiana has a climate that involves changing seasons and many different types of weather. Weather is the day-to-day changes in the atmosphere and describes a single occurrence. The current temperature is an example of weather (i.e. a temperature reading of 85 degrees Fahrenheit on the 4 th of July). The climate is the average weather conditions over many years (i.e. the average high temperature for your town on the 4 th of July). Objective: Understand the difference between weather and climate. Weather Tote: Pencil Optional: Internet, book, or a person as a resource Do It: The following statements might be heard on your radio or TV Indicate if the statement describes weather or climate Explain you reason o Place an under Choose One (columns 2&3) and Reason (columns 4&5) o Each row should have two s Choose one Announcer s Statement Weather Climate Yesterday the high was 55 F and the low was 43 F Today we are expecting a high of 61 F That is 10 degrees above the normal high of 51 F for this date. We will have clear skies today with no rain forecast for the next three days. We usually would have 4 inches of rain this month. Hurricane season is beginning in the tropics. There is a tropical storm developing in the Atlantic Ocean. To the north there is a massive snow storm developing. We do not normally see a snow storm like this at this time of year. Tornado season is upon us and we should be prepared. We usually expect 4 or 5 tornado outbreaks to occur this month. This morning a tornado damaged a building in the plains. Reason Single Occurrence An Average Page 8

14 Look at the list of clothes that might be found in a typical Indiana closet and dresser. Indiana has a climate that involves changing seasons and many different types of weather. You are going to spend the day outside today. Look or listen to today s weather report and pick out the clothes you will wear today: Put a check mark next to the clothes you will wear outside today: T-shirt Shorts Gym shoes Tank top Jeans or long pants Snow boots Long sleeve shirt Heavy socks Light jacket Sweatshirt Light socks Rain coat Hoodie Sandals Winter coat Swimsuit Flip-flops Hat and gloves Talk it Over: Shared what happened: Did you find deciding between weather and climate a hard thing to do? Are the clothes you wear today determined by the weather or the climate? Are the clothes you keep in your closet and dresser determined by the weather or the climate? Why do you keep the clothes even if you do not wear some of them very much? Apply: Pick another time of year. What clothes would you wear outside at that time of year? Generalize to your life: Would you keep all of your clothes if you lived in Hawaii? What would be different? Would you keep all of your clothes if you lived in Alaska? What would be different? Fly Higher: Do you have a friend or relative that lives in another climate area? (Florida, Arizona, California, Washington, Maine, or others) Contact them and compare the kind and number of types of clothes they keep and wear. Page 9

15 Facilitator s Guide Tis the Season Indiana seasons: spring, summer, fall, and winter Big Picture: Seasonal changes are a visible reaction of the environment to temperature and precipitation. Youth should understand that while weather varies from day to day and month to month, the changes are generally predictable. Seasons are weather patterns that describe weather over a period of time (months). The purpose of this activity is for youth to examine something that affects their daily life but is part of a larger weather pattern than the day s weather. Facilitating the Activity: Encourage youth to be creative and think of something that represents each season for them. (Note there are no right or wrong answers and no good, better, best response.) Youth will have varying degrees of artistic skill as well as understanding about the separate seasons, it is important to encourage them toward their own strengths and not in comparison to others. If youth are having trouble thinking about how to show the different seasons, you might ask them how trees look in the different seasons; how they dress; or what outside sports and activities they like to do in January, April, July, and September. Talk it Over: Generalize to your life: How does the season affect what you wear? o Youth will most often mention the temperature and precipitation when considering what to wear. They might also discuss wind chill (winter), humidity (summer) and cloud cover when thinking about what they wear. For example, they may like to wear sun glasses when it is very sunny outside. How does the season affect your outside activities? o Youth may discuss sports (baseball, soccer, swimming, tennis, golf, skiing, skating, etc.) or outdoor 4-H activities (riding, walking show animals, colleting leaves or fossils, photography, etc.) or whether they ride a bike or take a ride in a convertible with the top down. How does the season affect plants? o Youth may discuss watering the garden, trees that lose their leaves, when they must mow the grass or other plant growth that is affected by the seasons. Connections: Seasons dictate what we do on a daily basis and how we make plans for the future. Youth may not think about how certain activities are planned around seasons: sports, school, gardens, even the Winter/Summer Olympics! Youth may prefer to show the effects of seasonal weather on a single object, like a tree, or show a holiday that occurs during each season. Page 10

