VELOCITY FIELD UNDER PROPAGATING WAVES


 Melinda Joseph
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 VELOCITY FIELD UNDER PROPAGATING WAVES OVER A SUBMERGED HORIZONTAL PLATE AND INDUCED FORCES Arndt Hildebrandt and Torsten Schlurmann FranziusInstitute for Hydraulic, Waterways and Coastal Engineering, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Hannover Abstract: Under the key assumption of linearity, the mathematical solutions for progressive smallamplitude water waves provide the basis for applications to numerous problems. It enables to describe and quantify most phenomena that are related to engineering interests having a bearing on coastal and ocean design. However, some of those essential postulations are unfounded when dealing with water waves being significantly transformed due to interaction with structures. Complex effects like wave breaking, air entrainment or turbulence may become dominant and encourage applying nonlinear models for an appropriate simulation. Artificial reefs made of a horizontal submerged plate are typical structures with high wave interaction. In this paper we describe processes on the basis of physical tests in a wave flume, which support the validation of numerical models. I. INTRODUCTION Artificial reefs belong to the passive shore protection installations and they provide the preferred choice for natural areas of coastline. They gain more and more attention from public authorities and consulting engineers, because traditional solutions with breakwaters are perceived as troublesome due to the considerable height above the mean sea level acting as blocked obstructions. In most cases, the construction of massive breakwaters weakens or even stops the near shore currents and thus the circulation of water and oxygen between the open sea and protected areas. This leads to disturbed spawning grounds and plant growth. A special type of an artificial breakwater is build with a horizontal plate. The major advantages of a construction like this are the fully submerged structure and the porous profile for water circulation. Furthermore, the traffic of small boats is not limited by the structure. The wave damping effect by the submerged plate results in reduced wave heights with the generation of higher harmonic waves behind the artificial reef. The wave damping in offshore areas weakens the incoming sea state, which enables the design of less expensive active coastal protection strategies/ facilities. Generally, submerged breakwaters induce only a fractional wave breaking, due to the characteristic of the energy distribution under progressive waves. The main part of the energy is located in the upper water body right beneath the surface. The wave height is reduced to nearly 50% by a horizontal plate at a submerged location at 10% of the water depth [1]. For most cases the fractional wave breaking is completely sufficient and also intended for beach accumulation purposes by reduced waves carrying sand to the shoreline without producing scour behind the structure. In addition to other parameters the wave damping depends on the ratio of wavelength to the length of the horizontal plate. For this reason submerged breakwaters are also known and used as a filter because of different damping effects on wave forms. Figure 1. Submerged artificial reef along the southern shore of the Dominican Republic near Bayahibe (www.articifialreefs.org) II. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP The physical tests were carried out at the FranziusInstitute for Hydraulic, Waterways and Coastal Engineering in a 100m long wave flume with a width of 2.2m and constant water depth of 0.60m. Due to the limited capacity of the force gauges and for illumination purposes, the main cannel width was reduced to 0.505m by applying a training wall as illustrated in fig. 2. The training wall is 5m long and extends 2.56m in front of the plate and 1.64m behind the plate. The suspended horizontal plate is 0.80m 421
2 long and was supported by three vertical columns with force gauges at each head (fig. 3). The transparent measuring setup was positioned 26m behind the wave maker levelled with the window section of the wave flume. The training wall consists of a dark coating to achieve a high contrast with the seeding material for the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method [2]. Four wave gauges were positioned along the wave flume with the following distances to the leading edge of the submerged plate: m (wave gauge 1) m (wave gauge 2) 00.00m (leading edge of horizontal plate) m (trailing edge of horizontal plate) m (wave gauge 3) m (wave gauge 4) The horizontal plate was fixed between the sidewalls for the PIVtests to prevent movements of the plate and to eliminate disturbing currents along the longitudinal side of the plate. The tests for the estimation of the vertical forces were performed with a free suspended plate. However, 2mm of space had to be adjusted between the sidewalls and the plate, to prevent the influence by friction and to minimize the influence by currents alongside the slots. Nine different waves with H = wave height and T = wave period were generated to measure the vertical forces (force) and to investigate the flow field with the PIV method as listed below: Figure 2. Crosssection of experimental setup H=5cm H=10cm H=15cm T=0.96s Force Force / PIV Force T=1.60s Force / PIV Force / PIV Force / PIV T=2.24s Force Force / PIV Force For all tests three relative submerged depths t/d (with t= submerged depth and d= water depth) were investigated with t/d = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 (fig. 4). Furthermore, all tests with a wave period T = 2.24s were sampled with 14.3Hz, for T = 1.6s with 20Hz, and for T = 0.96s with 33.3Hz, resulting in a fixed number of 32 samples per wave period. Note that fig. 5 is taken from additional tests by the author at the University of Wuppertal. A similar experimental setup was used with the same PIVcamera and a transparent wave flume. Figure 3. Sideview of submerged plate Figure 4. Relative submerged depths t/d = 6cm/60cm = 0.1, 0.2 and
