OSPF Malin Bornhager Halmstad University

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1 OSPF Malin Bornhager Halmstad University Session Number 2002, Svenska-CNAP Halmstad University 1

2 Objectives OSPF Overview OSPF Operation OSPF Configuration and Verification Multiarea OSPF Operation Multiarea OSPF Configuration and Verification Stub, Totally Stubby, and Not-So-Stubby Areas Virtual Links 2

3 Issues Addressed by OSPF Fast convergence Supports Variable-Length Subnet Masking (VLSM) Network size, no distance limitations Processes updates efficiently Selects paths based on bandwidth Supports equal-cost multipath Grouping of members (area) 3

4 OSPF Terminology 4

5 OSPF Terminology (Cont.) Adjacencies database Lists neighbors Topological database Lists all routes Routing table Lists best routes 5

6 OSPF Topologies Broadcast Multiaccess Point-to-Point NBMA X.25 Frame Relay 6

7 OSPF States Down Init Two-way ExStart Exchange Loading Full adjacency 7

8 OSPF Packet Types 8

9 The OSPF Hello Protocol At Layer 3 of the OSI model, Hello packets are addressed to the multicast address This address effectively means all OSPF routers. OSPF routers use Hello packets to initiate new adjacencies and to ensure that adjacent neighbors have not disappeared. Hellos are sent every ten seconds by default on multiaccess and point-to-point networks. On interfaces that connect to NBMA networks, such as Frame Relay, Hellos are sent every 30 seconds. 9

10 Steps of OSPF Operation Step 1: Establish router adjacencies Step 2: Elect a DR and a BDR Step 3: Discover routes Step 4: Select appropriate routes Step 5: Maintain routing information 10

11 Step 1: Establish Router Adjacencies Router ID = highest IP address on router 11

12 Step 2: Elect a DR and a BDR 12

13 Electing the DR and BDR P=3 P=2 DR BDR Hello P=1 P=1 P=0 Hello packets exchanged via IP multicast A lot of Hello packets sent on multiaccess network 13

14 DR and BDR DR BDR Hellos elect DR and BDR to represent segment Router with highest ID elected Each router then forms adjacency with DR and BDR 14

15 Point-to-Point Neighborship Router dynamically detects its neighboring router using the Hello protocol No election: Adjacency is automatic as soon as the two routers can communicate OSPF packets are always sent as multicast

16 Step 3: Discover routes 16

17 Step 4: Select Appropriate Routes SPF algorithm selects the best route 17

18 Choosing Routes / / /24 Token Ring A B FDDI C Cost=6 Cost=1 Cost=10 Cost= /24 Topology Table Net Cost Out Interface To To E0 This is the best route to

19 Step 5: Maintain Routing Information 19

20 Maintaining Routing Information Link-State Change DR x A 1 LSU B Router A notifies all OSPF DRs on

21 Maintaining Routing Information Link-State Change LSU 2 DR 1 LSU x A B Router A notifies all OSPF DRs on DR notifies others on

22 Maintaining Routing Information Link-State Change LSU 2 DR x A 1 LSU B 3 LSU Router A notifies all OSPF DRs on DR notifies others on

23 Maintaining Routing Information Link-State Change LSU 2 DR 4 I need to update my routing table. x A 1 LSU B 3 LSU Router A notifies all OSPF DRs on DR notifies others on

24 Maintaining Routing Information (cont.) LSU LSA Is entry in link-state database? No Add to database Send LSAck to DR Flood LSA Run SPF to calculate new routing table End 24

25 Maintaining Routing Information (cont.) LSU LSA Is entry in link-state database? Yes Is seq. # the same? Yes Ignore LSA No Add to database Send LSAck to DR Flood LSA Run SPF to calculate new routing table End 25

26 Maintaining Routing Information (cont.) LSU LSA Is entry in link-state database? Yes Is seq. # the same? Yes Ignore LSA No Add to database Send LSAck to DR No No Is seq. # higher? Flood LSA Run SPF to calculate new routing table Send LSU with newer information to source End End 26

27 Maintaining Routing Information (cont.) LSU LSA Is entry in link-state database? Yes Is seq. # the same? Yes Ignore LSA A No Add to database Send LSAck to DR No No Is seq. # higher? Yes Go to A Flood LSA Run SPF to calculate new routing table Send LSU with newer information to source End End 27

28 Configuring OSPF on Routers Within a Single Area 28

29 Optional Configuration Commands For DR/BDR election: Configuring a Loopback Address Router(config)#interface loopback0 Router(config-if)#ip address Modifying OSPF Router Priority RTB(config)#interface e0 RTB(config-if)#ip ospf priority 0 29

30 Monitoring OSPF with show ip ospf interface command 30

31 Default OSPF Path Costs Cost = 10^8/bandwidth Router(config-if)#ip ospf cost number 31

32 The ip ospf message-digestkey Command Parameters Router(config-if)#ip ospf message-digest-key key-id md5 [encryption-type] password 32

33 show commands 33

34 debug commands 34

35 Creating Multiple OSPF Areas Reduze size of routing table (summarization) Smaller topology tables All areas need to be connected to Area 0 (backbone) 35

36 OSPF Router Types 36

37 OSPF Area Types 37

38 Updating the Routing Table Path calculation order Intra-area routes Interarea routes External destinations 38

39 Configuring OSPF ABRs 39

40 Configuring an ASBR 40

41 Configuring OSPF Route Summarization RTA(config)#router ospf 1 RTA(config-router)#summary-address RTB(config)#router ospf 1 RTB(config-router)#area 1 range

42 Verifying Multiarea OSPF Operation 42

43 Using Stub and Totally Stubby Areas 43

44 Stub and Totally Stubby Area Criteria 44

45 OSPF Stub Area Configuration Example 45

46 OSPF Totally Stubby Area Configuration Example 46

47 NSSA Overview 47

48 Configuring OSPF NSSA 48

49 Verifying OSPF NSSA 49

50 Meeting the Backbone Area Requirements 50

51 Configuring Virtual Links 51

52 OSPF Virtual Link Configuration Example 52

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