16 Where is the Heat? Big Picture: Many elements like clouds, rain, and the earth s environment affect temperatures, but the driving force is the relationship of the Earth to the Sun. In summer the northern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun and receives direct concentrated rays. In the winter the northern hemisphere is tilted away from the sun so the sun s rays are spread over a large area with the direct concentration hitting the southern hemisphere. The tilt of the Earth also causes differences in the amount of sunlight received during each season, over 15 hours of sunlight in the summer and close to only 9 hours in the winter. The difference in concentration and seasonal daylight creates the differences in temperatures. Distance from the Sun has little to no effect on the heating of the Earth. During the northern hemisphere summer the Earth is about 3 million miles farther away from the Sun than in the winter. The average distance of the Earth from the Sun is about 93 million miles, so a 3 million mile difference is close to insignificant. Facilitating the Activity: This is an activity where youth may need your hands for assistance. Youth will be capable of completing each section of the activity, however, you may offer to hold the flashlight while they draw, or assist with measurement to ensure consistency. Let youth think about how the activity relates to the changing concentration of the incoming sunlight and the time the sun shines during each season. They may also need assistance in calculating daylight times. Talk it Over Share what happened: What happened to the shape of the light when you moved the flashlight? o The lighted area became bigger. How many pennies could you fit in each shape? o Answers will vary depending on the flashlight used. The angled light should cover a bigger area therefore have more pennies. How will the angle of the light affect the temperature? o The angled light will not heat as well as the direct light. Weather skills: Which season has the shortest amount of daylight? o Winter Which season has the longest amount of daylight? o Summer Why would the amount of daylight make a difference in the seasons? o More daylight will give more time for the Sun to heat the Earth. During which season do we get the most direct sunlight? o Summer Apply: Explain why we have cold winters and warm summers. The driving force is the relationship of the Earth to the Sun. In summer the northern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun and receives direct concentrated rays. In the winter the northern hemisphere is tilted away from the sun so the sun s rays are spread over a larger area with the direct concentration hitting the southern hemisphere. The tilt of the Page 11

17 Earth also causes differences in the amount of sunlight received during each season, over 15 hours of sunlight in the summer and close to only 9 hours in the winter. The difference in concentration and seasonal daylight creates the differences in temperatures. Fly Higher: Youth are asked to calculate the area of the shapes they sketched. Use the equation, πr 2, to calculate the area of the circle where r is the radius. Use πab to calculate the area of an oval, where a = the distance from the center to the horizontal edge and b is the distance from the center to the vertical edge. [graphic: sketch showing an oval with a on the x-axis and b on the y-axis] a b Connections: The heat that comes from the Sun determines earth temperatures. Any change in this relationship can change how the Earth is heated and therefore the dynamics in the atmosphere we call weather. Life Skills: Weather Skills: Changes in the angle of sunlight and length of daylight contribute to the changing seasons. Indiana Science Standards: 5.2.2, NGSS: ESS1.B: Daily and seasonal changes in the length and directions of shadows and different positions of the sun at different times of the day, month, and year. Success Indicators: Understanding how the sun s rays affect the temperature and how the angle of sunlight and day length causes seasonal changes. Supplemental Information and Resources: NOAA: Earth Big Picture: Sunlight has very little warming effect on the air. Sunlight travels through the air. That is why we can see for miles through the air because light energy is not absorbed by the air. The Sun warms the Earth, the Earth warms the air. Certain surfaces reflect most of the sunlight back into space like snow and ice. Dark surfaces like sand, rocks, and soil absorbs sunlight efficiently and therefore the air above these surfaces warm more quickly. Water is the exception. Bodies of open water absorb sunlight better than most of the surfaces on Earth. This absorption occurs into the depths of the water therefore water has less effect on the air above it. Open water absorbs sunlight very well but releases heat energy very slowly. Man-made surfaces also have an effect on how air is warmed. Large urban areas become heat islands and can have definite effects on the weather. Areas like plowed fields can also change the dynamics of heating. In this activity youth discover that darker surfaces heat up faster than lighter surfaces. It is hoped that they make the connection that different earth surfaces will heat the air above them at Page 12