3 III. VELOCITY FIELD AND VORTEX PATTERNS The PIVMethod was used for the investigation of the flow patterns at the trailing edge of the submerged plate, for this is the location of vortex shedding and wave breaking. PIV offers a nonintrusive method to measure the flow field simultaneously along the horizontal plate in a certain area. Two seeding materials of polyamide spheres were used for the tests with diameters smaller than 1mm and with diameters of 2mm. All movies were recorded with 500 frames per second and a maximal length of 16 seconds. The interrogation areas of the frames were correlated with MatPIV v developed by J. K. Sveen of the Department of Mathematics at Oslo University [3]. In the following, the observed vortex patterns and the resulting flow fields will be presented, together with investigation results of the varied parameters relative submerged depth (t/d), wave height (H), and wave period (T). Figure 6. Vortex pattern for relative submerging depth t/d=0.1, wave height H=5cm and wave period T=1.6s Figure 7. Vortex pattern for relative submerging depth t/d=0.3, wave height H=10cm and wave period T=1.6s Figure 5. Snapshot of the flow field before (a) and during (b) wave breaking for a wave period of 1.0s, wave height 4cm and relative submerged depth 0.2. All investigated wave heights and wave periods show an initial generation of a vortex pair shortly after the flow reversal of the wave. The vortex ( A, Fig. 7) develops during the reversing current at the trailing edge of the plate and gains intensity until the wave breaking sets in (Fig. 6, 7). The developing time of the vortex for all investigated waves is approximately 3040% of the wave period. Fig. 5a shows the velocity field for a wave period of 1.0s and 4cm wave height during the flow reversal under the wave trough. The formation of the vortex can be seen at the trailing edge of the plate. The current velocity for the vortex supply averages 15cm/s and becomes more intensive with values higher than 20cm/s directly before the wave breaking, which is visible by the upward pointing velocity arrows over the plate in fig. 5a. With increasing wave height H and submerging depth t, the vortex becomes more intense. This is seen in Fig. 6 with a generated vortex diameter of 5cm for H=5cm and t=6cm, while a vortex diameter of 12cm is found for H=10cm and t=18cm (Fig. 7). 423
4 For small values of submerging depth, t/d=0.1, the vortex is dragged to the surface, whereas a downward movement is observed for the relative depth t/d greater or equal to 0.2. The downward directed path of the vortex relates to the wave breaking near the trailing edge of the plate, which induces an impulsive force by the flow of the plunging water mass. Fig. 5b illustrates the flow field under the breaking wave and indicates jets with velocities exceeding 30cm/s. The plunging water mass encounters the relatively calm water body behind the plate and splits up in a major horizontal direction and a minor downwards directed part, which forms the motion of the vortex. The resulting current above the horizontal plate generates a new vortex pair at the edge, indicated with B in Fig. 7. The developing vortex is enforced by the following flow reversal of the wave trough, which sets in and leads to a circulating current under the plate ( C, Fig. 7). This vortex sheds with the initiation of the next vortex, which is the result of the circulating current, as described in the first place. The intensity of the vortex depends on the approaching wave height and the described vortex patterns are repeated. The relative submerged depth has significant influence on the position of wave breaking. It was found that the waves break in the middle of the plate for t/d values of 0.1 (Fig. 6) and for relative submerged depths of t/d = 0.3 the wave breaking takes place behind the trailing edge (Fig. 7). This has direct influence on the vortex pattern and thus affects the currents under the plate, which should be taken into account for sediment and scour estimations. REFERENCES [1] H. Kaldenhoff, K. U. Graw, Unkonventionelle Küstenschutzbauwerke ; Zeitschrift der Bergischen Universität  Wuppertal, S , 1994 [2] J. Grue, P. L.F. Liu, G. K. Pedersen, PIV and water waves, Advances in coastal and ocean engineering, World Scientific, 2004 [3] J. K. Sveen, An introduction to MatPIV v.1.6.1, Department of Mathematics, Mechanics and applied Mathematics, University of Oslo, 2004 IV. INDUCED FORCES The investigation of the maximum wave loads reveals that the upwards directed forces exceed the downward directed forces for most cases by a factor of 1.4 and for H=15cm, T=1.6s and t=12cm up to a factor of 2. Fig. 8 shows the wave loads for the three tested wave heights over the wave periods and points out that, as expected, increasing wave heights result in higher wave loads for up and downward forces. A similar trend is seen for increasing wave periods, however, the trend is reversed for periods of 2.23s at a relative submerged depth of 0.3. Further analysis and tests are in progress to get more detailed information about the linear and nonlinear coherences of increasing wave height and gaining load. Reduced maximum forces were observed for increasing submerging depth. This could result from the exponentially decreasing wave kinematics and therewith also decreasing dynamic pressure component for growing water depth. Numerical calculations are in progress to analyse the time resolved pressure distribution under and above the plate. The investigation of wave energy dissipation in coherence with the length of the plate and the pitch of the plate as well as nonlinear wave interaction is subject of further analysis and additional tests. The earlier mentioned formation of jets due to wave breaking and their influence on the modification of higher harmonics is part of future studies. 424
