3. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the. a. epicenter c. fault b. focus d.

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1 NAME EARTH SCIENCE CHAPTER 8 1. A fault is. a. a place on Earth where earthquakes cannot occur b. a fracture in the Earth where movement has occurred c. the place on Earth s surface where structures move during an earthquake d. another name for an earthquake 2. An earthquake s epicenter is. a. the place on the surface directly above the focus b. a spot halfway between the focus and the surface c. the spot below the focus d. any spot along the nearest fault 3. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the. a. epicenter c. fault b. focus d. seismic center 4. Earthquakes are usually associated with. a. violent weather c. large cities b. faults d. the east coast of North America 5. The hypothesis that explains the release of energy during an earthquake is called the. a. Richter hypothesis c. vibration hypothesis b. moment magnitude hypothesis d. elastic rebound hypothesis 6. Most earthquakes are produced by the rapid release of which kind of energy stored in rock subjected to great forces? a. chemical c. elastic b. thermal d. mechanical 7. During an earthquake, the ground surface. a. moves only in a horizontal direction b. moves only in a vertical direction c. can move in any direction d. does not move 8. The adjustments of materials that follow a major earthquake often generate smaller earthquakes called. a. foreshocks c. aftershocks b. surface waves d. body waves 9. Major earthquakes are sometimes preceded by smaller earthquakes called. a. aftershocks c. surface waves b. focus shocks d. foreshocks 10. The slow continuous movement that occurs along some fault zones is referred to as. a. slip c. fracture b. creep d. a foreshock 11. The San Francisco earthquake of 1906 occurred along what fault? a. the San Francisco fault c. the California fault b. the Pacific fault d. the San Andreas fault

2 12. Which seismic waves travel most rapidly? a. P waves c. surface waves b. S waves d. tsunamis 13. Which one of the following statements is true about P waves? a. They travel only through solids. b. They travel faster than S waves. c. They are the most destructive type of seismic wave. d. They cannot be recorded on a seismograph. 14. Which seismic waves compress and expand rocks in the direction the waves travel? a. P waves c. surface waves b. S waves d. transverse waves 15. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of S waves? a. They travel more slowly than P waves. b. They temporarily change the volume of material by compression and expansion. c. They shake particles at right angles to the direction the waves travel. d. They cannot be transmitted through water or air. 16. Overall, which seismic waves are the most destructive? a. P waves c. compression waves b. S waves d. surface waves 17. What is the minimum number of seismic stations that is needed to determine the location of an earthquake s epicenter? a. two c. four b. one d. three 18. A travel-time graph can be used to find the. a. focus of an earthquake b. strength of an earthquake c. damage caused by an earthquake d. distance to the epicenter of an earthquake 19. According to Figure 8-1, what is the distance between the seismic station and an earthquake epicenter, if the first S wave arrives 4.0 minutes after the first P wave? a kilometers c kilometers b kilometers d kilometers

3 20. An earthquake s magnitude is a measure of the. a. size of seismic waves it produces b. amount of shaking it produces c. number of surface waves it produces d. damage it causes 21. The scale most widely used by scientists for measuring earthquakes is the. a. seismic scale c. moment magnitude scale b. Richter scale d. epicenter magnitude scale 22. What instrument records earthquake waves? a. seismogram c. Richter scale b. seismograph d. barometer 23. The amount of shaking produced by an earthquake at a given location is called the. a. intensity c. epicenter b. magnitude d. Richter magnitude 24. Which of the following affects the amount of destruction caused by earthquake vibrations? a. the design of structures b. the intensity and duration of the vibrations c. the nature of the material on which structures are built d. all of the above 25. In which of the following areas would the damage from an earthquake measuring 6.8 likely be the greatest? a. lightly populated rural area b. area with older brick structures c. area with modern steel-framed structures d. area with wood-framed structures 26. Which of the following areas would most likely be the safest during a major earthquake? a. area with granite bedrock b. area with loosely consolidated soil c. area with structures built on a landfill d. area with steep slopes of unconsolidated sediments 27. Tsunamis are. a. often generated by movements of the ocean floor b. waves that are produced by tidal forces c. waves that cannot cause damage on land d. also known as tidal waves 28. In areas where unconsolidated sediments are saturated with water, earthquakes can turn stable soil into a fluid through a process called. a. tidal effect c. liquefaction b. fault creep d. underwater landslide 29. A building that settles unevenly after an earthquake is evidence of. a. a tsunami c. an underwater landslide b. liquefaction d. fault creep 30. Violent shaking from an earthquake can cause soil and rock on slopes to fail and cause a. a. fault c. tsunami b. landslide d. sinkhole

