The Paradox of Epicurus (~300BC) God and the Problem of Evil. "But, the Baby's Going to Heaven" General Problem

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Paradox of Epicurus (~300BC) God and the Problem of Evil. "But, the Baby's Going to Heaven" General Problem"

Transcription

1 The Paradox of Epicurus (~300BC) God and the Problem of Evil Notes from and 1. Either God wants to abolish evil and cannot, or God can abolish evil and does want to. 2. If God wants to abolish evil and cannot, then God is impotent. 3. If God can abolish evil and does not want to, then God is evil. 4. If God can abolish evil and God really wants to abolish evil, then why is there evil in the world? 1 2 General Problem "But, the Baby's Going to Heaven" How can an all-good, all-loving God allow evil to exist? Case: A six-month old baby painfully burns to death Can we consider anyone as good who had the power to save this infant from painful death and did not? The baby's potential to go to heaven is irrelevant to whether it was necessary for the baby to suffer If it was not necessary for the baby to suffer, then it was wrong to allow the baby to suffer. If it was necessary for the baby to suffer, then the baby's going to heaven does not explain why it had to suffer There is no reason given for why God failed to act to prevent the suffering 3 4

2 "But, the Baby's Suffering Will Have Good Results in the End" I "But, the Baby's Suffering Will Have Good Results in the End" II If we knew that God would not have permitted the baby's suffering if there were not good results, then we know that every successfully performed action must be for some good in the end and the right thing to do, or else God would not have permitted it to happen. But this reasoning justifies all sorts of harmful acts and even makes these actions one's duty: setting houses ablaze, killing innocent people, etc. "A defense of God's goodness which takes as its foundation duties known only after the fact would result in a morality unworthy of the name." In addition, this argument fails to explain why God allowed this evil to happen The claim that there is some reason for evil rests on the assumption that "God is good" is true. But, the assumption that God is good conflicts with the evidence at hand Example of the lawyer: no jury would accept a defense in which the lawyer argued his client is innocent, the evidence is misleading, and the truth will be known at some indefinite time in the future 5 6 "But, if God Interferes in Disasters, Then There Would Be No Moral Urgency to Make Things Right" If moral urgency is best, then humans should get rid of medical care, fire departments and any other forms of human aid and assistance In fact, the implication is that moral urgency is worthwhile and good So, promoting moral urgency is good But this would justify doing evil in order to bring about good Helping others undermines the need for moral urgency If God Tolerates Disasters, Then God Appears to Approve of Evil to Encourage Moral Urgency God not only appears to approve of evil in order to encourage moral urgency, it appears God would require that evil occur in order to guarantee moral urgency If moral urgency is important, then whenever maximum moral urgency is not maintained it would become necessary for God to create some disasters thinks it absurd to think that we should maximize moral urgency--hence the claim that "there'd be no moral urgency to make things right" is false 7 8

3 "But, Without Suffering There Would be No Motivation to Produce Virtuous Characters" "But, Without Evil There Would be No Good" Without suffering and disasters, there would be no events to help us become better people is not demanding a world without suffering, simply a world without excessive suffering One can build virtuous characters in a world without excessive suffering In fact, we value a world without suffering and thus without opportunities for building virtuous characters Should we attempt to end our efforts to wipe out wars, disease, famine, and other suffering? A conceptual argument that one has to know evil as part of knowing good But, one does not need Hitler or burning babies to see evil Relatively minor pains will be enough to teach one about a life without excessive suffering and evil If yes, then we admit that virtue-building is not a reason for God to allow evil If no, then we should all start wars and encourage evil 9 10 But, God Has a 'Higher Morality'" "But, Humans Have Free Will and There is No One to Blame But the Human" God's actions are judged based on this higher morality and humans simply cannot comprehend this higher morality If this is true, then this higher morality is meaningless to us What humans call evil is really good, and the good is really evil God's "higher morality" cannot be a basis for humans deciding that God is good But, if it is in one's power to save one from unnecessary evil, then not helping is grounds for thinking that person is not good If we think a human of this sort is not good, then on what basis can we claim that God is all good or all loving? 11 12

4 Existence of God Deeper Goods says he is not assuming God exists Rather, if God exists, what might this God allow? wants to argue that if God were to exist, then God would have to allow certain evils to exist So, existence of evil is not evidence against God's existence asks us to imagine what good things "a generous and everlasting God [might] give to human beings" God will give us deeper goods than pleasure and contentment God will give us: Great responsibility for ourselves, others, and the world A share in the "creative activity" of shaping the world we live in God will try to make our lives valuable Deeper Goods and Evil Two Evils Moral Evil: evil caused by humans doing "what they ought not to do" Evil is necessary for these goods "The problem is that God cannot give us these goods in full measure without allowing much evil on the way." Natural Evil: all evils not deliberately caused or allowed by humans What kind of evil is it when a baby suffers in an accidental house fire? 15 16

