1 Ohio Adult Tobacco Report 2006 Adult Tobacco Survey Report Contents Summary of Findings 1 Introduction and Methodology Description of Sample 2 Tobacco Use 3 Trends in Cigarette Smoking Smoking Cessation 5-8 Clean Indoor Air Policies 9 Secondhand Smoke Exposure Youth Access and Exposure to Tobacco Description of Tobacco Indicators Summary of Findings This report presents findings from the 2006 Ohio Adult Tobacco Survey (ATS) addressing five specific topics: Patterns of Tobacco Use According to the 2006 Ohio Adult Tobacco Survey, 22.3% of Ohio adults currently smoke cigarettes. The vast majority of these individuals (84%) smoke every day, smoking a little less than a pack a day on average. Other tobacco product use includes cigars (8.), smokeless tobacco (3.6%), and pipe tobacco (1.6%). Smoking Cessation Nearly 6 of smokers made at least one quit attempt in the past year. Of these, 18% were successful. Among the unsuccessful, half said they intended to try again in the next 30 days. Younger adults were more likely to make a quit attempt, but older adults were more likely to succeed in quitting. Clean Indoor Air Policies A strong majority of Ohioans support smoking restrictions in workplaces, and an even larger majority believe that tobacco should not be permitted by anyone on school property. Secondhand Smoke Exposure In 2006, prior to the passing of Issue 5, of non-smoking Ohioans worked for companies that permit smoking in work areas. Youth Exposure to Tobacco May, 2007 April, 2006 Nearly 6 of smokers with children in the home smoke within the home. Over 9 of adults believe that stores should not place tobacco products or ads at eye level of children. at Case Western Reserve University
2 Page 2 Ohio Adult Tobacco Survey (ATS) In 2006, the Ohio Tobacco Prevention Foundation (OTPF) and the Ohio Department of Health (ODH) jointly supported the administration of the Ohio Adult Tobacco Survey. The survey collects detailed data regarding tobacco use and cessation, tobacco-related knowledge, exposure to secondhand smoke, and opinions regarding smoke-free environments. As with most states, Ohio uses both the ATS and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) to provide valuable information regarding tobacco use and related issues. Both are conducted by states across the country and are coordinated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to ensure standardization among states. The BRFSS is conducted by all states (providing national estimates) and has been conducted annually in Ohio since Thus, the state of Ohio uses the BRFSS as the official source for all health behavior prevalence data. However, the breadth of tobacco questions in the BRFSS is limited and Ohio must rely on surveys such as the Ohio ATS for a more comprehensive picture of tobacco use in Ohio. This report provides a summary of these rich data and together with the BRFSS, provides valuable information regarding tobacco use, cessation and related issues among adult Ohio residents Ohio ATS Methodology The telephone based survey was conducted by ORC Macro, a nationally recognized survey research firm which conducts both ATS and BRFSS surveys for numerous states. The Ohio ATS was implemented from May through October, Data were collected using computer assisted telephone interviews of adults 18 years of age and older who were Ohio residents and were English speakers. The interviews were completed by trained public health research interviewers at ORC Macro. The average completion time for these interviews was 17.5 minutes and the response rate for these completed interviews was 21.1%. A total of 5,954 completed interviews represented the sample for the 2006 ATS. The data were then weighted so that the sample responses represented the 8.4 million adults in Ohio. For more information regarding the sampling procedures, please contact the Ohio Tobacco Research and Evaluation Center (OTREC) at the address on the last page. Description of the Sample The following is a breakdown of the weighted sample for Ohio: Gender Women... 52% Men... 48% Race-Ethnicity White... 88% African-American... 7% Hispanic... 2% Other... 3% Age years old... 13% years old... 17% years old... 19% years old... 19% years old... 14% 65 years old and older... 18% Education Less than high school... 7% High school graduate... 36% Some college... 23% College graduate or more... 34% Household Income < $15K... 7% $15-24K... $25-49K... 31% $50-74K... $75K % Children (under 18) living in home? Yes... 34% No... 66% Employment Working... 63% Unemployed... 5% Unable to Work... 4% Student/Homemaker/Retired... 28% Have health coverage? Yes... 88% No... 12%
