Intrusive features. sill Columnar jointing Dike diagram. Laccolith

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1 Intrusive Igneous Processes Mineral Resources Intrusive features Sill diagram sill Columnar jointing Dike diagram dike Laccolith Ute Mtn Laccolith

2 Ute Mtn Stock and batholith diagram Magma body Igneous bodies batholith Western US batholith exposure Exposed batholith Roof pendants Plutons in Patagonia

3 Contact of Patagonia Pluton Magma environments Geothermal Gradient classnotes/images/drawn.html Confining pressure Decompression melting Magma at oceanic ridge Oceanic ridge section Rifting tectonic setting Divergent continental

4 Iceland volcanic rift Intraplate volcanism Hotspot Volcanic chain on North America Hot spot volcanism Island chain from mantle plume Water driven from subducting slab lowers melting temperature Partial Melting 1. melting increases volume Locations of volcanoes 1. melting increases volume Ocean-ocean Convergent volcanism

5 Aleutians--oblique Aleutians from space Continent-ocean convergent boundary volcanism with permission of author tom bigley Taken on the STS-56 shuttle mission, in April Image number: STS Southern South America Summary of tectonic environments of igneous rocks Mineral Resources Ore: Mineral or rock from which metal is extracted Anything that can be mined at a profit Industrial mineral: geological materials which are mined for their commercial value, which are not fuel and are not sources of metals Ore Deposits Many metallic elements don t fit into common silicate crystal structures Remain in solutions left by cooling magma Can permeate surrounding rocks or fill cracks in surrounding rocks Disseminated Ore Deposits Solutions permeate surrounding rocks Precious metals: mostly gold Base metals: copper, lead, zinc Typical grade of disseminated precious metal deposit

6 Disseminated gold deposit Copper mine in Arizona Copper mine in Arizona Bingham Copper Mine Disseminated gold deposit Bingham Canyon Copper Mine: largest manmade excavation on Earth Copper deposit disseminated in strata Vein Ore Deposits Fluid fills cracks in surrounding rocks Mineral deposits are often visible to the naked eye Hydrothermal deposits Hydrothermal veins Commonly have quartz and/or calcite Sometimes other minerals deposited The mother lode gold deposits were of this type Copper-cobalt deposit in Zambia Vein deposit Vein deposits Placer Ore Deposits Concentrated by weathering and transportation Streams, beaches Sulfide vein deposit Copper vein deposit

7 Placer Gold Hydraulicking Panning and sluice box methods Historic and modern commercial placer mining gold, platinum, tin, titanium, and rare earth metals Marine placer deposits Industrial Minerals Usually not metals Limestone for cement Sand and gravel for construction Chemicals Fertilizer Flux Salt Clay for bricks and ceramics Cement plant Sand and gravel operation Cement factory: processes limestone Sand and gravel operation Halite/Sylvite mine Detroit salt mine Underground salt mine Potassium chloride (sylvite) for fertilizer Note pillar and room excavation

8 Evaporative salt pond Sulfur: Frasch process Sulfur stockpile element016_sulfur/00_sulfur.htm Sri Lanka Fluorite

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