5 Free Will Defense Nature of Free Will Human's "free and responsible choice" is a great good A consequence of having free and responsible choice is the possibility of moral evil Once God grants free will, then God no longer has control over the occurrence of evil This implies (i) that God is not all-powerful once free will given to humans, (ii) that God will not enter into the natural world to change the course of events "Free and responsible choice is...free will (of the kind discussed) to make significant choices between good and evil, which make a big difference to the agent, to others, and to the world." Humans can give pleasure and pain affect others change the world build personal relationships form their own characters through their actions What God Gave Preventing Evil God is like a father The father who gives a son responsibility over another but watches his son's every move has not given his son much freedom Likewise, a God which has given limited powers has not given much A good God delegates responsibilities The price of sharing in creation brings the choice of helping or hurting others 19 also seems to think that God does not limit human freedom because any limits would undermine the great good given to us. Should humans limit evil, if God doesn t? By analogy, a serial rapist lives next door and I know this Surely, I am justified in trying to prevent the rapist from acting But, according to, if I restrict the rapist, then I have kept him from thinking he's in control of his actions and a free agent--i have prevented him from expressing the possibility of great good If this is true, then I have harmed the rapist by restricting his God-given freedom and his opportunity to act in the right way Should we all sit passively and watch evil and suffering in the world and do nothing? Should we all rejoice in our suffering and the suffering of others? Why is it undesirable to prevent evil, harm, and suffering? Should we follow God s example and do nothing? 20

6 Victims of Free Will Victimization as a Moral Good thinks that being a victim of moral evil is good "And now note another great good--the good of our life serving a purpose, of being of use to ourselves and others...being allowed to suffer to make possible a great good is a privilege, even if the privilege is forced upon you." "I am fortunate if the natural possibility of my suffering if you choose to hurt me is the vehicle which makes your choice really matter." "Likewise, the belief that I am vulnerable to suffering at your hands, and that that is a good thing, can only be a good thing if being vulnerable to suffering at your hands is itself a good thing (independently of whether I believe it or not)." argues that we should rejoice in our suffering and victimization God allows our suffering and victimization ultimately to benefit the one who caused you harm The victim of rape suffers to benefit the rapist "Here is the point to recall that it is an additional benefit to the sufferer that his suffering is the means whereby the one who hurt him had the opportunity to make a significant choice between good and evil which otherwise he would not have had." God's Limits to Admitting Suffering and Harm Free Will and Natural Evil "And there are limits even to the moral right of God, our creator and sustainer, to use free sentient beings as pawns in a greater game. Yet, if these limits were too narrow, God would be unable to give humans much real responsibility; he would be able to allow them only to play a toy game. Still, limits there must be to God's rights to allow humans to hurt each other; and limits there are in the world to the extent to which they can hurt each other, provided above all by the short finite life enjoyed by humans and other creatures..." God as father has a right to let his children suffer and suffering was the possible outcome to allowing free will But, God created us with finite lives so that our suffering would not be infinite This is the limit God placed on himself and his right to allow evil and suffering Assume 's free will argument is correct It still does not explain natural evil, or evil that arises independent of human agency (e.g., hurricane Katrina) recognizes this and asserts that natural evil exists to be an example for human's moral evil "Its [natural evil's] main role, I suggest, is to make it possible for humans to have the kind of choice which the free-will defence extols, and to make available to humans specially worthwhile kinds of choice." 23 24

7 Natural Evil and Choice Analysis Conception of God 1. Natural evil provides humans with knowledge of how to bring about evil God could not give us the required knowledge independent of natural evil because then humans would know God exists and would not make significant choices Knowledge of God's existence would make it hard for someone to do evil because "we all have a natural inclination to wish to be thought well of by everyone...without which we would be less than human." If we had an inclination to act for good, then our wills would not be free from determining factors. Natural evil is a way to protect us from knowledge which might determine our actions, thus making us not metaphysically free. 2. Natural evil gives humans a certain choice with respect to the evil Natural evil "increases the range of significant choice"--either "endure it with patience, or to bemoan his lot" The solutions to the problem of evil may be plausible in the abstract, but not when applied to particular cases When applied to particular cases, God either must be seen as making excuses for its inaction or very limited and not as powerful as humans thinks that such a limited, excuse-making God strains the very meaning of God Analysis Evil God God's Moral Character Given facts about the actual world, what might we believe? a) God is more likely to be all evil than all good Every excuse making the actual world consistent with a good God also applies to an evil God An evil God allows free will so we can freely do evil and we act against God when we do good An evil God allows natural disasters to make us more bitter and selfish 27 b) God is less likely to be all evil than all good c) God is equally likely to be all evil as all good Given the arguments and evidence, it is not likely that God is all good (support for (a)) Given the arguments and evidence, (b) is false since God being evil can be justified just as well as God being good If (c) is true, then we have no reason to think a good God permits evil. If (c) were true, then facts of the actual world would make it as likely that God is all good as all evil. But, this is just to admit that actualworld facts do not support the evidence for thinking a good God permits evil. So, the excuses are no more likely to be true as false. 28

8 Conclusion Christian Paradox of Predestination thinks (a) (c) are the only options. (b) is false (a) makes it unlikely that God is all good since (c) makes the excuses that God is all good no more likely to be true as false, then (c) makes it unlikely that God is all good concludes that, "there is no escape from the conclusion that it is unlikely that God is all good. Thus the problem of evil triumphs over traditional theism." argues that free will is a great good given by God But, Christian tradition speaks of God s predestination According to many NT passages, humans goals and actions are predestined by God before creation. If God predestined human actions, then humans are not the authors of their own destiny. Biblical predestination conflicts with biblical conceptions of free will and moral responsibility The paradox of predestination has been a highly debated issue in Christian theology, with Augustine and Calvin being two of the key figures 29 30

Omnipotence & prayer

Omnipotence & prayer Omnipotence & prayer Today, we ll be discussing two theological paradoxes: paradoxes arising from the idea of an omnipotent being, and paradoxes arising from the religious practice of prayer. So far, in

More information

LECTURE 7: THE EXISTENCE OF GOD & THE REALITY OF EVIL:

LECTURE 7: THE EXISTENCE OF GOD & THE REALITY OF EVIL: LECTURE 7: THE EXISTENCE OF GOD & THE REALITY OF EVIL: Dr. Paul R. Shockley www.prshockley.org Lecture 7 of 12 In our seventh presentation we will be introduced to the five-fold problem of evil and various

More information

The Problem of Evil not If God exists, she'd be OOG. If an OOG being exists, there would be no evil. God exists.