18 different rates causing movement of air. Facilitating the activity: This activity should require little assistance. Finding an appropriate thermometer is important. Most standard outdoor thermometers have the bulb protected. This activity works best with a thermometer with the bulb exposed as is shown in the example. These thermometers are inexpensive and can be found in science catalogs on line. Your school s science teacher probably has many of these and would be happy to loan one out. Question Does the type of light bulb matter (incandescent, fluorescent)? Answer: Technically no. A flashlight will work. This type of activity can be tricky. As long as the bulb of the thermometer is in contact with the paper any light source will work fine. It is the light energy that is being tested. Incandescent lights emit a lot of infrared (heat) energy and that will increase the odds of good results, but it is kind of like cheating. The problem with this activity is when you have a thermometer that creates an air space between the paper and the bulb, the heating dynamics goes from one of simple conduction between the paper and bulb to a very complicated energy transfer system that involves having to heat the air around the bulb which uses convection heat energy away and pull cooler air under the paper. Talk it Over: Shared what happened: Which color did you think would heat the most? o Open ended Which color heated the most? o Black should heat the most. Which color heated the least? What surfaces on earth would be like each of the colors used in your experiment? o White is like snow and ice; Black is similar to pavement; Brown for tilled or bare ground; Green is similar to grass; and Blue is like oceans, lakes and streams (Although blue does not correctly reflect water s ability to absorb energy. Also water is not blue. Water is actually the most effective absorber but the heating is not at the surface but continues into the depths leaving the surface cool.) Which earth surfaces would heat the air above them the most?..the least? o Most: Answers such as deserts, roads, or any darker surface. o Least: Answers such as snow and ice. Apply: How does the uneven heating of surfaces effect breezes? o A sandy beach on a hot, sunny day can be very hot, yet nearby water feels cool and refreshing. These differences will cause the air above the beach to become warmer and rise. Why is the air over the land rising? o The air over the land has become warmer. That air is now lighter than the surrounding air (denser) and will rise. What is causing the sea breeze? o The cooler air over the water is pulled in to replace the rising warm air. How does the surface affect breezes? Page 13

19 o The uneven heating of the surfaces cause the air above to have different temperatures causing air movement. Generalize to your life: Think of other differences in surfaces. Could those differences cause changes in the local winds? o Any place that has uneven heating could cause air movement. Consider these: a plowed field next to a forest or a large parking lot next to a city park. o These are areas where differences in heating could cause breezes. Because these are relatively small areas compared to the ocean breezes would be hard to detect. It is possible to detect these on a sunny calm day. Even though there are no significant breezes, they can still create areas of rising air. It is also an illustration of how man can alter the movement of air. Can you think of others? Some ideas might be: Cities near forests, lakes near farm fields, etc. How have humans changed some of the heating patterns of earth surfaces? o Answers should involve positive as well as negative examples. Some answers could include building roads, parking lots and buildings. Others might be destroying forests or restoring forests. Encourage positive things like planting trees and creating parks and nature preserves. Connections: It is fun to spend time at the beach. One reason people love the beach is that you can enjoy the sun and still stay cool as the natural heating of the surfaces provide a constant cool breeze from the ocean. Even though the ocean absorbs heat energy from the sun, that energy is distributed in the depths of the water and the surface remains cooler. Land absorbs the sun s energy at the surface and very little of the heat energy goes very deep. Just dig down a few inches in the beach sand to illustrate that fact. A very striking example of differences in surfaces is the rabbit proof fence built in Australia. This 2000 mile long fence separates farmland from areas of thick native vegetation. The result of this action has created an atmospheric boundary with cloud forming on one side and not the other. [it would be great if we could find a photo to show this] NC see the links, below ok to use? Life Skills: Weather Skills: Sunlight warms surfaces in different ways which causes differences in the air above these surfaces. Indiana Science Standards: 2.2.2, 2.2.5, NGSS: ESS2.D Success Indicators: Recording the different temperatures and understanding that darker surfaces heat the air above them more on a sunny day and these differences can influence the weather. Sources: Sea Breeze image adapted from: At Australia s Bunny Fence, Variable Cloudiness Prompts Climate Study: Page 14