4 31. Why do earthquakes often cause damaging fires? a. Lightning strikes are common during earthquakes. b. Earthquake vibrations can break gas lines, water lines, and electrical lines. c. Tsunamis from earthquakes generate enough heat to start fires. d. Magma from deep underground escapes through faults. 32. Which of the following is used in an attempt to make short-range predictions of when earthquakes will occur? a. strain in rocks near faults b. height of ocean waves after earthquakes c. changes in the color of rocks near faults d. study of historical records 33. Long-range earthquake forecasts are based on the idea that earthquakes are. a. random c. fully understood b. destructive d. repetitive 34. What layers of Earth make up the lithosphere? a. the crust and lower mantle b. the crust and upper mantle c. the continental crust and oceanic crust d. the upper and lower mantle CHAPTER Wegener s continental drift hypothesis stated that all the continents once joined together to form. a. two major supercontinents b. two major supercontinents and three smaller continents c. one major supercontinent d. three major supercontinents 36. The supercontinent in the continental drift hypothesis was called. a. Panthalassa c. Mesosaurus b. Pangaea d. Africa 37. One kind of evidence that supports Wegener s hypothesis is that. a. the same magnetic directions exist on different continents b. major rivers on different continents match c. land bridges still exist that connect major continents d. fossils of the same organism have been found on different continents 38. Evidence about ancient climates indicates that. a. glacial ice once covered much of what is now India and Australia b. continents in the Northern Hemisphere today were once centered over the South Pole c. continents in the Southern Hemisphere today were once centered over the North Pole d. no continents occupied the Southern Hemisphere 39. The geographic distribution of the swimming reptile Mesosaurus provides evidence that. a. Europe was covered by a shallow sea when Mesosaurus lived b. a land bridge existed between Australia and India c. South America and Africa were once joined d. the Atlantic Ocean was wider when Mesosaurus lived than it is now 40. Which of the following was NOT used in support of the continental drift hypothesis? a. fossil evidence c. ancient climate b. paleomagnetism d. fit of South America and Africa

5 41. What was the main reason Wegener s continental drift hypothesis was rejected? a. He was not well liked by other scientists. b. He could not provide a mechanism for the movement of the continents. c. He could provide only illogical explanations for the movement of the continents. d. His evidence was incorrect. 42. According to the theory of plate tectonics,. a. the asthenosphere is divided into plates b. the lithosphere is divided into plates c. the asthenosphere moves over the lithosphere d. the asthenosphere is strong and rigid 43. The lithospheric plates move an average of. a. 5 inches per year c. 5 centimeters per year b. 50 inches per year d. 50 centimeters per year 44. A tectonic plate consists of. a. the crust and uppermost mantle b. the oceanic and continental crust only c. the crust and entire mantle d. the asthenosphere only 45. What kind of plate boundary occurs where two plates grind past each other without destroying or producing lithosphere? a. divergent boundary c. transitional boundary b. convergent boundary d. transform fault boundary 46. A divergent boundary at two oceanic plates can result in a. a. rift valley c. continental volcanic arc b. volcanic island arc d. subduction zone 47. What type of boundary occurs where two plates move together, causing one plate to descend into the mantle beneath the other plate? a. transform fault boundary c. convergent boundary b. divergent boundary d. transitional boundary 48. Which of the following is a geographic example of a transform fault boundary? a. the East African Rift valley c. the Mid-Atlantic Ridge b. the San Andreas Fault d. the Andes Mountains 49. New ocean crust is formed at. a. divergent boundaries c. continental volcanic arcs b. convergent boundaries d. transform fault boundaries 50. Which of the following results when divergence occurs between two oceanic plates? a. seafloor spreading c. an ocean trench b. a subduction zone d. a volcanic island arc 51. What forms when one oceanic plate is forced beneath another plate? a. an ocean basin c. a subduction zone b. an ocean ridge d. a rift valley

6 52. What type of plate boundary is illustrated in Figure 9-1? a. transform fault boundary b. divergent boundary c. convergent oceanic-oceanic boundary d. convergent oceanic-continental boundary 53. What feature is labeled B in Figure 9-1? a. trench c. volcanic island arc b. ocean ridge d. continental volcanic arc 54. What layer of Earth is labeled C in Figure 9-1? a. asthenosphere c. oceanic crust b. continental lithosphere d. continental crust 55. What process is illustrated by the area labeled G in Figure 9-1? a. seafloor spreading c. rifting b. continental volcanism d. subduction 56. Oceanic lithosphere is destroyed at. a. transform fault boundaries c. ocean ridges b. divergent boundaries d. convergent boundaries 57. The Himalayas in South Asia are an example of what type of plate boundary? a. convergent oceanic-continental boundary b. convergent continental-continental boundary c. divergent boundary d. transform fault boundary 58. Continental volcanic arcs are associated with what type of plate boundary? a. convergent continental-continental boundary b. convergent oceanic-continental boundary c. transform fault boundary d. convergent oceanic-oceanic boundary 59. Magnetic reversals. a. cause the movements of tectonic plates b. confirmed the existence of subduction zones c. provide strong evidence for seafloor spreading d. have never occurred during geologic time 60. The Hawaiian Islands were formed when the Pacific Plate moved over. a. a subduction zone c. the Aleutian Plate b. an ocean ridge d. a hot spot

7 61. How does the age of seafloor sediments change with increasing distance from the ocean ridge? a. Age decreases. c. Age increases. b. Age stays the same. d. Age varies without a pattern. 62. The thermal convection that drives plate motion is caused by. a. seafloor spreading c. gravity b. an unequal distribution of heat d. subduction BONUS TRUE OR FALSE: (Write your answers in the blank space of your answer sheet.) 1. The Japan earthquake and tsunami occurred on Friday, March 11 th, You can outrun a tsunami in a speed boat. 3. Earth is no longer changing. 4. Memphis TN is located near a fault and on top of a loose type of soil called loess. 5. The Himalayan Mountains are still growing.

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