The Problem of Evil not If God exists, she'd be OOG. If an OOG being exists, there would be no evil. God exists. 24.00: Problems of Philosophy Prof. Sally Haslanger September 14, 2005 The Problem of Evil Last time we considered the ontological argument for the existence of God. If the argument is cogent, then we

More information

Divine Command Theory

Divine Command Theory Divine Command Theory 1. Divine Command Theory: This is the view that rightness stems from God s commands: That is, an action is right if God commands it, and wrong if He forbids it. On this view, morality

More information

SESSION ONE TALKING WITH YOUR FATHER. As you grow as a Christian, prayer will become an important part of your everyday life.

SESSION ONE TALKING WITH YOUR FATHER. As you grow as a Christian, prayer will become an important part of your everyday life. BASIC PRAYER Watch Video 1, Anytime, Anywhere. SESSION ONE TALKING WITH YOUR FATHER As you grow as a Christian, prayer will become an important part of your everyday life. Jesus Himself often prayed. The

More information

Responding to Arguments against the Existence of God Based on Evil

Responding to Arguments against the Existence of God Based on Evil Responding to Arguments against the Existence of God Based on Evil By INTRODUCTION Throughout the history of western thought, numerous philosophers and great thinkers have struggled with what is known

More information

Descartes Fourth Meditation On human error

Descartes Fourth Meditation On human error Descartes Fourth Meditation On human error Descartes begins the fourth Meditation with a review of what he has learned so far. He began his search for certainty by questioning the veracity of his own senses.

More information

L I F E C O N C E P T S UNWORTHINESS FORG IVENESS

L I F E C O N C E P T S UNWORTHINESS FORG IVENESS L I F E C O N C E P T S R E A L S O L U T I O N S S T E P P I N G F R O M F E E L I N G S O F UNWORTHINESS T O FORG IVENESS L E A D E R S G U I D E BIG IDEA This week s Life Concept explores the issue

More information

Reality in the Eyes of Descartes and Berkeley. By: Nada Shokry 5/21/2013 AUC - Philosophy

Reality in the Eyes of Descartes and Berkeley. By: Nada Shokry 5/21/2013 AUC - Philosophy Reality in the Eyes of Descartes and Berkeley By: Nada Shokry 5/21/2013 AUC - Philosophy Shokry, 2 One person's craziness is another person's reality. Tim Burton This quote best describes what one finds

More information

HarperOne Reading and Discussion Guide for The Problem of Pain. Reading and Discussion Guide for. C. S. Lewis

HarperOne Reading and Discussion Guide for The Problem of Pain. Reading and Discussion Guide for. C. S. Lewis Reading and Discussion Guide for The Problem of Pain by C. S. Lewis 1. C. S. Lewis writes, Christianity is not the conclusion of a philosophical debate on the origins of the universe.... It is not a system

More information

Descartes. Philosophy and Good Sense

Descartes. Philosophy and Good Sense Perspectives in Philosophy Rene Descartes Descartes Philosophy is the search for certainty the search to know, for yourself, what is really true and really false to know which beliefs are reliable. However,

More information

Kant s deontological ethics

Kant s deontological ethics Michael Lacewing Kant s deontological ethics DEONTOLOGY Deontologists believe that morality is a matter of duty. We have moral duties to do things which it is right to do and moral duties not to do things

More information

Fruit of the Spirit LOVE 8-12-2013. Revised 1-27-2015

Fruit of the Spirit LOVE 8-12-2013. Revised 1-27-2015 Fruit of the Spirit LOVE 8-12-2013 Revised 1-27-2015 Galatians 5:22-23 But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self-control; against such

More information

Study Guide for Aquinas for Armchair Theologians by Timothy M. Renick

Study Guide for Aquinas for Armchair Theologians by Timothy M. Renick Study Guide for Aquinas for Armchair Theologians by Timothy M. Renick Thomas Aquinas is viewed as the very embodiment of the medieval, monastic scholar. We picture him cloistered away in a dark, cold room,

More information

HarperOne Reading and Discussion Guide for The Weight of Glory. Reading and Discussion Guide for. The Weight of Glory. C. S. Lewis.

HarperOne Reading and Discussion Guide for The Weight of Glory. Reading and Discussion Guide for. The Weight of Glory. C. S. Lewis. Reading and Discussion Guide for The Weight of Glory by C. S. Lewis The Weight of Glory is a series of essays and talks that Lewis wrote over a long period (roughly between 1939 and 1956). We have organized

More information

Boonin on the Future-Like-Ours Argument against Abortion. Pedro Galvão Centro de Filosofia da Universidade de Lisboa

Boonin on the Future-Like-Ours Argument against Abortion. Pedro Galvão Centro de Filosofia da Universidade de Lisboa Boonin on the Future-Like-Ours Argument against Abortion Pedro Galvão Centro de Filosofia da Universidade de Lisboa David Boonin s recent book 1 is an impressively deep and detailed attempt to establish

More information

When Bad Things Happen to Good People

When Bad Things Happen to Good People Teachable Books: Free Downloadable Discussion Guides from Cokesbury When Bad Things Happen to Good People Harold S. Kushner Discussion Guide When Bad Things Happen to Good People, by Harold S. Kushner

More information

Is Hell Real. Luke 12:5

Is Hell Real. Luke 12:5 HELL: Is Hell Real? 1 Is Hell Real Luke 12:5 1. Is Hell Real?... Is it Really Real? Luke 12:5 But I will show you whom you should fear: Fear Him who, after He has killed, has power to cast into hell; yes,

More information

Shareholder Theory (Martin Friedman)

Shareholder Theory (Martin Friedman) Shareholder Theory (Martin Friedman) Shareholder Theory: Given that businesses are moral individuals or at least can be treated as if they were we can now ask: What moral obligations, if any, do businesses

More information

QUESTION 60. An Angel's Love or Affection

QUESTION 60. An Angel's Love or Affection QUESTION 60 An Angel's Love or Affection We next have to consider the act of the will, which is love, i.e., affection (amor sive dilectio). For every act of an appetitive power stems from love, i.e., affection.