5 Figure 8. Maximum upward and downward directed forces for wave heights of 5, 10, and 15cm 425
Modeling Loads Caused by Breaking Waves Striking Vertical Walls
J. Marine. Sci. Appl. (010) : 163167 DOI: 10.1007/s11804010077 Modeling Loads Caused by Breaking Waves Striking Vertical Walls Haigui Kang * and Yingwei Sun State Key Laboratory of Coastal & Offshore
More informationMEASUREMENT OF VELOCITY FIELD IN THE AERATED REGION OF A HYDRAULIC JUMP USING BUBBLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY
MEASUREMENT OF VELOCITY FIELD IN THE AERATED REGION OF A HYDRAULIC JUMP USING BUBBLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY Chang Lin, ShihChun Hsieh, WeiJung Lin, KuangAn Chang Department of Civil Engineering, National
More informationCOMBINED PHYSICAL AND NUMERICAL MODELLING OF AN ARTIFICIAL COASTAL REEF
COMBINED PHYSICAL AND NUMERICAL MODELLING OF AN ARTIFICIAL COASTAL REEF Valeri Penchev and Dorina Dragancheva, Bulgarian Ship Hydrodynamics Centre, 9003 Varna, Bulgaria Andreas Matheja, Stephan Mai and
More informationLab 5: Conservation of Energy
Lab 5: Conservation of Energy Equipment SWS, 1meter stick, 2meter stick, heavy duty bench clamp, 90cm rod, 40cm rod, 2 double clamps, brass spring, 100g mass, 500g mass with 5cm cardboard square
More informationNUMERICAL STUDY OF FLOW AND TURBULENCE THROUGH SUBMERGED VEGETATION
NUMERICAL STUDY OF FLOW AND TURBULENCE THROUGH SUBMERGED VEGETATION HYUNG SUK KIM (1), MOONHYEONG PARK (2), MOHAMED NABI (3) & ICHIRO KIMURA (4) (1) Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology,
More informationNatural Convection. Buoyancy force
Natural Convection In natural convection, the fluid motion occurs by natural means such as buoyancy. Since the fluid velocity associated with natural convection is relatively low, the heat transfer coefficient
More informationWavePiston Project. Structural Concept Development Hydrodynamic Aspects. Preliminary Analytical Estimates. February 2010
WavePiston Project Structural Concept Development Hydrodynamic Aspects Preliminary Analytical Estimates February 2010 WavePiston Project Structural Concept Development Hydrodynamic Aspects Preliminary
More informationSolitary Waves and PIV measurements at IGAW Wave Flume
Solitary Waves and PIV measurements at IGAW Wave Flume.1 .1 .2 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 V.Sriram, Research Scholar, Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 6 36,India.
More informationCHAPTER 110 Wave Energy Dissipation on and in Rubble Mound Structures
CHAPTER 110 Wave Energy Dissipation on and in Rubble Mound Structures M. Muttray 1 ), H. Oumeraci 2 >, C. Zimmermann 3 ), H. W. Partenscky 4 ) University of Hannover, SFB 205, FranziusInstitut, Hannover/
More informationSITE INVESTIGATIONS OF THE BEACH EROSION PROBLEM AT MAHO BEACH, ST. MAARTEN
SITE INVESTIGATIONS OF THE BEACH EROSION PROBLEM AT MAHO BEACH, ST. MAARTEN Performed February 2003 Performed by: Dr. Lee E. Harris, Ph.D., P.E. Associate Professor of Ocean Engineering & Oceanography
More informationNUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH INITIATIVE
NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH INITIATIVE Experimental and CFD Analysis of Advanced Convective Cooling Systems PI: Victor M. Ugaz and Yassin A. Hassan, Texas Engineering Experiment Station Collaborators: None
More informationBroad Crested Weirs. I. Introduction
Lecture 9 Broad Crested Weirs I. Introduction The broadcrested weir is an openchannel flow measurement device which combines hydraulic characteristics of both weirs and flumes Sometimes the name ramp
More informationHEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS IN A 3D SQUARE CHANNEL LAMINAR FLOW WITH USING BAFFLES 1 Vikram Bishnoi
HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS IN A 3D SQUARE CHANNEL LAMINAR FLOW WITH USING BAFFLES 1 Vikram Bishnoi 2 Rajesh Dudi 1 Scholar and 2 Assistant Professor,Department of Mechanical Engineering, OITM, Hisar (Haryana)
More informationebb current, the velocity alternately increasing and decreasing without coming to
Slack water (slack tide): The state of a tidal current when its velocity is near zero, especially the moment when a reversing current changes its direction and its velocity is zero. The term is also applied
More informationScour and Scour Protection
Design of Maritime Structures Scour and Scour Protection Steven A. Hughes, PhD, PE Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory US Army Engineer Research and Development Center Waterways Experiment Station 3909 Halls
More informationCEE 370 Fall 2015. Laboratory #3 Open Channel Flow
CEE 70 Fall 015 Laboratory # Open Channel Flow Objective: The objective of this experiment is to measure the flow of fluid through open channels using a Vnotch weir and a hydraulic jump. Introduction:
More informationA Measurement of 3D Water Velocity Components During ROV Tether Simulations in a Test Tank Using Hydroacoustic Doppler Velocimeter
A Measurement of 3D Water Velocity Components During ROV Tether Simulations in a Test Tank Using Hydroacoustic Doppler Velocimeter Leszek Kwapisz (*) Marek Narewski Lech A.Rowinski Cezary Zrodowski Faculty
More informationGraphical Presentation of Data
Graphical Presentation of Data Guidelines for Making Graphs Titles should tell the reader exactly what is graphed Remove stray lines, legends, points, and any other unintended additions by the computer
More informationFREE CONVECTION FROM OPTIMUM SINUSOIDAL SURFACE EXPOSED TO VERTICAL VIBRATIONS
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 7, Issue 1, JanFeb 2016, pp. 214224, Article ID: IJMET_07_01_022 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?jtype=ijmet&vtype=7&itype=1
More informationMODULE VII LARGE BODY WAVE DIFFRACTION
MODULE VII LARGE BODY WAVE DIFFRACTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION In the wavestructure interaction problems, it is classical to divide into two major classification: slender body interaction and large body interaction.