3 Page 3 Cigarette and Other Tobacco Product Use Cigarette Use In 2006, over half (54%) of all Ohio adults were considered never smokers based on the standard definition of an adult smoker as one who has smoked Current s (22.3%) 100 cigarettes or more in their lifetime. In addition, Smokes Some nearly a quarter of adults Smokes Days (3.5%) Every Day (24%) reported that they (18.8%) Never have smoked in the past, Smoked but do not currently smoke Former (53.6%) (former smokers). The remaining 22% of adults are current smokers, with nearly onefifth (19%) of adults smoking cigarettes every day and another 4% who report more sporadic smoking patterns. Other Tobacco Products While cigarettes are the most commonly consumed tobacco product by Ohioans, a number of other tobacco products are used on a regular basis % 1 (24.) 5% 22.3% % 1.6% Cigarette Cigar Smokeless Pipe 1 Defined as everyday or some days use. As shown in the figure above, 22.3% of adults smoke cigarettes every day or some days, followed by cigars (8.), smokeless tobacco (3.6%), and pipe tobacco (1.6%). When all tobacco products are considered, 28.4% or 2.4 million Ohio adults are current tobacco users. 2.4 million Ohio adults currently use at least one tobacco product Multiple Product Use Almost 8 of current tobacco users use only one product (see figure below). Among the of tobacco users who use multiple tobacco products, most use one additional product. Total Number of Tobacco Products Used Multiple Product Use (20.2% of smokers) 5% 3% 1 Product 2 Products 3 Products 4 Products Patterns of multiple tobacco product use are provided in the table below. A majority of individuals who currently smoke cigarettes tend not to use any other product, although nearly do consume cigars and a small number use smokeless tobacco (5%) or smoke pipes (3%). This pattern is a bit different for current users of other tobacco products. As shown, almost half of all pipe smokers and over half of cigar users also smoke cigarettes. Approximately one-third of smokeless tobacco users also smoke cigarettes (33%). Pipe smokers reported a high rate of concurrent cigar use (62%), while over a third of smokeless tobacco users reported cigar use. Smokeless tobacco was used by both current pipe smokers (23%) and cigar users (17%). What % also use these other tobacco products? Cigarette Pipe Cigars Smokeless Tobacco What Other Tobacco Products Do Each of These Use? Cigarette % 19% 5% Individual Currently Uses. Pipe 45% % 23% Cigars 51% 13% % Smokeless Tobacco 33% 1 37% ----
4 Page 4 Trends in Cigarette Smoking TRENDS: In order to place the ATS prevalence data in the context of time, we turn to another data source, the Ohio Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). As stated in the introduction, the BRFSS has been conducted annually in Ohio since 1984 and, as a result, serves as the official source for all health behavior prevalence data, including all subgroup analyses (i.e., prevalence rates for males and females or different age groups). For this reason, this report does not provide subgroup analyses on prevalence rates. The graph below shows the percentage of adults who are currently cigarette smokers, beginning in 1990 through 2006 from BRFSS. Two trend lines are provided: the top line documents the trends observed in Ohio (red line), the bottom line documents the trends observed nationally, based on median rates across all 50 states, D.C. and territories (CDC, 2007). The rate from the 2006 ATS is depicted with the blue triangle. The rates of cigarette smoking in Ohio have remained relatively steady over the past 16 years, fluctuating between 22.4% and 28.4% since There has been a 5.2% drop in cigarette use in the past 5 years, from 27.6% in 2001 to 22.4% in 2006 National Comparison With the exception of one year (1991), Ohio has consistently been above the national median, sometimes by as much as 5% higher. However, the gap has been closing in recent years, with rates more closely aligned with national estimates. Lastly, it is important to note that the estimates from the 2006 ATS and the 2006 BRFSS are nearly identical (22.3 vs. 22.4%), providing support for using both surveys as sources of tobacco-related data in Ohio. 4 35% 3 25% 26.1% % 23.4% 23.1% 22.2% 26.1% 25.4% 26.2% 22.7% 22.6% 22.4% 28.4% 27.6% 25.1% 26.1% 23.4% 22.7% 23.2% 22.9% 26.2% 23.2% 27.6% 22.9% 26.6% 25.2% % 25.9% ATS 22.3% 22.3% 22.4% 20.8% 20.5% 20. Ohio National 1 5% Percentage of Adults who are Current Cigarette s by Year: Ohio and National (median). Sources: Ohio BRFSS , US BRFSS , Ohio ATS 2006.