More information

Why Would a Loving God Allow Evil, Pain and Suffering?

Why Would a Loving God Allow Evil, Pain and Suffering? Why Would a Loving God Allow Evil, Pain and Suffering? Why God Allow Suffering? 1. If God was all-powerful, he could prevent evil and suffering 2. If God was all-loving, he would want to prevent evil and

More information

REASONS FOR HOLDING THIS VIEW

REASONS FOR HOLDING THIS VIEW Michael Lacewing Substance dualism A substance is traditionally understood as an entity, a thing, that does not depend on another entity in order to exist. Substance dualism holds that there are two fundamentally

More information

CATECHISM (adopted 2008) FOR CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CONFESSION OF FAITH

CATECHISM (adopted 2008) FOR CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CONFESSION OF FAITH (from 2008 preliminary minutes page 183) CATECHISM (adopted 2008) FOR CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CONFESSION OF FAITH 1. Who is God? God is the one living, active Creator of all that is, seen and unseen. 2.

More information

Why do we suffer? Because it is part of God s Plan. Suffering

Why do we suffer? Because it is part of God s Plan. Suffering Why do we suffer? Because it is part of God s Plan Suffering When we think of suffering, images of physical and emotional pain often come to mind. Most of us, at one time or another, have endured a period

More information

THE KNOWLEDGE ARGUMENT

THE KNOWLEDGE ARGUMENT Michael Lacewing Descartes arguments for distinguishing mind and body THE KNOWLEDGE ARGUMENT In Meditation II, having argued that he knows he thinks, Descartes then asks what kind of thing he is. Discussions

More information

Edexcel GCSE Religious Studies Unit 1 - Believing in God

Edexcel GCSE Religious Studies Unit 1 - Believing in God Edexcel GCSE Religious Studies Unit 1 - Believing in God Key Words Agnosticism: Not being sure if god exists or not. Atheist: Believing that God does not exist. Conversion: Changing from one religion to

More information

Jesus Parables in Chronological Order. Parable #46 ~ Matthew 25:31-46 ~ The Sheep and the Goats ~ Scripture

Jesus Parables in Chronological Order. Parable #46 ~ Matthew 25:31-46 ~ The Sheep and the Goats ~ Scripture Jesus Parables in Chronological Order Parable #46 ~ Matthew 25:31-46 ~ The Sheep and the Goats ~ Scripture 31 When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, he 32 will sit on his

More information

In Defense of Kantian Moral Theory Nader Shoaibi University of California, Berkeley

In Defense of Kantian Moral Theory Nader Shoaibi University of California, Berkeley In Defense of Kantian Moral Theory University of California, Berkeley In this paper, I will argue that Kant provides us with a plausible account of morality. To show that, I will first offer a major criticism

More information

Atheism. Richland Creek Community Church

Atheism. Richland Creek Community Church Atheism Richland Creek Community Church The Existence of God: Does America believe in God? Google - What percentage of Americans believe in God? = well over 90%. In fact, over the past 50 years of research

More information

SERIES: THE LOVE OF GOD MESSAGE: BIBLICAL DEFINITION OF GOD S LOVE Part 3 1 John 4:7-11 August 16, 2015

SERIES: THE LOVE OF GOD MESSAGE: BIBLICAL DEFINITION OF GOD S LOVE Part 3 1 John 4:7-11 August 16, 2015 SERIES: THE LOVE OF GOD MESSAGE: BIBLICAL DEFINITION OF GOD S LOVE Part 3 1 John 4:7-11 August 16, 2015 INTRODUCTION: I read an article from Danny Akins commentary about love through the eyes of children.

More information

SOLEMNITY OF THE HOLY TRINITY

SOLEMNITY OF THE HOLY TRINITY SOLEMNITY OF THE HOLY TRINITY Deuteronomy 4:32-34, 39-40; Romans 8:14-17; Matthew 28:16-20 (These appear after the homily.) Father, you sent your Word to bring us truth and your Spirit to make us holy.

More information

Objections to Friedman s Shareholder/Stockholder Theory

Objections to Friedman s Shareholder/Stockholder Theory Objections to Friedman s Shareholder/Stockholder Theory 1. Legal Morally Permissible: Almeder offers several criticisms of Friedman s claim that the only obligation of businesses is to increase profit

More information

Message: Faith & Science - Part 1

Message: Faith & Science - Part 1 The Light Shines Outside the Box www.jesusfamilies.org Message: Faith & Science - Part 1 This message is not for people who believe that God exists. Most people on the earth believe that some God exists,

More information

Worship God the Right Way Exodus 20:4-6

Worship God the Right Way Exodus 20:4-6 Worship God the Right Way Exodus 20:4-6 Our initial inclination may be to write off the second commandment as irrelevant because we don t have carved images of God in our lives, but when we understand

More information

CHAPTER 1 SALESPERSON IS TO GROW RATHER THAN TO CHANGE.