More informationLesson 11. Luis Anchordoqui. Physics 168. Tuesday, December 8, 15
Lesson 11 Physics 168 1 Oscillations and Waves 2 Simple harmonic motion If an object vibrates or oscillates back and forth over same path each cycle taking same amount of time motion is called periodic
More informationoil liquid water water liquid Answer, Key Homework 2 David McIntyre 1
Answer, Key Homework 2 David McIntyre 1 This printout should have 14 questions, check that it is complete. Multiplechoice questions may continue on the next column or page: find all choices before making
More informationHYDRAULICS. H91.8D/C  Computerized Open Surface Tilting Flow Channel  10, 12.5, 15 and 20 m long
HYDRAULICS H91.8D/C  Computerized Open Surface Tilting Flow Channel  10, 12.5, 15 and 20 m long 1. General The series of channels H91.8D has been designed by Didacta Italia to study the hydrodynamic
More informationPractice Problems on Boundary Layers. Answer(s): D = 107 N D = 152 N. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Nov 22
BL_01 A thin flat plate 55 by 110 cm is immersed in a 6 m/s stream of SAE 10 oil at 20 C. Compute the total skin friction drag if the stream is parallel to (a) the long side and (b) the short side. D =
More informationDetermination of Acceleration due to Gravity
Experiment 2 24 Kuwait University Physics 105 Physics Department Determination of Acceleration due to Gravity Introduction In this experiment the acceleration due to gravity (g) is determined using two
More informationWave Breaking and Wave Driven Flow in the Nearshore
Wave Breaking and Wave Driven Flow in the Nearshore Dr. Thomas C. Lippmann Civil and Environmental Engineering & Geodetic Science Byrd Polar Research Center Ohio State University Columbus, OH 432101002
More informationThe Analysis of Forces and Pressure Distributions on an Aluminum Rigid Wall from Tsunami Wave Loading
The Analysis of Forces and Pressure Distributions on an Aluminum Rigid Wall from Tsunami Wave Loading Francisco Galan Home Institution: San Jose State University REU Institution: Oregon State University
More informationBackwater Rise and Drag Characteristics of Bridge Piers under Subcritical
European Water 36: 735, 11. 11 E.W. Publications Backwater Rise and Drag Characteristics of Bridge Piers under Subcritical Flow Conditions C.R. Suribabu *, R.M. Sabarish, R. Narasimhan and A.R. Chandhru
More informationNumerical Modelling of Regular Waves Propagation and Breaking Using Waves2Foam
Journal of Clean Energy Technologies, Vol. 3, No. 4, July 05 Numerical Modelling of Regular Waves Propagation and Breaking Using WavesFoam B. Chenari, S. S. Saadatian, and Almerindo D. Ferreira numerical
More information5.1 Vector and Scalar Quantities. A vector quantity includes both magnitude and direction, but a scalar quantity includes only magnitude.
Projectile motion can be described by the horizontal ontal and vertical components of motion. In the previous chapter we studied simple straightline motion linear motion. Now we extend these ideas to
More informationBEACH NOURISHMENT COMBINED WITH SIC VERTICAL DRAIN IN MALAYSIA.
