2016 Associate Safety Modules Section 18 Tuberculosis

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1 2016 Associate Safety Modules Section 18 Tuberculosis Symptoms, Precautions, and Treatment

2 What is Tuberculosis? Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease that usually begins in the lungs. Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal.

3 Has HIV infection TB Risk Factors Has been recently infected with TB bacteria (in the last 2 years) Has other health problems, like diabetes, that make it hard for the body to fight bacteria Abuses alcohol or uses illegal drugs Was not treated correctly for TB infection in the past

4 How do you get TB? The infection is most likely to be spread in small, poorly ventilated rooms. TB can be spread from person-to-person when someone with active TB disease coughs, shouts, sings or laughs - spraying bacteriacontaminated droplets into the air. People nearby may breathe in these bacteria and become infected.

5 Symptoms of TB Disease a bad cough that lasts 3 weeks or longer pain in the chest coughing up blood or sputum weakness or fatigue weight loss no appetite chills fever sweating at night

6 Latent TB Infection and TB Disease Not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick. As a result, two TB-related conditions exist: Latent TB infection TB disease In most people the body is able to fight the TB bacteria to stop them from growing. A person who is infected with inactive (latent) TB is not sick, does not have symptoms and cannot infect others.

7 Latent TB Infection and TB Disease Many people who have latent TB infection never develop TB disease. If TB bacteria become active in the body and multiply, the infection will become TB disease. It may take months or even years for a person with inactive TB to develop active TB.

8 Testing for TB Disease All patients are screened for symptoms of TB. TB skin test (TST) Associates are given TST according to facility policy and in accordance with national guidelines. For more information on TB or the TB skin test, contact Associate Health.

9 TB Treatment Once identified, both latent TB and active TB can be treated with medication. It is extremely important that the medication is taken as prescribed. Treatment of latent TB infection reduces the risk that TB infection will progress to TB disease.

10 Controlling TB Airborne Precautions are used for diseases such as TB because germs are carried in the air by tiny particles (usually dust). These particles may remain in the air for a while depending on the ventilation in the room. Airborne precautions are also taken with: Varicella (chicken pox) Rubeola (measles)

11 Controlling TB To control the spread of TB isolate patients with active TB immediately and start effective TB drug therapy. Patients with possible TB infection are placed in a negative pressure room using Airborne Precautions. Anyone who enters the room of a patient in Airborne Precautions should wear an N-95 respirator mask.

12 Controlling TB Associates caring for TB patients must first be fit tested to wear the respirator mask. This process ensures that the mask fits correctly. Only approved respirator masks can be worn

13 Controlling TB Place surgical masks on TB patients when transporting patients outside of their rooms. This is vital to prevent TB from being transmitted to others. A patient shall not leave the isolation room without staff escort.

14 Controlling TB A patient s parent or caretaker who exhibits signs and symptoms of TB: shall be given a surgical mask and counseled on the necessity of complying with wearing the mask. Contact Infection Prevention so the Public Health Department can be notified as soon as possible.

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