CHAPTER 1 SALESPERSON IS TO GROW RATHER THAN TO CHANGE. Chapter 1 RULES FOR BECOMING A SUCCESSFUL SALESPERSON CHAPTER 1 E Rules for Becoming A Successful Salesperson To be a successful salesperson that is, to make a profit you need to follow guidelines that

More information

Your Strength Comes from God

Your Strength Comes from God Your Strength Comes from God Through God s Word, we are allowed the opportunity to see several Bible characters go through difficult times in their lives. Even Jesus, Himself, experienced challenging times

More information

Students of Saint Patrick School, Carlisle, Pennsylvania USA Teacher: Noreen Dempsey

Students of Saint Patrick School, Carlisle, Pennsylvania USA Teacher: Noreen Dempsey The was a tragic event. So many Jews died just because of their religion. They obviously did not deserve the harsh treatment. Today we look back and reflect on the. Students of Saint Patrick School, Carlisle,

More information

Plantinga and the Problem of Evil

Plantinga and the Problem of Evil Plantinga and the Problem of Evil Heimir Geirsson, Iowa State University Michael Losonsky, Colorado State University The logical problem of evil centers on the apparent inconsistency of the following two

More information

world will be driven out. 32And I, when I am lifted up from the The Character Satan in John s Gospel John 8.44

world will be driven out. 32And I, when I am lifted up from the The Character Satan in John s Gospel John 8.44 The Character Satan in John s Gospel John 8.44 They answered him, Abraham is our father. Jesus said to them, If you were Abraham s children, you would be doing what Abraham did, 40but now you are trying

More information

Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing Sermon on Good Friday 2011

Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing Sermon on Good Friday 2011 Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing Sermon on Good Friday 2011 Every year in Holy Week, every year on Good Friday the Christian Community around the world gathers to remember

More information

Developing the details There are several key points about the principle that we need to look at before looking at objections to it.

Developing the details There are several key points about the principle that we need to look at before looking at objections to it. Michael Lacewing Mill s harm principle THE PRINCIPLE In On Liberty, Mill argues for one very simple principle, as entitled to govern absolutely the dealings of society with the individual in the way of

More information

session 1 God s Dream For Your Life

session 1 God s Dream For Your Life session 1 God s Dream For Your Life 7 Take It In Watch the video ALL PARENTS HAVE A DREAM Our kids can be the source of our greatest or deepest. Our Heavenly Father has a dream for every one of His children.

More information

Kant s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals

Kant s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals Kant s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals G. J. Mattey Winter, 2015/ Philosophy 1 The Division of Philosophical Labor Kant generally endorses the ancient Greek division of philosophy into

More information

Descartes Meditations Module 3 AQA. Meditation I Things which can be called into Doubt

Descartes Meditations Module 3 AQA. Meditation I Things which can be called into Doubt Descartes Meditations Module 3 AQA Meditation I Things which can be called into Doubt Descartes rejects all his beliefs about the external world because they are doubtful and he wants to find a foundation

More information

~SHARING MY PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE~

~SHARING MY PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE~ April 2012 ~SHARING MY PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE~ Dear Friends, It is a certainty that shared values encourage cooperative relationships. I don t know who first said this, but I certainly believe it to be true.

More information

WHOSOEVER BELIEVES IN HIM SHALL NOT PERISH BUT HAVE EVERLASTING LIFE

WHOSOEVER BELIEVES IN HIM SHALL NOT PERISH BUT HAVE EVERLASTING LIFE Love from God 1 JOHN 4:19 WE LOVE HIM BECAUSE HE FIRST LOVED US JOHN 3:16 FOR GOD SO LOVED THE WORLD THAT HE GAVE HIS ONLY SON, THAT WHOSOEVER BELIEVES IN HIM SHALL NOT PERISH BUT HAVE EVERLASTING LIFE

More information

Devotion NT273 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: The Garden of Gethsemane. THEME: We always need to pray! SCRIPTURE: Luke 22:39-53

Devotion NT273 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: The Garden of Gethsemane. THEME: We always need to pray! SCRIPTURE: Luke 22:39-53 Devotion NT273 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: The Garden of Gethsemane THEME: We always need to pray! SCRIPTURE: Luke 22:39-53 Dear Parents Welcome to Bible Time for Kids. Bible Time

More information

I Object! Objections to the Doctrine of Election

I Object! Objections to the Doctrine of Election I Object! Objections to the Doctrine of Election Preliminary Statement on Romans 9:14 29: This passage continues the train of thought started in Rom. 9:1 13. While Paul uses the doctrine of election to

More information

Last May, philosopher Thomas Nagel reviewed a book by Michael Sandel titled

Last May, philosopher Thomas Nagel reviewed a book by Michael Sandel titled Fourth Quarter, 2006 Vol. 29, No. 4 Editor s Watch Sandel and Nagel on Abortion Last May, philosopher Thomas Nagel reviewed a book by Michael Sandel titled Public Philosophy in The New York Review of Books.

More information

Killing And Letting Die

Killing And Letting Die [This essay originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ethics, 2nd edition, ed. Lawrence Becker and Charlotte Becker (New York: Routledge, 2001), vol. 2, pp. 947-50.] Killing And Letting Die Is it worse

More information

Declaration of Independence Lesson Plan. Central Historical Question: Why did the Founders write the Declaration of Independence?