BEACH NOURISHMENT COMBINED WITH SIC VERTICAL DRAIN IN MALAYSIA. Claus Brøgger 1 and Poul Jakobsen 2 The present paper presents measurements and results from a three year full scale Pilot Project with the
More informationBOTTOM SHEAR STRESS AND BED LOAD SEDIMENT TRANSPORT FORMULA FOR MODELING THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGE IN THE CANAL WATER INTAKE
BOTTOM SHEAR STRESS AND BED LOAD SEDIMENT TRANSPORT FORMULA FOR MODELING THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGE IN THE CANAL WATER INTAKE Made Mustika Wijaya, Suntoyo and Happy Ayu Damerianne Department of Ocean Engineering,
More informationSample Questions for the AP Physics 1 Exam
Sample Questions for the AP Physics 1 Exam Sample Questions for the AP Physics 1 Exam Multiplechoice Questions Note: To simplify calculations, you may use g 5 10 m/s 2 in all problems. Directions: Each
More informationArchimedes. F b (Buoyant Force) DEMO. Identical Size Boxes Which has larger F B. Which is heavier. styrofoam (1 cm 3 ) steel ( 1 cm 3 )
Fluids Density 1 F b (Buoyant Force) DEMO Archimedes Identical Size Boxes Which has larger F B Which is heavier styrofoam (1 cm 3 ) steel ( 1 cm 3 ) steel ( 1 cm 3 ) styrofoam (1 cm 3 ) 2 Finding the Weight
More informationExperimental and numerical investigation of slamming of an Oscillating Wave Surge Converter in two dimensions
Experimental and numerical investigation of slamming of an Oscillating Wave Surge Converter in two dimensions T. Abadie, Y. Wei, V. Lebrun, F. Dias (UCD) Collaborating work with: A. Henry, J. Nicholson,
More informationHomework #8 20311721 Physics 2 for Students of Mechanical Engineering. Part A
Homework #8 20311721 Physics 2 for Students of Mechanical Engineering Part A 1. Four particles follow the paths shown in Fig. 3233 below as they pass through the magnetic field there. What can one conclude
More informationMechanics. Determining the gravitational constant with the gravitation torsion balance after Cavendish. LD Physics Leaflets P1.1.3.1.
Mechanics Measuring methods Determining the gravitational constant LD Physics Leaflets P1.1.3.1 Determining the gravitational constant with the gravitation torsion balance after Cavendish Measuring the
More informationSolving Simultaneous Equations and Matrices
Solving Simultaneous Equations and Matrices The following represents a systematic investigation for the steps used to solve two simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns. The motivation for considering
More informationTennessee State University
Tennessee State University Dept. of Physics & Mathematics PHYS 2010 CF SU 2009 Name 30% Time is 2 hours. Cheating will give you an Fgrade. Other instructions will be given in the Hall. MULTIPLE CHOICE.
More informationPDCA DrivenPile Terms and Definitions
PDCA DrivenPile Terms and Definitions This document is available for free download at piledrivers.org. Preferred terms are descriptively defined. Potentially synonymous (but not preferred) terms are identified
More informationUsing CFD to improve the design of a circulating water channel
27 December 27 Using CFD to improve the design of a circulating water channel M.G. Pullinger and J.E. Sargison School of Engineering University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 71 AUSTRALIA Abstract Computational
More informationBasic Equations, Boundary Conditions and Dimensionless Parameters
Chapter 2 Basic Equations, Boundary Conditions and Dimensionless Parameters In the foregoing chapter, many basic concepts related to the present investigation and the associated literature survey were
More informationPrelab Exercises: Hooke's Law and the Behavior of Springs
59 Prelab Exercises: Hooke's Law and the Behavior of Springs Study the description of the experiment that follows and answer the following questions.. (3 marks) Explain why a mass suspended vertically
More informationFILTRATION. Water Treatment Course
FILTRATION Course, Zerihun Alemayehu FILTRATION Filtration involves the removal of suspended and colloidal particles from the water by passing it through a layer or bed of a porous granular material, such
More informationA. DeepWater Waves. 1. Wave Speed (S) = wavelength (L) meters wave period (T) seconds. OCE3014L Lab 7 Waves & Longshore Currents
A. DeepWater Waves If the water depth (d) is greater then the wave base (equal to onehalf the wavelength, or L/2), the waves are called deepwater waves. Deepwater waves have no interference with the
More informationChapter 9. is gradually increased, does the center of mass shift toward or away from that particle or does it remain stationary.
Chapter 9 9.2 Figure 937 shows a three particle system with masses m 1 3.0 kg, m 2 4.0 kg, and m 3 8.0 kg. The scales are set by x s 2.0 m and y s 2.0 m. What are (a) the x coordinate and (b) the y coordinate
More informationChapter 11. Waves & Sound
Chapter 11 Waves & Sound 11.2 Periodic Waves In the drawing, one cycle is shaded in color. The amplitude A is the maximum excursion of a particle of the medium from the particles undisturbed position.
More informationWhen the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid.