5 Page 5 Cessation Among Ever s One useful way in which to study smoking cessation is to group individuals by their readiness to quit referred to as their stage of change 1. This can be easily assessed through examination of a current smoker s attempt at quitting smoking in the previous 12 months as well as the intention to quit smoking in the next 6 months and next 30 days. Tobacco Stages of Change Precontemplation: Has no intentions to quit smoking in the next 6 months. Contemplation: Has intentions to quit smoking within the next 6 months (but not immediately) OR has intentions to quit in the next 30 days, but has not made a quit attempt in the past year. Preparation: Has intentions to quit smoking within the next 30 days and has made at least one 24-hour quit attempt in the past 12 months. Action: In the process of quitting (has quit within the past 6 months). Maintenance: Has been smoke-free for 6 months or more. 1Prochaska J & DiClemente C (1983). Stages and Processes of Self-Change of smoking: Toward an Integrative Model of Change. J Consult Clin Psychology 51: As shown in the figure below, nearly half (49%) of all Ohio adults who ever smoked are now in Maintenance, quitting at least six months ago. Among those in this stage, nearly 9 of them quit over a year ago and 6 have not smoked in ten years. About 3% of adults were in the Action stage at the time of the survey, meaning that they had quit within the past six months. The remaining individuals are current smokers. About a quarter have no intentions of quitting in the next six months (Precontemplation); about 18% intend to quit within the next six months, but not immediately (Contemplation); and, about 8% report that they intend to quit within the next 30 days (Preparation) Precontemplation Current Stage of Ever Cigarette Users (those who have smoked 100+ Cigarettes in Lifetime) 22% Contemplation 18% Preparation 8% Action 3% Maintenance 49% Smoking Cessation Among Current Cigarette s When only current cigarette smokers are examined, we find that over half report a desire/intention to quit smoking within the next six months (Contemplation and Preparation stages). However, in contrast, nearly half of all smokers have no immediate plans to quit Current Stage of Change Among Current Cigarette s Precontemplation 46% 12% 12% 37% 38% 52% 5 Contemplation 35% 44% 38% Individual s Stage of Change Based on the Time of First Cigarette in the Morning 21% 22% With intentions to quit (53.7%) Preparation 16% Research has suggested that successful cessation is associated with the strength of the individual s addiction to nicotine. A common indicator of nicotine addiction is the time of the day of the first cigarette, with addiction levels the highest for those who smoke soon after they awaken. The figure below presents the different stages of change across four levels of addiction based on timing of first cigarette (within the first 5 minutes of waking, 5-30 minutes after, minutes after and an hour or more after waking). 39% 39% Within 5 min 5-30 min min 60+ minutes Preparation (intend to quit within next 30 days and made one quit attempt in past year) Contemplation (intend to quit within next 6 months) Precontemplation (no intentions to quit in the next 6 months) As shown above, the more addicted the smoker, the more likely that he or she has no intentions of quitting smoking. In contrast, those who are less addicted (30-60 minutes to 60 minutes or more) are more likely to have intentions to quit in the next 30 days than those who have their first puff within the first 30 minutes of the day.