Declaration of Independence Lesson Plan. Central Historical Question: Why did the Founders write the Declaration of Independence? Lesson Plan Central Historical Question: Why did the Founders write the? Materials: Copies of Two Historians Interpretations Copies of Declaration Preamble worksheet Copies of Declaration of Independece

More information

Lesson 6 Abide Through Prayer Key Text: John 15:7-8; Matthew 6:9-13; cross-references

Lesson 6 Abide Through Prayer Key Text: John 15:7-8; Matthew 6:9-13; cross-references Lesson 6 Abide Through Prayer Key Text: John 15:7-8; Matthew 6:9-13; cross-references Introduction As we begin the sixth week of our study of the Parable of the Vine, we have learned from God s Word that

More information

Creation The Architect

Creation The Architect In the beginning, God created Genesis 1:1 Creation The Architect Today marks the beginning of a four week sermon series on Creation. Now before we get too far into our discussion, I want to tell you that

More information

Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard. Religious Studies Level 1

Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard. Religious Studies Level 1 Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard Religious Studies Level 1 This exemplar supports assessment against: Achievement Standard 90818 Describe the application of the key ethical principle(s) of a

More information

LESSON TITLE: The Beatitudes. THEME: Real happiness is found in Jesus. SCRIPTURE: Matthew 5:1-12 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: Him.

LESSON TITLE: The Beatitudes. THEME: Real happiness is found in Jesus. SCRIPTURE: Matthew 5:1-12 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: Him. Devotion NT222 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: The Beatitudes Him. THEME: Real happiness is found in Jesus. SCRIPTURE: Matthew 5:1-12 Dear Parents Welcome to Bible Time for Kids! Bible

More information

Our automatic thoughts echo our core beliefs. The more negative our core beliefs are, the more negative our automatic thoughts will be.

Our automatic thoughts echo our core beliefs. The more negative our core beliefs are, the more negative our automatic thoughts will be. cchapter EIGHTb Core beliefs Think Good - Feel Good Paul Stallard Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons Ltd ISBN: 0470842903 (Paperback) CORE BELIEFS Core beliefs are the fixed statements ideas that we have

More information

T H E B A S I C S PRIMARY TRUTH God created all things to please and glorify Himself.

T H E B A S I C S PRIMARY TRUTH God created all things to please and glorify Himself. CORRESPONDING LEVEL WEB #s Defenders: 040504 Detectives: 040504 Developers: 040504 GOD S CREATION MATERIALS NEEDED Bible; Teacher Preparation Guide (optional supplements: K4T songbook and PowerPoint files

More information

Forgiveness forgiveness

Forgiveness forgiveness Forgiveness Forgiveness Dealing with the past hurts and pains of our life is perhaps one of the biggest obstacles we face in terms of achieving the place of peace most of us are seeking. Emotions from

More information

Pascal is here expressing a kind of skepticism about the ability of human reason to deliver an answer to this question.

Pascal is here expressing a kind of skepticism about the ability of human reason to deliver an answer to this question. Pascal s wager So far we have discussed a number of arguments for or against the existence of God. In the reading for today, Pascal asks not Does God exist? but Should we believe in God? What is distinctive

More information

You will by now not be surprised that a version of the teleological argument can be found in the writings of Thomas Aquinas.

You will by now not be surprised that a version of the teleological argument can be found in the writings of Thomas Aquinas. The design argument The different versions of the cosmological argument we discussed over the last few weeks were arguments for the existence of God based on extremely abstract and general features of

More information

PRAYING FOR OTHER PEOPLE

PRAYING FOR OTHER PEOPLE PRAYING FOR OTHER PEOPLE SESSION ONE HOW TO PRAY FOR OTHER PEOPLE When friends get together, they talk about their problems. Sometimes your friends will share with you about their own personal difficulties

More information

ADVICE TO CANDIDATES Read each question carefully and make sure you know what you have to do before starting your answer.

ADVICE TO CANDIDATES Read each question carefully and make sure you know what you have to do before starting your answer. Advanced Subsidiary GCE GCE RELIGIOUS STUDIES G571 QP Unit G571: AS Philosophy of Religion Specimen Paper Morning/Afternoon Additional Materials: Answer Booklet ( pages) Time: 1 hour 30 minutes INSTRUCTIONS

More information

Week 44: The Armor of God

Week 44: The Armor of God Day 1 Read Ephesians 6:10-20 (p.1363) (Refer to commentary on page 1362) Are you able to fight off Satan when he attacks you? Are you able to use God s words to fight off all of Satan s lies? In today

More information

@ Home FAMILY Study Session

@ Home FAMILY Study Session @ Home FAMILY Study Session Parents NOTE: CLASSES WILL NOT MEET on @ Home Study Session days. JYM Year 1 Students and their parents may work through the Beatitudes @ Home Study Session as a family. Parents

More information

Acts 11 : 1-18 Sermon

Acts 11 : 1-18 Sermon Acts 11 : 1-18 Sermon Imagine a church being riven apart by different personalities leading different groups each trying to pull it in different directions. Imagine a church whose future is threatened

More information

Contents. Preface 7. Contents

Contents. Preface 7. Contents Contents Contents Preface 7 Part One: Twelve Steps 9 Step One 10 Step Two 15 Step Three 19 Step Four 25 Step Five 31 Step Six 35 Step Seven 39 Step Eight 43 Step Nine 47 Step Ten 52 Step Eleven 56 Step

More information

Election, Predestination, Children, and Why Sin Exists

Election, Predestination, Children, and Why Sin Exists Election, Predestination, Children, and Why Sin Exists Does God predestine people to hell? Why did God allow sin in the first place? What happens to infants when they die? How is Election Presented in

More information

I thank my God every time I remember you. In all my prayers for all of you, I always pray with joy because of your partnership in the gospel.