Fluid Statics When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid. Consider a small wedge of fluid at rest of size Δx, Δz, Δs
More informationCollision of a small bubble with a large falling particle
EPJ Web of Conferences 67, 212 (214) DOI: 1.11/ epjconf/ 21467212 C Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 214 Collision of a small bubble with a large falling particle Jiri Vejrazka 1,a, Martin
More informationNUMERICAL SIMULATION OF REGULAR WAVES RUNUP OVER SLOPPING BEACH BY OPEN FOAM
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF REGULAR WAVES RUNUP OVER SLOPPING BEACH BY OPEN FOAM Parviz Ghadimi 1*, Mohammad Ghandali 2, Mohammad Reza Ahmadi Balootaki 3 1*, 2, 3 Department of Marine Technology, Amirkabir
More informationAS COMPETITION PAPER 2008
AS COMPETITION PAPER 28 Name School Town & County Total Mark/5 Time Allowed: One hour Attempt as many questions as you can. Write your answers on this question paper. Marks allocated for each question
More informationPhysical Modeling and CFD Simulation of Wave Slamming on Offshore Wind
Physical Modeling and CFD Simulation of Wave Slamming on Offshore Wind Turbine Structures Arndt Hildebrandt d FranziusInstitute for Hydraulic, Waterways, and Coastal Engineering Slide 0 Overview: Potential
More informationChapter 18 Electric Forces and Electric Fields. Key Concepts:
Chapter 18 Lectures Monday, January 25, 2010 7:33 AM Chapter 18 Electric Forces and Electric Fields Key Concepts: electric charge principle of conservation of charge charge polarization, both permanent
More informationNumerical Investigation of Angle and Geometric of LShape Groin on the Flow and Erosion Regime at River Bends
World Applied Sciences Journal 15 (2): 279284, 2011 ISSN 18184952 IDOSI Publications, 2011 Numerical Investigation of Angle and Geometric of LShape Groin on the Flow and Erosion Regime at River Bends
More informationУДК 528 Nguyen Thanh Le APPLYING MULTIBEAM ECHOSOUNDER SYSTEM IN MAKING MULTISCALE SEABED TOPOGRAPHY MAP IN VIETNAM
Новый университет. 2013. 1112(2122). ISSN 22219552 УДК 528 Nguyen Thanh Le APPLYING MULTIBEAM ECHOSOUNDER SYSTEM IN MAKING MULTISCALE SEABED TOPOGRAPHY MAP IN VIETNAM Making multiscale seabed topography
More informationHurricane Naming, Track, Structure Tropical Cyclone Development
Chapter 24: Tropical Cyclones Hurricane Naming, Track, Structure Tropical Cyclone Development Hurricane Characteristics Definition: Hurricanes have sustained winds of 120 km/hr (74 mph) or greater. Size:
More informationPHYSICAL QUANTITIES AND UNITS
1 PHYSICAL QUANTITIES AND UNITS Introduction Physics is the study of matter, its motion and the interaction between matter. Physics involves analysis of physical quantities, the interaction between them
More informationInterference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions
Interference Physics 102 Workshop #3 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by
More informationLecture 24 Flumes & Channel Transitions. I. General Characteristics of Flumes. Flumes are often used:
Lecture 24 Flumes & Channel Transitions I. General Characteristics of Flumes Flumes are often used: 1. Along contours of steep slopes where minimal excavation is desired 2. On flat terrain where it is
More informationFluid structure interaction of a vibrating circular plate in a bounded fluid volume: simulation and experiment
Fluid Structure Interaction VI 3 Fluid structure interaction of a vibrating circular plate in a bounded fluid volume: simulation and experiment J. Hengstler & J. Dual Department of Mechanical and Process
More informationCFD SUPPORTED EXAMINATION OF BUOY DESIGN FOR WAVE ENERGY CONVERSION
CFD SUPPORTED EXAMINATION OF BUOY DESIGN FOR WAVE ENERGY CONVERSION Nadir Yilmaz, Geoffrey E. Trapp, Scott M. Gagan, Timothy R. Emmerich Department of Mechanical Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining
More informationACTIVITY 6: Falling Objects
UNIT FM Developing Ideas ACTIVITY 6: Falling Objects Purpose and Key Question You developed your ideas about how the motion of an object is related to the forces acting on it using objects that move horizontally.
More informationPhysics 1114: Unit 6 Homework: Answers
Physics 1114: Unit 6 Homework: Answers Problem set 1 1. A rod 4.2 m long and 0.50 cm 2 in crosssectional area is stretched 0.20 cm under a tension of 12,000 N. a) The stress is the Force (1.2 10 4 N)
More informationOptimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge
Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 34 (1) (26) 114 Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge Tanvir Manzur and Alamgir Habib Department of Civil Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering
More informationNUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF WIND ON BUILDING STRUCTURES
Vol. XX 2012 No. 4 28 34 J. ŠIMIČEK O. HUBOVÁ NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF WIND ON BUILDING STRUCTURES Jozef ŠIMIČEK email: jozef.simicek@stuba.sk Research field: Statics and Dynamics Fluids mechanics
More information4 Energy transformations in the pole vault
358 Chapter IV. Elasticity 4 Energy transformations in the pole vault Abstract by N.P. Linthorne Centre for Sports Medicine and Human Performance, School of Sport and Education, Brunel University, Uxbridge,
More information27th session 20 December 2011. Resolution A.1045(27) Adopted on 30 November 2011 (Agenda item 9) PILOT TRANSFER ARRANGEMENTS
E ASSEMBLY A 27/Res.1045 27th session 20 December 2011 Agenda item 9 Original: ENGLISH Resolution A.1045(27) Adopted on 30 November 2011 (Agenda item 9) PILOT TRANSFER ARRANGEMENTS THE ASSEMBLY, RECALLING
More informationInvestigation of Effect of Changes in Dimension and Hydraulic of Stepped Spillways for Maximization Energy Dissipation
World Applied Sciences Journal 8 (): 667, 0 ISSN 88495 IDOSI Publications, 0 DOI: 0.589/idosi.wasj.0.8.0.49 Investigation of Effect of Changes in Dimension and Hydraulic of Stepped Spillways for Maximization
More informationA satellite of mass 5.00x10² kg is in a circular orbit of radius 2r around Earth. Then it is moved to a circular orbit radius of 3r.
