Linking Language & Learning Communication

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1 Linking Language & Learning Communication 2 nd Lecture Dr. Alfadil Altahir Alfadil

2 Guiding questions What do you want to be able to DO with English? In what ways is the classroom a good place to learn English?

3 What do students want? We have found that students studying English hope to achieve TWO goals: 1) Students want to be able to COMMUNICATE in English. 2) Students want to become BILINGUAL.

4 GOAL #1: Communicate in English What does communicate mean? INTERACT with English-speaking people. UNDERSTAND and INTERPRET the meaning of what you hear and read in English. EXPLAIN your thoughts and ideas to Englishspeaking people.

5 Goal #1: Communicate in English How do you learn to communicate in another language? Listen to lots of English? Read lots of English? Write lots of English? Learn grammar? Practise talking?

6 Goal #1: Communicate in English There are two important theories about what it means to learn a second language and develop the ability to communicate in that language: 1) Monitor Model theory 2) Communicative competence theory

7 Goal #1: Communicate in English Theory 1: Monitor Model Krashen developed five hypotheses about second language learning. These hypotheses offer insight into how to help students learn to communicate in a second language.

8 Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition (1981) Goal #1: Communicate in English Stephen Krashen Monitor Model: 5 hypotheses 1. acquisition / learning are two different processes (spontaneous vs. conscious) 2. natural order (grammar is acquired in a predictable order in a natural setting) 3. monitor (learning functions only as an editor, or monitor) 4. *input (comprehensible input is essential for acquisition) 5. *affective filter (acquisition occurs when affective conditions are optimal, i.e., low anxiety, motivation, confidence, etc.

9 Goal #1: Communicate in English Theory 2: Communicative Competence Canale & Swain (1983) developed a theory that describes communicative competence as MORE than simply being able to interact in another language.

10 Goal #1: Communicate in English Communicative Competence 1. Grammatical competence: mastery of linguistic code 2. Sociolinguistic competence: knowledge of social and cultural rules 3. Discourse competence: ability to connect sentences coherently Bonjour! 4. Strategic competence: ability to use verbal and non-verbal communication strategies

11 Goal #1: Communicate in English Summary of the two theories: To communicate in a second language, a learner needs sufficient INPUT and OPTIMAL AFFECTIVE CONDITIONS (high motivation, positive attitude, self confidence) Understanding of SOCIAL and CULTURAL rules, NON-VERBAL communication strategies as well as GRAMMAR.

12 A learner also needs INTERACTION Interaction can be between teacher and students Goal #1: Communicate in English OR between and among students.

13 Goal #1: Communicate in English A learner also needs to develop the ability to INTERPRET what s/he hears and reads. Interpretation involves recognizing thoughts and feelings about a message (oral or written) constructing the meaning of the message (through thought and/or interaction) explaining the meaning to others

14 Goal #2: Becoming bilingual What does bilingual mean? There are at least 37 definitions of bilingual.

15 Goal #2: Becoming bilingual Balanced bilingual = mastery of two languages is roughly equivalent Covert bilingual = someone who hides knowledge of another language because of an attitudinal disposition Dominant bilingual = greater proficiency in one of the two languages Early bilingual = someone who acquired both languages in childhood Late bilingual = someone who became bilingual later than childhood Receptive bilingual = someone who understands but does not read or write Secondary bilingual = someone whose second language had been added to a first via instruction Incipient bilingual = someone at the early stages of bilingualism

16 Goal #2: Becoming bilingual DEMYSTIFYING BILINGUALISM No one has the same level or the same type of proficiency in two (or more) languages!

17 There are many places a person can become bilingual. at home at school traveling when you re in love in the work place Goal #2: Becoming bilingual

18 Goal #2: Becoming bilingual Attitudes about bilingualism In the 19 th century people believed that being bilingual was detrimental to intellectual and spiritual growth. In the early 20 th century some studies indicated that bilingual children had lower IQs than monolingual children. Today, some bilingual speakers may be encouraged to suppress their minority language in favor of the culturally dominant language.

19 Current research on cognition reveals the advantages of bilingualism: Creative thinking Flexible thinking Faster learning Larger vocabulary Greater sensitivity in communication Goal #2: Becoming bilingual

20 Goal #2: Becoming bilingual CODE SWITCHING is the alternating use of two or more languages in a single conversation event. is a natural, observable occurrence among people of all ages who speak more than one language. one indicator of whether a person is bilingual. is the norm for many bilinguals.

21 Goal #2: Becoming bilingual Bilingualism is not a state, but a process; not a goal but a continuum. Where are you on the BILINGUAL CONTINUUM? ----x x-- incipient balanced

22 Goal #2: Becoming bilingual Can you understand English? Can you speak English? Can you read? Write? Do you engage in word play with English? Do you code-switch? ARE YOU BILINGUAL?

23 Final discussion questions Write your ideas about these questions and turn them in to your teacher: What ways does your English classroom experience help you to communicate in English? (Remember the many dimensions of the notion communicate. ) Do you consider yourself bilingual? Explain. This Power Point presentation is available at:

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