6 Ohio Adult Tobacco Survey Page 6 Ohio Adult Tobacco Survey Smoking Cessation: Who s not ready, who tried and who succeeded? Who Tried? Attempts to quit smoking were examined among current smokers and former smokers 57% of smokers tried to quit last year! SUCCESS! 47% 1 Made an attempt, but not successful 43% No Attempts Made Among all smokers, how many tried to quit smoking in the past year? How many succeeded? who quit within the past year. Of all smokers, 57% of smokers last year made at least one quit attempt 1 of smokers were successful; 47% were not. While over half tried, 43% of all smokers made no attempt to quit in the past year % 62% % who made a quit attempt Male Female 17% 18% Among those who tried, % who succeeded GENDER (above): Females were more likely to make a quit attempt than males (62% vs. 53%) while success rates were essentially the same between females and males (18% vs. 17%). AGE (below): Adults under the age of 35 were most likely to have made a quit attempt (61%) compared to older adults. However, adults and 55 and older were more likely to be successful in their quit attempt compared to adults under INCOME (below): Individuals at the highest income levels were among the least likely to make a quit attempt (54%), but had the highest success rate (36%) if they made an attempt % 61% 55% 56% 68% 53% 54% 14% <35 yrs yrs 55+ yrs 14% <25 K K K 75+ K 14% 18% 21% % who made a quit attempt Among those who tried, % who succeeded 36% % who made a quit attempt Among those who tried, % who succeeded RACE (below): African-American adults were the most likely (67%) to have made a quit attempt in the past year, when compared to White (57%) and adults of Other racial/ethnic backgrounds (62%). However, they appeared less likely to succeed when they tried EDUCATION (below): Adults with some college education were the most likely (63%) to have made a quit attempt in the past year. Individuals with the lowest levels of education were the least likely to make a quit attempt (5) and the least likely to succeed (1) % 58% 67% 63% 62% 54% 1 White Afr-Amer Other 18% <HS HS Grad Some College College Grad 17% 16% 21% 17% % who made a quit attempt Among those who tried, % who succeeded % who made a quit attempt Among those who tried, % who succeeded
7 Page 7 Factors Associated with Quit Attempts and Successes The Importance of Health Care Coverage The role of health care coverage has been suggested as an important factor in helping smokers to quit by providing access to health care professionals who can provide one-on-one counseling and, if needed, pharmacological treatments (e.g., patch, gum, medications). As shown in the figure below, health care coverage appears to have less of an impact on whether a smoker makes a quit attempt than if he or she succeeds. Those with a health care plan were slightly more likely to make an attempt (58% vs. 54%); and more successful when they did (19% vs. 13%). Other Cessation Aids There are many options available to smokers to assist them in their effort to quit, including pharmacological treatments (nicotine patch, gum or other medications), smoking cessation classes, telephone quit lines, support from the health care professionals and self-help materials. The table below provides an overview of methods used by current smokers who made at least one quit attempt in the past 12 months. Cessation Services Used by Current s Who Made At Least One Quit Attempt in the Past 12 Months Used the nicotine patch, nicotine gum, or any other medication to help you quit? Quit Attempts and Successes by Health Care Coverage 58% 54% Made a Quit Attempt Have health care coverage? Yes No 19% 13% Of those who tried, % who succeeded Used other assistance such as classes or counseling? Among those who used a class or counseling, what did they use? A stop smoking clinic or class? 42% Telephone quit line? 31% One-on-one counseling from a doctor or nurse? 19% Historical Perspective on NRT 4% Self help material, books or videos? 31% The availability of nicotine replacement therapies has grown significantly in the past few years and a recent increase in NRT use by Ohio smokers is documented in the figure below. A possible explanation for the above results is that smokers with health care coverage are more likely to have access to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and the ATS data supports this. Among smokers who made a quit attempt last year, 31% of those with health care coverage used NRT to assist them in their quit attempt as compared to 23% of those without coverage (data not shown). 35% 3 25% 1 5% 1-5 years ago 6-12 mo. ago <6 mo. ago 17% 18% 32% However, further exploration of the data reveal that the use of NRT was not necessarily linked to higher success rates. Among smokers who made a quit attempt in the past year, those who used NRT were somewhat less successful () than those who did not use NRT (19%)(data not shown). As seen above, 32% of those who successfully quit within the past 6 months used NRT to help them quit, as compared to 18% of those who quit 6-12 months ago and 17% of those who quit a year or more ago.
