# Electricity, Conductors and insulators

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1 reflect Imagine you want to make pasta for dinner. How do we do it? We put water in a pan and put the pan on a stove. Soon the heat from the stove burner makes the water hot enough to boil. The handle of the pan also gets hot, but the handle is not as hot as the rest of the pan. How did the heat move from the burner to the pan but not as much to the handle? Next, you decide to turn on a flashlight to look in a dark corner in the kitchen cabinet. But how does the flashlight give off light? Energy moves through a wire from the battery to the light bulb. The energy causes the bulb to give off light. But how does energy move from one part of the flashlight to the other? To answer these questions, we will look at what is happening inside the pan and inside the wire. We will have to imagine we can see what is happening to the particles in the pan and in the wire. Imagine zooming in to see what s really happening on a small scale. What is a conductor? Energy passes through some materials easily. These materials are called conductors. Conducted energy can be in the form of heat or electricity. To understand how heat and electricity move, we must understand that all matter is made up of tiny bits called particles. matter: the stuff that everything is made of These particles are always moving. Heat is the energy of these particles when they move. If the particles in an object move faster, the object feels hotter. Picture a pot that is put on a hot stove. The particles closest to the stove burner begin to move faster and faster. Faster particles bump into slower particles nearby and cause them to speed up. This is how heat spreads. We call this spreading conduction. Solids usually conduct heat better than liquids Metals are good conductors of heat. and gases. This is because the particles in solids are closer together. Think of having a conversation with your friends it s easier to hear them when you re closer to them, right? Particles can communicate with each other, too. If they re closer together, it happens more easily. The best conductors are metals. Silver, copper, gold, aluminum, and iron are some of the best conductors of heat. Silver and gold are very expensive. This is why most pots and pans are made out of copper, aluminum, and iron. Metals are also good conductors of electricity. Lamps, toasters, TVs, and other electrical devices are connected to electrical cords. 27

2 Inside electrical cords are metal wires usually made of copper. A cord plugs into a wall socket. Inside the wall are more wires connected to electric power lines. Power lines lead to power plants that may be hundreds of miles away. Electricity is conducted from the power plant to a lamp in your home in less than a second. look out! What does heat flow mean? People used to think heat was an invisible material that flowed from hot things to cold things. That is incorrect. Heat does not flow like a river. Heat is energy, not matter. When something loses heat, it does not lose mass. What is an insulator? A material that is a poor conductor of energy is an insulator. Heat moves slowly through materials like glass, wood, and rubber. So, these materials are called heat insulators. Heat also moves slowly through air and other gases. That is because the particles in these gases are far apart. Energy does not move easily from one particle to another. You might think this isn t useful, but in fact that property is very useful around our homes! Many good insulators are filled with little pockets of air. For example, the walls and ceilings of many homes are filled with fiberglass insulation. This material is made of tiny pieces of glass. The fibers form a This is fiberglass insulation inside the wall of a home. tangled mat with many air spaces. Your house can stay a different temperature than outside because of this insulation. Can you think of other places that use insulation? Winter coats are also insulators. They prevent heat from being conducted away from our body. Many winter coats are made from fluffy materials like wool or feathers. Down clothing is a very good insulator because it has a layer of small goose feathers. Heat does not move easily through the feathers. Like all animals living in cold climates, this arctic fox is well insulated by its thick fur. Electrical insulators prevent the movement of electrical energy. Earlier you read about electrical cords and wires. A layer of insulation always covers the copper wires that conduct electricity. This insulating layer is usually made of plastic, but it may also be made of rubber or cloth. These coverings keep electrical energy from moving where it shouldn t when it flows to other conductors. Insulation also makes electrical cords safe to touch. 28