I thank my God every time I remember you. In all my prayers for all of you, I always pray with joy because of your partnership in the gospel. I thank my God every time I remember you. In all my prayers for all of you, I always pray with joy because of your partnership in the gospel. Phil:1:3,4 Northampton Church Schools Education Foundation

More information

Introduction to The Ten Commandments

Introduction to The Ten Commandments Introduction to The Ten Commandments This was a collaborative learning experience for our Nursery, led by Sue Thomson, Children s Minister, St Columba s Church and our Primary 7 teacher, Kara McCurrach.

More information

July 30/31, 2016. Bible Passage: 1 Peter 1 2 (Peter s Letter to the Jewish Christians) God Is the Holy One

July 30/31, 2016. Bible Passage: 1 Peter 1 2 (Peter s Letter to the Jewish Christians) God Is the Holy One July 30/31, 2016 Bible Passage: 1 Peter 1 2 (Peter s Letter to the Jewish Christians) God Is the Holy One REMEMBER VERSE My sheep listen to my voice; I know them, and they follow me. John 10:27 1 Leader

More information

Fundamental Principles of American Democracy

Fundamental Principles of American Democracy Fundamental Principles of American Democracy Standard: 12.1 Students explain the fundamental principles and moral values of American democracy as expressed in the U.S. Constitution and other essential

More information

Theme: God s dealings with Moses gives hope to leaders and to oppressed

Theme: God s dealings with Moses gives hope to leaders and to oppressed Title: MOSES: A PROPHET BECOMES A GREAT LEADER Space for Notes (Yours and ours) Theme: God s dealings with Moses gives hope to leaders and to oppressed people Bible Basis: Deuteronomy 34:10-12 NLT; Exodus

More information

INDEPENDENCE DAY LESSON YOUTH

INDEPENDENCE DAY LESSON YOUTH INDEPENDENCE DAY LESSON YOUTH TEACHER PEP TALK The Bible tells us that Blessed is the nation whose God is the LORD. Our American forefathers knew this and reflected their beliefs in the LORD in our founding

More information

Truth Focus Statements for the Twelve Healing Code Categories

Truth Focus Statements for the Twelve Healing Code Categories Truth Focus Statements for the Twelve Healing Code Categories The following are suggested Truth Focus Statements that can be used when doing The Healing Code, as outlined in The Healing Code book. They

More information

What does God want from me?

What does God want from me? What does God want from me? Compiled by Rachel Cory-Kuehl, November 28, 2012. Scripture is from New King James Version unless otherwise noted. John 13:34 A new commandment I give to you, that you love

More information

} } World View. Categories for World View (Ultimate Reality) A world view gives meaning to existence.

} } World View. Categories for World View (Ultimate Reality) A world view gives meaning to existence. World View A world view gives meaning to existence. A world view includes: A perspective on truth and reality An underlying foundation for decisions An underlying foundation for values An underlying foundation

More information

Sorensen on Unknowable Obligations

Sorensen on Unknowable Obligations Sorensen on Unknowable Obligations Theodore Sider Utilitas 7 (1995): 273 9 1. Access principles Vagueness in the phrase can know aside, the principle of Access An act is obligatory only if its agent can

More information

Sermon St Augustine's 14/9/08 There are some funny stories about revenge! A married couple had many disagreements. Yet somehow the wife always stayed

Sermon St Augustine's 14/9/08 There are some funny stories about revenge! A married couple had many disagreements. Yet somehow the wife always stayed Sermon St Augustine's 14/9/08 There are some funny stories about revenge! A married couple had many disagreements. Yet somehow the wife always stayed calm and collected. One day her husband commented on

More information

WELCOME TO GOD S FAMILY

WELCOME TO GOD S FAMILY WELCOME TO GOD S FAMILY To all who received him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God children born not of natural descent, nor of human decision or a husband

More information

THE HISTORY OF FRANKENSTEIN

THE HISTORY OF FRANKENSTEIN THE HISTORY OF FRANKENSTEIN Mary Shelley s novel, FRANKENSTEIN, first appeared in 1818. Since then the story has been retold and adapted for the stage, on film, on radio, on television and in comics. There

More information

Job s Faith, Part 4 Eliphaz, Bildad and Zophar

Job s Faith, Part 4 Eliphaz, Bildad and Zophar Job s Faith, Part 4 Eliphaz, Bildad and Zophar We re going to look a little closer at Job s three friends, Eliphaz, Bildad and Zophar. Remember, they had good intentions, but they misapplied or misused

More information

5. It was only because man was selfish that Jesus would later add, What God has joined together, let not man separate" (Matt 19:6).

5. It was only because man was selfish that Jesus would later add, What God has joined together, let not man separate (Matt 19:6). PRAYER FOR UNITY (John 17:20-26) A. When Adam first saw Eve he was extremely satisfied. 1. Because He saw someone like himself, & yet so wonderfully different. 2. He recognized they belonged TOgether &

More information

Ethics Handout 20 Singer, Famine, Affluence, and Morality

Ethics Handout 20 Singer, Famine, Affluence, and Morality 24.231 Ethics Handout 20 Singer, Famine, Affluence, and Morality General Question: How much does morality demand of us? And how far short of living up to those demands do most of us fall? Singer argues

More information

Medical Malpractice VOIR DIRE QUESTIONS

Medical Malpractice VOIR DIRE QUESTIONS Medical Malpractice VOIR DIRE QUESTIONS INTRODUCTION: Tell the jurors that this is a very big and a very important case. Do a SHORT summary of the case and the damages we are seeking. This summary should