8 Page 8 Support from Health Care Professionals Respondents were asked whether they had seen a doctor, nurse or other health care worker (HCW) for care in the past year. Nearly two thirds (64%) of smokers and 8 of non-smokers reported doing so. Among current smokers who saw a health care professional, 7 reported that they were advised to stop smoking. The following table provides a listing of the types of cessation services the health care professionals then offered to their smoking patients. % of s 1 who Reported that HCW Suggested Any of the Following Smoking Cessation Options Prescribe or recommend a patch, nicotine gum, nasal spray, an inhaler, or pills (e.g., Zyban)? Suggest that you set a specific date to stop smoking? Suggest that you use a smoking cessation class, program, quit line, or counseling? Provide you with booklets, videos, or other materials to help you quit smoking on your own? 1 who saw a doctor, nurse, or health care professional in the past year. Support for Cessation Services 3 23% 18% 22% Support through Employment Respondents who worked for a company or business were asked about whether their employers offer any type of tobacco cessation assistance. As shown in the figure below, nearly three-quarters (74%) said no. Not surprisingly, when asked whether they felt the employer should offer stop smoking programs, the opposite was found with 6 of respondents supporting this belief. Does your employer offer tobacco cessation assistance? Should your employer offer stop smoking programs or other help? 26% (Yes) 6 (Yes) 74% (No) Among those working for company or business only 4 (No) Support through Health Care Coverage For those who would like assistance with quitting, health insurance plans sometimes provide help. The Ohio ATS asked respondents with health care coverage whether their plan covered smoking cessation services. The figure below shows that, expectedly, smokers are more knowledgeable about what their plans offer than non-smokers. According to smokers, about have coverage, 26% do not, and the rest are not sure. However, non-smokers are even less knowledgeable, with over 7 unsure of their coverage Among those with health care coverage, does health plan pay for smoking cessation services? 26% s 54% Yes No Don't Know 14% Non-s 71% Do you believe your health care coverage should pay for smoking cessation services? 51% 62% 35% 14% Yes No DK 63% 27% 11% 49% 37% Total Non- However, smokers are more sure about what their plans ought to cover. As shown in the figures above and below, the majority of people believe these services should be covered, especially when asked about health care coverage in general rather than their specific plan. Do you believe that coverage for stop smoking services and medication should be part of the basic coverage of all health insurance plans? Yes No DK 29% 9% 75% 21% 4% 58% 32% 1 Total Non-
9 Page 9 Clean Indoor Air Policies Clean indoor air policies were widely discussed throughout Ohio in 2006 as two different versions of a statewide smoking ban (Issue 4 and 5) were placed on the November ballot. The 2006 ATS (conducted May October) included a number of questions regarding public opinion on clean indoor air policies. First, adults were asked, In indoor work areas, do you think smoking should be allowed in all areas, some areas or not at all? Overall, 71% felt that smoking should not be permitted in 2% 3% 10 5% any areas while 8% 16% 24% 26% felt 8 42% smoking could 53% be permitted in % some areas and 3% felt smoking 74% should be 55% 39% permitted in all areas. When examined by Never Not permitted Some Areas All Areas Former Sporadic Daily smoking status (see left) nonsmokers overwhelmingly believe that smoking should not be permitted in any areas (83% in never smokers and 74% in former smokers). Interestingly, nearly 4 of daily smokers also prefer a totally smoke-free workplace. Tobacco-Free Schools: Adults were also asked about tobacco use by adults on schools grounds or at school events. Nearly 9 of adults either strongly agreed (63%) or agreed (26%) that tobacco should be banned from school property. As shown in the figure below, smokers are only marginally against this idea. Even 77% of daily smokers supported tobacco-free school policies. 