3 Wood, glass, and pottery are all good electrical insulators. Pure water is an insulator, but salt water is a conductor. Tap water is also a conductor. That is because most of the water on Earth isn t pure it contains dissolved minerals. That is why you should always be careful not to operate electrical devices around water. what do you think? We often describe winter coats as warm. Or we say that a thick sweater keeps out the cold. Are these descriptions correct? (Remember that heat is the movement of energy. So heat moves, not cold.) try now Iron is a heat conductor, and wood is a heat insulator. You can see this is true by letting an iron hammer with a wooden handle lie in the sun on a hot day. After about 30 minutes, pick up the hammer. The iron head will feel much hotter than the wooden handle. Be careful not to burn yourself when you touch the iron parts, though! The iron head feels hotter, but is it really hotter? The head and handle are actually the same temperature. Iron is a better conductor than wood. So, the heat moves to your hand faster through the iron head. What is a circuit? Take a look at the plug on the end of an electrical cord. Notice that it has at least two metal prongs. One prong is part of a wire that brings energy to the electrical device. The other prong is connected to a wire that carries energy away. For electricity to be useful, it must always travel in a complete, unbroken circle. That circle is called an electrical circuit. A circuit has several basic parts. It has a source of electrical power and something that uses electrical power. It also has at least 2 wires to connect the source to the A closed electrical path completes an electrical circuit. device. Most circuits also include a switch. The switch controls whether the circuit is open or closed. Broken wires or bad connections can also cause an open circuit. Every electrical device in your home is part of such a circuit. The power source is usually an electrical power plant or a battery. A battery stores chemical energy that is released as electrical energy. Electrical energy does not flow in an open circuit. 29

4 Getting Technical: Lightning Rods A lightning strike happens when electrical energy that has built up in a cloud suddenly passes between the air and the ground. Electrical energy takes the shortest path between two points. This means one end of the lightning bolt will be the highest point on the ground. If the high point is a building, the lightening strike could set the building on fire. In case of a lightning strike, a lightning rod conducts electricity away from a building. Buildings that might be struck by lightning are protected by copper lightning rods. These rods are connected to the ground by thick copper wires. If lightning strikes the building, the energy will be conducted through the wire, away from the building, and into the ground. This protects the rest of the building from that energy. How can we create an electromagnetic field? You may know about magnets and magnetic force. A magnet is surrounded by invisible lines of force that form what is called a magnetic field. Magnets and objects made of iron are pushed or pulled by magnetic force when they enter a magnetic field. Electric current and magnetic fields have an interesting connection. When electricity flows through a wire, the wire becomes surrounded by a magnetic field. When a wire is moved through a magnetic field, electricity begins to flow in the wire. Hold the compass near the wire as you complete the circuit. try now Sometimes you can actually see how an electric current creates a magnetic field. A compass needle always points north because the magnetic needle in the compass lines up with Earth s magnetic field. However, Earth s magnetic field is weak. Almost any other magnetic field will make the needle swing away from north. Think about moving a magnet near a compass the needle will move! That means that the little magnet you have in your hand is affecting the compass more than Earth s magnetic field. 30

5 You will need a compass and something that produces an electric current. This could be as simple as a battery and a wire, as shown in the picture. Separated wires will work better than a double wire. Place the magnet near the wire, and connect one end of the wire to the battery. Observe any movement of the compass needle when the circuit is completed. What Do You Know? The diagram shows one or more complete circuits. It also shows one or more incomplete circuits. The diagram also includes four light bulbs. Draw a circle around the bulbs that will light up when electric current flows from the battery. 31

6 connecting with your child Conductors and Insulators In this activity, you and your child will study electrical and thermal conductivity of four common materials: wood, plastic, aluminum, and iron. You will need: a piece of wood about 6 inches long, such as a chopstick, dowel, or stick a plastic knife a long aluminum nail and a long iron nail (both available at a building supply store) a circuit that includes a light bulb, a battery, three wires, and at least two alligator clips (all available at a typical hardware store) a cup that can hold hot water Use one wire to connect one pole of the battery to one side of the bulb. (You may need an additional alligator clip to connect the wire to the bulb; some bulbs will connect directly to a wire, but others will not.) Connect the other side of the bulb to one of the wires with a clip at the end. Connect the other pole of the battery to another wire with a clip. The diagram at right shows how to put your circuit together. Set up your circuit like this. Attempt to complete the circuit using different objects. Attempt to complete the circuit by connecting each of the four objects (wood, plastic, aluminum, iron) to the alligator clips. If the bulb lights up, the circuit is complete. When you are finished, take apart the circuit and discuss the results in terms of electrical conductivity. Next, fill the cup with water that is pretty warm but not so hot as to risk a burn. Put all four of the objects into the water the wood, the plastic, and both nails so that each is only about half submerged. Hanging these items from a string might help keep them all halfway out of the water. After a few seconds, touch a finger to the tops of each object and compare their relative temperatures. Repeat the observation several times over the course of a minute or two. Discuss the results in terms of thermal conductivity. Compare the electrical conductivity to the thermal conductivity for the four materials. Draw conclusions, and suggest explanations for the experimental results. 32

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