More information

Critical Study David Benatar. Better Never To Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006)

Critical Study David Benatar. Better Never To Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) NOÛS 43:4 (2009) 776 785 Critical Study David Benatar. Better Never To Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) ELIZABETH HARMAN Princeton University In this

More information

Grace: God s extravagantly generous giving (2 Cor 8:9)

Grace: God s extravagantly generous giving (2 Cor 8:9) Grace: God s extravagantly generous giving (2 Cor 8:9) (A sermon preached in St Andrew's church, St Andrews, 29 June 2003) 2 Cor 8.7-15 In the middle of our second reading this morning is one of the NT's

More information

KJV King James Bible Study Correspondence Course An Outreach of Highway Evangelistic Ministries 5311 Windridge lane ~ Lockhart, Florida 32810 ~ USA

KJV King James Bible Study Correspondence Course An Outreach of Highway Evangelistic Ministries 5311 Windridge lane ~ Lockhart, Florida 32810 ~ USA 1 THE LOVE OF GOD Lesson 9 return pages 6 & 7 It is a marvelous thing to know that we have a God who is holy, righteous, true, just, and pure in everything that He does. We have seen that His every word,

More information

The Lauryn Williams Story Bible Study

The Lauryn Williams Story Bible Study The Lauryn Williams Story Bible Study Watch video (approx. 7 minutes) LAUNCH How do you feel when you lose or don t play well? What is a time when you felt embarrassed by your performance? What do you

More information

LESSON TITLE: The Great Commandment. THEME: Love is the fulfillment of the Law. SCRIPTURE: Mark 12:28-34 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF:

LESSON TITLE: The Great Commandment. THEME: Love is the fulfillment of the Law. SCRIPTURE: Mark 12:28-34 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: Devotion NT264 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: The Great Commandment THEME: Love is the fulfillment of the Law. SCRIPTURE: Mark 12:28-34 Dear Parents Welcome to Bible Time for Kids.

More information

Sexual Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs

Sexual Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs Wiederman 1 Sexual Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs Most people are too focused on sexual activity they think it is more important than it really is. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? What is

More information

Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Family Violence. When NOT to Co-Parent

Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Family Violence. When NOT to Co-Parent When NOT to Co-Parent Family Violence There are number of situations in which parents should exercise caution in the co-parenting relationship. Specifically we need to protect children from abusive relationships

More information

Logical-Causal Determinism and Salvation: Problems and Resolution

Logical-Causal Determinism and Salvation: Problems and Resolution Does the Triune God love all? Has He included all in His life by the finished work of His Son, Jesus Christ? Has the God revealed in Jesus purposed to save only some and damn the rest? These questions

More information

Embracing Our Destiny Understanding Our Biblical Destiny (Part 1)

Embracing Our Destiny Understanding Our Biblical Destiny (Part 1) Mailing Address: PO Box 797 Molalla, OR 97038 Phone: 503-829-5101 Fax: 503-829-9502 Pastor Dale Satrum Embracing Our Destiny Understanding Our Biblical Destiny (Part 1) Intro: I believe God has a destiny

More information

Does God Heal Physically in Response to Prayer?

Does God Heal Physically in Response to Prayer? Does God Heal Physically in Response to Prayer? by JENNIFER KENNEDY DEAN LET ME LAY OUT CLEARLY for you how I understand prayer for physical healing. As I travel and meet people and listen to their concerns,

More information

THE LOCKS AND KEYS OF EFFECTIVE PRAYER THE LOCKS: TEN THINGS THAT BLOCK PRAYER. 1. Praying Without Knowing God Through Jesus

THE LOCKS AND KEYS OF EFFECTIVE PRAYER THE LOCKS: TEN THINGS THAT BLOCK PRAYER. 1. Praying Without Knowing God Through Jesus THE LOCKS AND KEYS OF EFFECTIVE PRAYER THE LOCKS: TEN THINGS THAT BLOCK PRAYER 1. Praying Without Knowing God Through Jesus John 14:6 Jesus said to him, I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one

More information

Active and Passive Euthanasia by James Rachels (1975)

Active and Passive Euthanasia by James Rachels (1975) Active and Passive Euthanasia by James Rachels (1975) Abstract The traditional distinction between active and passive euthanasia requires critical analysis. The conventional doctrine is that there is such

More information

T H E B A S I C S PRIMARY TRUTH God is love.

T H E B A S I C S PRIMARY TRUTH God is love. CORRESPONDING LEVEL WEB #s Defenders: 040308 Detectives: 030308 Developers: 020308 THE GOODNESS OF GOD MATERIALS NEEDED Bible; Teacher Preparation Guide (optional supplements: K4T songbook and PowerPoint

More information

There Is No Commandment Greater Than These (2012)

There Is No Commandment Greater Than These (2012) Valparaiso University ValpoScholar The Valpo Core Reader 10-25-2012 There Is No Commandment Greater Than These (2012) David Rutkowski Valparaiso University Follow this and additional works at: http://scholar.valpo.edu/core_reader

More information

1 ~ First, we must acknowledge that we are sinners. The Most Excellent Way

1 ~ First, we must acknowledge that we are sinners. The Most Excellent Way The Most Excellent Way For I know the plans I have for you,ʺ declares the LORD, plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future. 12 Then you will call upon me and come and

More information

Be Strong in the Lord Ephesians Chapter 6: 10-20

Be Strong in the Lord Ephesians Chapter 6: 10-20 Be Strong in the Lord Ephesians Chapter 6: 10-20 Day 1 Be Strong in the Lord: Ephesians 6:11 Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. Weapons of Peace

More information