# transverse wave on a string Slinky waves

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1 L 23 Vibrations and Waves [3] updated 10/23/07 resonance clocks pendulum springs harmonic motion mechanical waves sound waves golden rule for waves musical instruments The Doppler effect Doppler radar radar guns 1 Review A mechanical wave is a disturbance that travels through a medium solids, liquids or gases The disturbance moves because of the elastic nature of the material As the disturbance moves, the parts of the material (segment of string, air molecules) execute harmonic motion (move up and down or back and forth) transverse wave longitudinal wave 2 transverse wave on a string Slinky waves jiggle the end of the string to create a disturbance the disturbance moves down the string as it passes, the string moves up and then down the string motion in vertical but the wave moves in the horizontal (perpendicular) direction transverse wave this is a single pulse wave (non-repetitive) the wave in the football stadium is a transverse wave 3 you can create a longitudinal wave on a slinky instead of jiggling the slinky up and down, you jiggle it in and out the coils of the slinky move along the same direction (horizontal) as the wave 4 Harmonic waves continually jiggle the end of the string up and down each segment of the string undergoes simple harmonic motion and the disturbance (wave) moves with speed v the distance between successive peaks is called the WAVELEGTH, λ (lambda) measured in m or cm v watching the waves go by suppose we keep watching one segment of the string as the wave goes by and then make a plot of its motion the time between the appearance of a new wave crest is the PERIOD of the wave, T the number of wave crests that pass by every second is the wave frequency, f = 1/T snapshot of the string at some time λ λ 5 sit at some x and watch displacement T T time 6

2 The golden rule for waves Example: wave on a string the speed of propagation of the wave (v), the wavelength (λ), and period (T) are related distance = speed x time λ = v T = v / f The wavelength = wave speed / frequency or v = λ f (golden rule) Wave speed = wavelength frequency This applies to all waves water waves, waves on strings, sound, radio, light.. This rule is important for understanding how musical instruments work 7 2 cm 2 cm 2 cm A wave moves on a string at a speed of 4 cm/s A snapshot of the motion reveals that the wavelength(λ) is 2 cm, what is the frequency (ƒ)? v = λ ƒ, so ƒ = v / λ = (4 cm/s ) / (2 cm) = 2 Hz 8 Sound a longitudinal wave SOUD WAVES a sound wave is a pressure disturbance that moves the through air (or other gas or liquid) the disturbance is a change in the air pressure (increase or decrease) compared to its normal value (atmospheric pressure) it is a longitudinal wave 9 the diaphragm of the speaker moves in and out longitudinal pressure disturbances in a gas the air molecules jiggle back and forth in the same direction as the wave with no air molecules to juggle, there is no sound, e.g. in vacuum 10 The speed of sound Sound pressure waves in a gas, liquid or solid The speed of sound v s Air at 20 C: 343 m/s = 767 mph 1/5 mile/sec Water at 20 C: 1500 m/s copper: 5000 m/s Depends on density and temperature 5 second rule for thunder and lightening 11 Why do I sound funny when I breath helium? Sound travels twice as fast in helium, because Helium is lighter than air Remember the golden rule v s = λ ƒ The wavelength of the sound waves you make with your voice is fixed by the size of your mouth and throat cavity. Since λ is fixed and v s is higher in He, the frequencies of your sounds is twice as high in helium! 12

3 Tuning forks make sound waves Vibration modes of a string The vibration of the fork causes the air near it to vibrate The size of the fork determines the frequency bigger fork lower f smaller fork higher f It produces a pure pitch single frequency A A L A L Fundamental mode Wavelength = 2 L Frequency = f o First harmonic mode Wavelength = L Frequency = 2 f o 13 = nodes, A = antinodes 14 Standing waves Vibration frequencies At the ODE positions, the string does not move At the ATIODES the string moves up and down harmonically Only certain wavelengths can fit into the distance L The frequency is determined by the velocity and mode number (wavelength) 15 In general, f = v / λ, where v is the propagation speed of the string The propagation speed depends on the diameter and tension Modes Fundamental: f o = v / 2L First harmonic: f 1 = v / L = 2 f o The effective length can be changed by the musician fingering the strings 16 Stringed instruments Three types Plucked: guitar, bass, harp, harpsichord Bowed: violin, viola, cello, bass Struck: piano All use strings that are fixed at both ends Use different diameter strings (mass per unit length is different) The string tension is adjustable - tuning 17 Organ pipes The air pressure inside the pipe can vibrate, in some places it is high and in other places low Depending on the length of the pipe, various resonant modes are excited, just like blowing across a pop bottle The long pipes make the low notes, the short pipes make the high notes 18

4 Beats wave Waves show a special property called When two waves are combined together, the waves can add or subtract We call this constructive and destructive When a wave is launched on a string it can reflect back from the far end. The reflected wave can combine with the original wave to make a standing wave Constructive Destructive Waves add to double amplitude waves add to give 0 amplitude Standing waves standing waves are produced by wave when a transverse wave is launched on a string a reflected wave is produced at the other end the incident and reflected waves interfere with each other to produce a standing wave Combining 2 waves of the same frequency Red + Blue 23 24

5 Combining 2 waves of slightly different frequencies Room Acoustics Destructive accounts for bad room acoustics Sound that bounces off a wall can interfere destructively (cancel out) sound from the speakers resulting in dead spots Beats Red + Blue Wave can be used to eliminate noise anti-noise technology A science teacher demonstrating the Doppler effect If the source of sound moves toward you, you hear a higher frequency (pitch) sound. If the source of sound moves away from you, you hear a lower frequency sound. Take one wave, turn it upside down (invert its phase) then add it to the original wave Doppler effect Radar guns Once you see the cop, he s got you! When radar waves bounce off a moving object (echo )the frequency of the reflected radar changes by an amount that depends on how fast the object is moving. The detector senses the frequency shift and translates this into a speed

### v = λ f this is the Golden Rule for waves transverse & longitudinal waves Harmonic waves The golden rule for waves Example: wave on a string Review

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