Anatomical Position. Standing erect Hands at side with palms facing forward Feet together. Deep/Superficial

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1 Anatomical Position Standing erect Hands at side with palms facing forward Feet together Deep/Superficial

2 Planes

3 Hierarchy of Structures Within the Human Body Subatomic Particles Protons Neutrons Electrons Atoms Molecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

4 Hierarchy of Structures Within the Human Body Subcellular Organelles Small structures within the cell with specific functions Cells Basic unit of structure and function Some function alone Others form tissues

5 Hierarchy of Structures Within the Human Body Tissues Cells alike in structure and function (specialized) Organs Tissues that work together for a specific function Organ Systems Organs that work together for a specific function Organism

6 Cell Parts: Plasma Membrane Plasma membrane Determines what enters and leaves the cell Composed mainly of a bilayer of phospholipids with proteins embedded

7 Cell Parts: Nucleus Nucleus Nuclear membrane (envelope) separates the genetic material from the cytoplasm Nucleolus makes ribosomal subunits DNA (chromatin)

8 Cell Parts: Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Gel like Cytosol = liquid part Holds and surrounds organelles Solutes Organelles Structures within the cell with a particular function

9 Centrosome Centrioles cilia flagella Cytoskeleton Microfilaments Intermediate filaments microtubules Cell Parts: Organelles

10 Cell Parts: Organelles Ribosomes Synthesize protein Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough ER Smooth ET Transport Vesicles Golgi Complex (Apparatus, Body)

11 Cell Parts: Organelles Lysosomes Recycle Peroxisomes Mitochondria Cellular Respiration Break down glucose to form ATP *Cell function depends on cell structure--- some cells have more of one type of organelle

12 Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive Organ Systems

13 Which of the following pairs correctly matches a cellular organelle with its function? a. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum--energy production b. Golgi apparatus protein synthesis c. Cytoskeleton movement d. Cell membrane storage

14 Which of the following describes an anatomical relationship between two structures in the human body? a. The mouth is anterior to the nose. b. The ribs are lateral to the sternum. c. The patella is inferior to the tibia. d. Muscles are superficial to skin.

15 Which of the following organelles gives rough endoplasmic reticulum its signature rough characteristic? a. Ribosomes b. Mitochondria c. Centrosomes d. Vacuoles

16 Integumentary System: Structures Skin Hair Oil and sweat glands Nails Sensory receptors

17 Integumentary System: Functions Regulates body temperature Stores blood Protects body from external environment Detects cutaneous sensations Excretes and absorbs substances Synthesizes vitamin D

18 Which of the following is the outermost layer of the skin? a. Dermis b. Sudoriferous c. Sebaceous d. Epidermis

19 Which of the following is not excreted through the integumentary system? a. Alcohol b. Minerals c. Blood d. Urea

20 Which of the following mechanisms is used when the body becomes too cold? a. Blood vessel dilation b. Sweating c. Blood vessel constriction d. Vitamin D production

21 Which of the following integumentary structures produces sweat? a. Sudoriferous glands b. Sebaceous glands c. Ceruminous glands d. Mammary glands

22 are at a higher structural level of organization than. Which of the following options completes the sentence? a. Organs; organ systems b. Cells; molecules c. Atoms; molecules d. Tissues; organs

23 Skeletal System : Structures Bones Hard calcified material Cartilage Tough elastic connective tissue Tendons Holds muscle to bone Ligaments Holds bone to bone

24 Skeletal System: Functions Supports soft tissue and provides attachment for skeletal muscles Protects internal organs Assists in movement along with skeletal muscles Stores and releases minerals Contains red bone marrow, which produces blood cells Contains yellow marrow, which stores triglycerides

25 Bone cells Bone Tissue

26 Classification of Bones

27 Bone Structure

28 Joints Fibrous Joints No synovial cavity, bones are held together by dense irregular connective tissue rich in collagen fibers Cartilaginous Joints No synovial cavity, bones are held together by cartilage Synovial Joints Synovial cavity is present, united by dense irregular connective tissue of an articular capsule and assessor ligaments Articular cartilage Synovial fluid

29 Which of the following cells is involved in mineral resorption from bone? a. Osteoclasts b. Osteoblasts c. Canaliculi d. Osteon

30 Which of the following bones articulate at a synovial joint? a. Skull bones b. Radius and ulna c. Bones of the pubis d. Humerus and scapula

31 Which of the following structures is an irregularly shaped bone? a. Femur b. Metacarpal c. Rib d. Vertebra

32 Using the word bank, label the bones of the skeleton. Calcaneus, carpals, cervical vertebrae, clavicle, coccyx, femur, fibula, humerus, lumbar vertebrae, mandible, metacarpals, metatarsals, patella, pelvis, phalanges, radius, ribs, sacrum, scapula, skull sternum, tarsals, thoracic vertebrae, tibia, ulna

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