Volcanoes. GE Natural Hazards. Kelly Durst- Mt. Rainier

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1 Volcanoes GE Natural Hazards Kelly Durst- Mt. Rainier

2 Earth s Structure

3 Plate Tectonics

4 Plate Tectonics Divergent margins: Plate separation and decompression melting -> low volatile abundance, low SiO2 (~50%), low viscosity basaltic magmas (e.g. Krafla, Iceland) Convergent margins : Mixtures of basalt from the mantle, remelted continental crust and material from the subducted slab. High volatile abundance, intermediate SiO2 (60-70%), high viscosity andesites and dacites (e.g. Montserrat, West Indies) Intraplate `Hot-spot` settings: A. Oceanic: Mantle plumes melt thin oceanic crust producing low viscosity basaltic magmas (e.g. Kilauea, Hawaii) B. Continental: Mantle plumes melt thicker, silicic continental crust producing highly silicic (>70% SiO2) rhyolites (e.g. Yellowstone, USA) Kelly Durst- Colima, Mexico

5 Volcanic Settings

6 Where do volcanoes occur?

7 Ring of Fire

8 Volcanic Rocks

9 Igneous Rock Classification A chemical classification of volcanics based on total alkalis vs. silica. After Le Bas et al. (1986) J. Petrol., 27, Oxford University Press.

10 Viscosity Viscosity- fluidity of a liquid, it s internal resistance to flow. Magma viscosity is affected by: Temperature, higher temperature lowers viscosity Silica (SiO 2 ) increase viscosity because stronger bonds are formed Increasing content of mineral crystals increases viscosity Kelly Durst- Mt. St. Helens

11 Natural Disasters Sixth Edition by Patrick L. Abbott Volcanic Rocks

12 Magma Generated by: -Lowering pressure -Raising Temperature -Increasing water content (volatiles) As magma rises, pressure decreases, and gases come out of solution, forming bubbles that expand with decreasing pressure Natural Disasters Sixth Edition by Patrick L. Abbott

13 Eruption Styles Explosive Gas-particle dispersion flows out of the vent Extrusive Lava flows or domes

14 Strombolian Explosive volcanic eruptions Vulcanian Plinian Increasing SiO 2, increasing volatiles (mainly water), increasing explosiveness

15 Extrusive eruptions Lava flows Lava domes Photo: Copyright Marco Fulle - Stromboli On- Line -

16 Types of Volcanoes Shield Volcanoes Flood Basalts Scoria Cones Stratovolcanoes Lava Domes Calderas Kelly Durst- Mt. Hood

17 Shield Volcanoes Low viscosity Low Volatiles Produce large volume from lava flows Basaltic Shallow slopes Fissure eruptions ssureeruption_examps.html

18 Flood Basalts Largest volcanic events on Earth Erupt extremely large amounts of magma in a relatively short time of 1 million years. Occur on all continents and on all ocean floors, but none has occurred in historic time Although lava flows are the main hazard, the large amount of CO 2 and SO 2 released is able to modify our climate Kelly Durst

19 Scoria Cones Conical Hills, Low Height Basaltic-Andesitic Produced during a single eruptive event (usually Strombolian eruptions), lasting a few hours to several years Once activity ceases usually never active again

20 Stratovolcanoes guchiko2025wp.jpg Steep-sided, symmetrical peaks Built of alternating layers of pyroclastic deposits and capped by andesitic-rhyolitic lava flows Eruption styles vary from Vulcanian-Plinian Highly viscous lavas, Usually explosive eruptions Comprise 60% of the Earth s volcanoes Produce pyroclastic flows, lahars, ash plumes and lava flows Kelly Durst- Mt. Rainier _mount_shasta_with_shastina_1984_med.jpg

21 Lava Domes Domes are built after large eruptions, expelling all of the high volatile magma. Leaving behind high viscosity magma with low volatiles, which in turn forms a plug or dome Can form in a few hours or grow over decades Pose many hazards such as: pyroclastic flows, lava flows and lahars. Bill Rose- Santa María Mont Pelée Kelly Durst- Mt. St. Helens

22 Calderas Caldera-forming eruptions are the largest of the violent, explosive volcanoes Large volcanic depressions formed by roof collapse into partially erupted magma chambers Calderas range from 2-75 km in diameter and are formed by inward collapse Collapse occurs following large Plinian eruptions producing pyroclasts. Void spaces are left causing the mountain to collapse into the magma chamber Three different Caldera settings: 1. Calderas in the summit of shield cones (Mauna Loa) 2. Summit of stratovolcanoes (Crater Lake Oregon) 3. Giant continental calderas (Yellowstone)

23 Giant Continental Calderas

24 Yellowstone Yellowstone sits above a hotspot composed of rhyolitic magma Three Ultra-plinian eruptions have occurred in the past 2 million (2500 km 3 ), 1.3 million (280 km 3 ), and 0.6 million years ago (240 km 3 ) Deposit very high volumes of rhyolitic magma mainly in the forms of pyroclastic flows. An eruption of 1000 km 3 would cover an area of km 2, with a mass of pyroclastic debris ranging from a few to more than 100 m thickness

25 Volcanoes on Other Planets /vesper.html

26 Kelly Durst- Mt. St. Helens Volcano Monitoring

27 Seismic Monitoring Magma rises into reservoir beneath volcano Rising magma and volcanic gases exert pressure High pressure causes rocks to break, triggering earthquakes Volcanoes first warning sign is usually a seismic signal Low magnitude, Occur in swarms Need a network of seismometers to determine the location of the earthquake

28 Ground Deformation EDM electronic distance measurement, measures the distance between 2 benchmarks on the volcano Tiltmeters- is placed in the ground with a container filled with fluid and a bubble which measures changes in slope. GPS-global positioning system, measures horizontal and vertical movement, replacing the EDM Satellite Interferometry- Satellite sensor uses RADAR to obtain elevations, when compared with other images can determine deformation

29 Gas Monitoring Gases dissolved in magma are driving forces for an eruption By monitoring specific gases, coupled with other monitoring data, hazard warnings can be issued Many gases are monitored to determine changes in concentration with a focus on CO 2 and SO 2

30 Hydrology Monitoring Lahar detection using sensors Monitor streams around the volcano to determine if changes in water chemistry Measure sediment and river discharge Mt. St. Helens - After 20 years, the average annual suspended-sediment yield in the Toutle River downstream from the 1980 landslide deposit was still 100 times above typical background level. Kelly Durst- Mt. Rainier Lahar Deposit

31 Remote Sensing Allow scientist to monitor dangerous volcanoes remotely Allow world wide monitoring over small temporal scales (minutes-hours). Many sensors which monitor visible, near and mid infrared, as well as thermal infrared allowing us to determine temperature changes

32 Homework For Monday Read Sensing Remote Volcanoes (3 pages), located at:

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