10 Smokefree Indoor Workplace Laws Ohio adults were also asked: Some cities and towns are considering laws that would make all indoor workplaces, including restaurants and bars, smoke-free; that is eliminating all tobacco smoke from indoor workplaces. Would you support such a law in your community (yes/no)? A majority of respondents were supportive, with 58.1% stating they would support the law. As it turns out, the ATS results were prophetic support by voters for Issue 5 in November, 2006 was 58.5%. The graphs below show the support for tobacco-free workplaces by smoking status, gender, age, race/ethnicity, and education. As expected, nonsmokers were more supportive of clean indoor air policies than smokers. While differences were smaller, women, older adults, African-Americans and more educated adults tended to be more supportive than their counterparts. Non- Female Male 55 and older yrs yrs 25% 71% % 67% % 58% 68% How strongly do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Tobacco use by adults should not be allowed on school grounds or at any school events. Strongly Agree Agree Disagree % 62% 28% 7% 1 Never Former 54% 29% 17% Sporadic 46% 31% 24% Daily Other African-Amer White College Grad Some College HS Graduate < High School 68% 69% 61% % 58% 57% 58%
10 Page 10 Secondhand Smoke Exposure Opinions About Secondhand Smoke Exposure The ATS included a number of questions regarding adults opinions on the dangers of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. The first question asked, do you think that breathing smoke from other people s cigarettes is very harmful, somewhat harmful, not very harmful or not at all harmful. As shown in the graph below, over 9 of respondents said that SHS was either very harmful (62%) or somewhat harmful (31%). The vast majority of smokers agreed that SHS was harmful; however, they were much more likely to believe it was only somewhat harmful when compared to non-smokers % 31% 62% 14% 47% 4 Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Respondents were asked about their exposure to secondhand smoke, at home, at work, and while driving in the car. The vast majority of non-smokers are able to restrict their exposure to secondhand smoke; however, 6% are exposed to daily smoking in their home and 17% of non-smokers have been in a car with a smoker during the past 7 days. And, in 2006 and prior to the passage of Issue 5, of non-smokers still worked for a company that permits smoking in work areas. Prior to Issue 5, of non-smoking Ohioans still worked for a company that permits smoking in work areas. 5% 27% 68% Total s Non-s Not very-not at all harmful Somewhat harmful Very harmful to one's health Rules About Smoking: Home and Work While work places have maintained policies regarding smoking for a number of years, it has become increasingly acceptable for households to establish similar restrictions % 13% 16% 77% Not Permitted Some Areas Anywhere No policy 13% 3% 7% Policy in the Home Policy at Work ** ** Among those who work for a company or business At Work: As shown in the figure above, nearly 77% of working respondents report that their employer has a no-smoking policy and nearly a quarter of employees are still working in environments that expose them to risks of secondhand smoke. However, among smokers who work for a company with a no smoking policy, 23% reported that the company s policy influenced them to make a quit attempt in the past, with 78% of them making a quit attempt in the past 12 months (data not shown). 3 of current smokers do not permit smoking in their home. At Home: Smoking policies in the home are nearly as stringent as those in work places. As shown above, over 7 of adults report that smoking is not permitted in their home, with another 13% reporting that smoking is restricted to specific areas of the home. Interestingly, 3 of current smokers do not permit smoking in their home (data not shown).
