Why study ancient cities? Gives us examples of cities other than our own Brings us to consider the fundamentals of what makes a city

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1 Ancient Cities

2 Why study ancient cities? Gives us examples of cities other than our own Brings us to consider the fundamentals of what makes a city

3 Pre-History Old Stone Age/Palaeolithic Basic stone, bone tools Hunting & gathering, no farming Only domesticate: the dog New Stone Age/Neolithic Sophisticated stone/bone tools Farming, cities, writing All domesticates

4 The First Cities Very few urban centres in the Palaeolithic Catal Hayuk, Anatolia (made obsidian tools) Permanent fishing villages of the Pacific Northwest Need strong food supply to sustain urban settlement Really need farming

5 Settled agricultural life Old world: Agriculture begins c. 10,000 years ago (YBP) Cities begin 5,300-5,500 YBP Mesopotamia, Indus valley New world: Agriculture begins 2,000 YPB Cities begin 1,700 YBP Why the difference?

6 The First Cities Emerge once crop agriculture begins Cities perform specialised non-agricultural functions: Specialised manufacturing, trade Government Religion

7 The First Cities Had powerful god-kings Often had monumental structures Hierarchic societies god-king at top various layers underneath Spatial order Power at the centre Palaces, temples at centre

8 First Cities Mesopotamia: Southern Iraq, Tigris & Euphrates rivers: Ur, Indus valley: Harrapa, Mohenjo-Daro etc.,

9 Mohenjo-Daro

10

11 Uruk

12 Ur

13

14 First Cities Cities emerge after long pre-urban period of settled agricultural life Cities emerge before writing

15 Exception: Catal Huyuk urban almost 10,000 YBP pre-agricultural 5-10,000 population based on mining and trade in obsidian

16

17

18 First Cities Very rapid emergence of sophisticated urban civilizations writing complex buildings skilled craftsmen luxury items long-distance trade

19

20 First Cities Small by modern standards 10,000 was a big one Ancient monster cities: Classical Athens: 300,000 Classical Rome: 650,000

21 Why were they so small? Large cities require: large empire to feed and supply them complex, but effective organization significant military forces

22 world population urban

23 First Cities Key issue is urban social organization Can be fairly rural in setting: Mayan cities

24 Chichen Itza

25 Tikal

26

27 First Cities Stark social contrasts: god-king, priest craftsmen slaves

28

29 Aztec Calendar

30 First Cities Places where power was projected social religious military economic Connected with monumental structures helped to project the power?

31 Giza

32 Tenoctitlan

33 Teohuatican

34 Bayon, Cambodia

35 Cahokia

36 Cahokia Men s House

37 Cahokia

38 First Cities Connected to the emergence of states projection of political power urban control over rural populations

39 First Cities need to control rural territories obtain food, slaves collect taxes

40

41 The First Cities Theocracies, monarchies Not democracies

42 Classical Greece Complex long-distance trading networks Brings in goods, technology, ideas Expensive iron technology becoming vital to warfare Greek kings too poor to equip iron-age armies

43 Classical Greece Greek kings rely on wealthy farmers, merchants to provide the army Diminishes the power of the king Power falls into the hands of farmers & merchants Democracy

44 Theories of Urban Origins Childe theory Trade theory Wittfogel s Hydraulic theory Pivot and Four Quarters

45 Childe Theory V Gordon Childe Technology allows accumulation of surpluses increased production Leads to more complex social organization cities

46 Trade Theory Braidwood Cities emerge out of complex trading routes Catal Huyuk

47 Hydraulic Theory Karl Wittfogel First cities emerge in agricultural regions dependent on irrigation City states developed as means of organizing irrigation schemes, agriculture OK in Mesoptamia, doesn t work in Egypt

48 Pivot & Four Quarters Paul Wheatley Religious activity is the key factor Cities emerge as key control points, temple locations, centres receiving religious tributes Works, especially in China, Mesoamerica, but annoys the Marxists

49 Synoecism Rural area gradually evolves into an urban one If rural develops urban social organization Gradually transformed ancient Athens, Rome rural district surrounding fortified temple/refuge site

50

51 Classical Athens Began as a rural region focussed on a central fortified temple site (the Acropolis) on a central marketplace (the Agora) Developed into a city-state Ordinary Athenians Lived in simple, even crude housing Public space more elaborate

52

53

54

55 Classical Athens Private space Not very opulent Public space Adorned, ornamented Public life important in a democracy Public space beautified as a make-work scheme for urban unemployed

56

57

58

59 Classical Athens Segregation by social status Citizen/foreigner/craftsman/slave Male/female

60 Classical Athens Classical Greek homes were gender-segregated Gynaekonitis: for the women Andron: for the men

61

62

63 Priene

64

65

7 WHERE AND WHY DID THE FIRST CITIES APPEAR?

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