Supplemental Questions A satellite of mass 5.00x10² kg is in a circular orbit of radius 2r around Earth. Then it is moved to a circular orbit radius of 3r. (a) Determine the satellite s GPE in orbit. (b)
More informationEffect of the Submerged Vortex Cavitation Occurred in Pump Suction Intake on Hydraulic Forces of Mixed Flow Pump Impeller
CA2001:sessionB8.006 1 Effect of the Submerged ortex Cavitation Occurred in Pump Suction Intake on Hydraulic Forces of Mixed Flow Pump Impeller Takahide NAGAHARA, Tadashi SATO and Tomoyoshi OKAMURA Tsuchiura
More information3. Experimental Results
Experimental study of the wind effect on the focusing of transient wave groups J.P. Giovanangeli 1), C. Kharif 1) and E. Pelinovsky 1,) 1) Institut de Recherche sur les Phénomènes Hors Equilibre, Laboratoire
More informationThompson/Ocean 420/Winter 2005 Tide Dynamics 1
Thompson/Ocean 420/Winter 2005 Tide Dynamics 1 Tide Dynamics Dynamic Theory of Tides. In the equilibrium theory of tides, we assumed that the shape of the sea surface was always in equilibrium with the
More information(I) s(t) = s 0 v 0 (t t 0 ) + 1 2 a (t t 0) 2 (II). t 2 = t 0 + 2 v 0. At the time. E kin = 1 2 m v2 = 1 2 m (a (t t 0) v 0 ) 2
Mechanics Translational motions of a mass point Onedimensional motions on the linear air track LD Physics Leaflets P1.3.3.8 Uniformly accelerated motion with reversal of direction Recording and evaluating
More informationPY1052 Problem Set 6 Autumn 2004 Solutions
PY052 Problem Set 6 Autumn 2004 Solutions () The mass of the Earth is 5.98 0 24 kg and the mass of the Moon is 7.36 0 22 kg. The distance between them is 3.82 0 8 m, and the Earth s radius is R E = 6.37
More informationJune 2007 CHAPTER 7  CULVERTS 7.0 CHAPTER 7  CULVERTS 7.1 GENERAL
7.0 7.1 GENERAL For the purpose of this manual, culverts are defined as structures that are completely surrounded by soil and located below the surface of the roadway parallel to the general direction
More informationPHYS 1014M, Fall 2005 Exam #3. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
PHYS 1014M, Fall 2005 Exam #3 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A bicycle wheel rotates uniformly through 2.0 revolutions in
More informationProceedings of OMAE'01 20 th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering June 38, 2001, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Proceedings of OMAE' 2 th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering June 38, 2, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil OMAE2/SR259 PROBABILISTIC MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF RISER COLLISION
More informationEdge scour in current adjacent to stone covers
Edge scour in current adjacent to stone covers ICSE6042 Thor Ugelvig PETERSEN 1, B. Mutlu SUMER 2, Knud Erik MEYER 3, Jørgen FREDSØE 4 and Erik D. CHRISTENSEN 5 1 PhDstudent. Technical University of
More informationEN 19971 Eurocode 7. Section 10 Hydraulic Failure Section 11 Overall Stability Section 12 Embankments. Trevor L.L. Orr Trinity College Dublin Ireland
EN 1997 1: Sections 10, 11 and 12 Your logo Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 1 EN 19971 Eurocode 7 Section 10 Hydraulic Failure Section 11 Overall Stability Section
More informationPHYS 211 FINAL FALL 2004 Form A
1. Two boys with masses of 40 kg and 60 kg are holding onto either end of a 10 m long massless pole which is initially at rest and floating in still water. They pull themselves along the pole toward each
More informationLaws of Collision / demonstration track
Related topics Conservation of momentum, conservation of energy, linear motion, velocity, elastic loss, elastic collision, inelastic collision. Principle The velocities of two carts, moving on a, are measured
More informationSTATUS REPORT FOR THE SUBMERGED REEF BALL TM ARTIFICIAL REEF SUBMERGED BREAKWATER BEACH STABILIZATION PROJECT FOR THE GRAND CAYMAN MARRIOTT HOTEL
STATUS REPORT FOR THE SUBMERGED REEF BALL TM ARTIFICIAL REEF SUBMERGED BREAKWATER BEACH STABILIZATION PROJECT FOR THE GRAND CAYMAN MARRIOTT HOTEL performed by Lee E. Harris, Ph.D., P.E. Consulting Coastal
More informationICH Topic Q4B Annex 5 Disintegration Test General Chapter. Step 3
European Medicines Agency June 2008 EMEA/CHMP/ICH/308895/2008 ICH Topic Q4B Annex 5 Disintegration Test General Chapter Step 3 ANNEX 5 TO NOTE FOR EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATION OF PHARMACOPOEIAL TEXTS
More informationSimulation of Offshore Structures in Virtual Ocean Basin (VOB)
Simulation of Offshore Structures in Virtual Ocean Basin (VOB) Dr. Wei Bai 29/06/2015 Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering National University of Singapore Outline Methodology Generation of