11 Page 11 Youth Access Issues Most community-wide tobacco prevention and control programs work to limit youth access to tobacco products. This ranges from removing unmonitored cigarette machines to working with storeowners to change their product displays to conducting compliance checks on vendors selling to minors. Having public support for these efforts is crucial to their success. The Ohio ATS asked adults the importance of each of these practices. Very Important Somewhat important Not important Stores not place tobacco products or ads at eye of children Require clerk involvement to buy tobacco products? Keep stores from selling tobacco to minors 77% 76% 87% 17% 1 8.2% 6.4% The graph above shows that the vast majority of adults strongly support these practices with over 9 stating that the practices were either somewhat important to very important. Tobacco MSA Funds for Prevention Ohio currently spends a portion of the funds it receives from the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) between Ohio and 45 other states and the tobacco product manufacturers on youth tobacco prevention. Adults were asked whether the Ohio MSA dollars should continue to be used for youth prevention. The graph below shows that the vast majority (78-93%) support this practice, including 87% of current smokers % Definitely Maybe Definitely Not 65% Youth Access and Exposure to Tobacco 81% 22% 13% 14% 7% 6% Total s Non-s Should Ohio continue to spend MSA funds on preventing youth from smoking? Youth Exposure to Tobacco at Home The exposure of youth to tobacco and secondhand smoke occurs primarily in the home, particularly for younger children. s can greatly reduce the secondhand smoke exposure to their children by not smoking in the home or car. According to the 2006 Ohio ATS, 45% of current adult smokers have at least one child (<18 yrs) living at home. The graph below shows the percentage of smokers with and without children in the home and whether smoking is permitted in their home AMONG SMOKERS 22% 78% No children in home 41% 59% One or more child in the home Smoking is not permitted in home Smoking is permitted in home Although smokers with children in the home are twice as likely to restrict smoking in their home compared to those without children in the home (41% vs. 22%), 59% of smokers with children still smoke in the home. Children s Perceptions of Adult Smoking s with children in the home were asked about what their children think of their smoking. As shown in the graph below, nearly two-thirds of smokers with children report that their children have talked with them about stopping smoking (64%) and that their children are upset about their smoking (63%). My children have talked with me about stopping smoking My children are upset about my smoking Among adult smokers with children (17 and under) living in the home 64% (Yes) 63% (Yes) 37% (No) 37% (No)
12 Page 12 Description of Variables Used in this Report Cigarette Smoking Status Never s Have smoked < 100 cigarettes in lifetime Ever s Have smoked at least 100 cigarettes in lifetime Former s Have smoked at least 100 cigarettes in lifetime but not currently smoking Current s Have smoked at least 100 cigarettes in lifetime and currently smoke every day or some days Stages of Change: Pre-contemplation Has no intentions to quit smoking in the next 6 months Contemplation Has intentions to quit smoking within the next 6 months (but not immediately) Preparation Has intentions to quit smoking within the next 30 days Action In the process of quitting (has quit within the past 6 months) Maintenance Has been smoke-free for 6 months Quit Attempt: No Attempt Current smoker who has not stopped smoking for one day or longer in the previous 12 months because they were trying to quit Unsuccessful Attempt Current smoker who has stopped smoking for one day or longer in the previous 12 months because they were trying to quit Successful Attempt Former smoker who successfully quit smoking within the past 12 months Demographics Age 6 categories: 18-24; 25-34; 35-44; 45-54; 55-64; 65 and older. Age is condensed into three categories for some analyses: 18-34; 35-54; 55 and older. Gender Male and Female Race/Ethnicity 4 categories: White; African- American; Hispanic; and Other Education 4 categories: less than High School; High School Graduate or GED; Some College, including Associate degrees; College Graduate or above Income 5 categories: <$15,000; $15,000-$24,000; $25,000-$49,000; $50,000-$74,000; $75,000 and higher Work Status 4 categories: Working (includes full or part-time and self-employed); Unemployed; Disabled; Students, Housewives, or Retired Health Care Coverage: all respondents were asked if they currently have any kind of health care coverage, including health insurance, prepaid plans such as HMOs, or government plans such as Medicare. BRFSS Reference: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (See website: Accessed May 8, This report was authored by the OTREC team, including Elaine A. Borawski, Ph.D., Erika S. Trapl, Ph.D., R. Scott Olds, Ph.D., and Nital Subhas, MPH. For more information, contact Dr. Elaine Borawski or Dr. Erika Trapl Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine Euclid Avenue, Triangle Bldg. Cleveland, Ohio (216) (216) (fax) Case Western Reserve University (OTREC)