20 Activity 7: Weather or Not Big Picture: The difference between weather and climate can be confusing. Climate includes all of the different types of weather that happens year round and is based on the last 30 years of weather records. Weather is simply what happens at a specific time in the atmosphere. Therefore the temperature we get today is the weather; the average temperature for today is the climate. The weather can be very different in Indiana because of our changing seasons, but the seasons are part of our climate. Climate does not change when the seasons change, but the weather changes with the seasons. The purpose of this activity is to engage youth in thinking of weather vs. climate issues and ideas. So, Single Occurrence should always be checked when Weather was checked and An Average should be checked when Climate was checked. Facilitating the activity: Help youth in identifying the difference between weather and climate. They may need help in thinking about climates different than Indiana climate. Answers: Choose one Reason Announcer s Statement WEATHER CLIMATE Single Occurrence Yesterday the high was 55 F and the low was 43 F Today we are expecting a high of 61 F An Average That is 10 degrees above the normal high of 51 F for this date. We will have clear skies today with no rain forecast for the next three days. We usually would have 4 inches of rain this month. Hurricane season is beginning in the tropics. There is a tropical storm developing in the Atlantic Ocean. To the north there is a massive snow storm developing. We do not normally see a snow storm like this at this time of year. Tornado season is upon us and we should be prepared. We usually expect 4 or 5 tornado outbreaks to occur this month. This morning a tornado damaged a building Page 15

21 in the plains. Talk it Over: Shared what happened: Did you find deciding between weather and climate a hard thing to do? o Opened ended Are the clothes you wear today determined by the weather or the climate? o Determined by the weather. Are the clothes you keep in your closet and dresser determined by the weather or the climate? o Determined by the climate. Why do you keep the clothes even if you do not wear some of them very much? o Even though they may not be needed today, I will need them at some time during the year. Apply: Pick another time of year. What clothes would you wear outside at that time of year? o The list should match the time of year. Generalize to your life: Would you keep all of your clothes if you lived in Hawaii? What would be different? o In Hawaii you would have more hot weather clothing and only a few items for cooler weather. Would you keep all of your clothes if you lived in Alaska? What would be different? o In Alaska you would have more and heavier cold weather clothing and very little clothing for hot days. Connections: There are many different classification systems for climate. Most climate categories are based on either rainfall/temperature or on plant/animal life. The most popular classification system is the Koppen Climate Classification System. Life Skills: Weather Skills: Determining the difference between weather and climate. Science Standards: NGSS: ESS2.D Success Indicators: Understand that weather is what is happening now and climate is an average of weather. Page 16

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24 Dec It is the policy of the Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service that all persons have equal opportunity and access to its educational programs, services, activities, and facilities without regard to race, religion, color, sex, age, national origin or ancestry, marital status, parental status, sexual orientation, disability or status as a veteran Purdue University is an Affirmative Action institution. This material may be available in alternative formats.

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