More informationFluid Dynamic Optimization of Flat Sheet Membrane Modules Movement of Bubbles in Vertical Channels
A publication of 151 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS VOL. 32, 213 Chief Editors: Sauro Pierucci, Jiří J. Klemeš Copyright 213, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l., ISBN 978889568235; ISSN 19749791 The Italian
More informationNumerical Modeling Earthquake Effects On Sea Outfall Systems : Kadýköy Sea Outfall Case
2 ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MARINE WASTE WATER DISCHARGES MWWD 2002  I STANBUL SEPT. 16 20 Numerical Modeling Earthquake Effects On Sea Outfall Systems : Kadýköy Sea Outfall Case Prof.Dr. Sedat Kabdaþlý
More informationUsing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation to Model Fluid Motion in Process Vessels on Fixed and Floating Platforms
Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation to Model Fluid Motion in Process Vessels on Fixed and Floating Platforms Dr. Ted Frankiewicz Dr. ChangMing Lee NATCO Group Houston, TX USA IBC 9 th
More informationLAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES
55 Name Date Partners LAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES And thus Nature will be very conformable to herself and very simple, performing all the great Motions of the heavenly Bodies by the attraction
More informationThe Viscosity of Fluids
Experiment #11 The Viscosity of Fluids References: 1. Your first year physics textbook. 2. D. Tabor, Gases, Liquids and Solids: and Other States of Matter (Cambridge Press, 1991). 3. J.R. Van Wazer et
More informationLab 8: Ballistic Pendulum
Lab 8: Ballistic Pendulum Equipment: Ballistic pendulum apparatus, 2 meter ruler, 30 cm ruler, blank paper, carbon paper, masking tape, scale. Caution In this experiment a steel ball is projected horizontally
More information4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet
4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet Required: READ Hamper pp 115134 SL/HL Supplemental: Cutnell and Johnson, pp 473477, 507513 Tsokos, pp 216242 REMEMBER TO. Work through all
More informationStraits of Mackinac Contaminant Release Scenarios: Flow Visualization and Tracer Simulations
Straits of Mackinac Contaminant Release Scenarios: Flow Visualization and Tracer Simulations Research Report for the National Wildlife Federation Great Lakes Regional Center By David J. Schwab, Ph.D.,
More informationHeat. LD Physics Leaflets. Determining the adiabatic exponent c P /c V of various gases using the gas elastic resonance apparatus P2.5.3.
WZ 01306 Heat Kinetic theory of gases Specific heat of gases LD Physics Leaflets P..3. Determining the adiabatic exponent c P /c V of various gases using the gas elastic resonance apparatus Experiment
More informationw o r k o G f E A x  p r S i t n c e Elegance and Strength BBR HiAm CONA Strand Stay Cable Damping Systems
e o b a l N e t w o r k l o G f E A x  p r S i t n c e 1 9 4 4  s Elegance and Strength BBR HiAm CONA Strand Stay Cable Damping Systems 1 Cable vibration and damping Despite the wide use of cablestayed
More informationChapter 7 Earthquake Hazards Practice Exam and Study Guide
Chapter 7 Earthquake Hazards Practice Exam and Study Guide 1. Select from the following list, all of the factors that affect the intensity of ground shaking. a. The magnitude of the earthquake b. Rather
More informationFirst Power Production figures from the Wave Star Roshage Wave Energy Converter
First Power Production figures from the Wave Star Roshage Wave Energy Converter L. Marquis 1, M. Kramer 1 and P. Frigaard 1 Wave Star A/S, Gammel Vartov Vej 0, 900 Hellerup, Denmark Email: info@wavestarenergy.com
More informationDSRQ  DSRSQ  DSRSQTHERM
DSRQ  DSRSQ  DSRSQTHERM Specification item: Variable geometry diffuser on 597x597 mm panel developed for rooms with high ceilings where a long throw and a high induction ratio are required. Made up
More informationGCSE COMBINED SCIENCE: TRILOGY
SPECIMEN MATERIAL GCSE COMBINED SCIENCE: TRILOGY PAPER 6: PHYSICS 2H Mark scheme Specimen 208 Version.0 Mark schemes are prepared by the Lead Assessment Writer and considered, together with the relevant
More informationTsunami Practice Questions and Answers Revised November 2008
Tsunami Practice Questions and Answers Revised November 2008 1. What happened on 26 December 2004 off the west coast of Sumatra? 2. What is the final estimate of the magnitude of the Sumatra 26 December
More informationTHIS IS A NEW SPECIFICATION
THIS IS A NEW SPECIFICATION ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY GCE PHYSICS A Mechanics G481 *CUP/T63897* Candidates answer on the question paper OCR Supplied Materials: Data, Formulae and Relationships Booklet Other
More information