IONIC BONDS A. CHEMICAL BOND B. IONIC BONDS. 1. Formed by. 2. Formed between. 3. Best examples of ionic bonding: between

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1 IONIC BONDS A. CHEMICAL BOND 1. Formed by B. IONIC BONDS 1. Formed by 2. Formed between 3. Best examples of ionic bonding: between 4. Electronegativity difference: C. ENERGY CHANGES in the formation of an ionic compound (NaCl) 1. Elements converted to the gaseous state 2. Electron transfer 3. Ions combine to form a solid 4. Total energy

2 LATTICE ENERGY: FORMATION OF IONIC BONDS: WHY DO ATOMS REACT? IONS 1. Positive ( ) ions: are Why? a. b. 2. Negative ( ) ions: Are Why? Periodic trends in ion size

3 b. Within a group, ion size moving down. CHARGES OF IONS WITH NOBLE GAS CONFIGURATIONS Br: S: Sr: Cs: Y: Al: N: NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS In a, the negative ion is named by dropping the element s ending and adding NaCl BaF 2 K 3 N

4 FORMULAS OF IONIC COMPOUNDS Compounds MUST be electrically neutral =0 Magnesium & oxygen: Scandium & hydroxide: Cobalt (II) & bromine: Cobalt (III) & bromine: All transition elements form ions with more than one positive charge ( ) Except and Ex: Iron (II): Iron (III): IONIC BONDING NAMES OF COMMON TRANSITION METAL IONS Ag 1+ Cd 2+ Silver Cadmium Co 2+ Co 3+ Cr 2+ Cr 3+ Cu 1+ Cu 2+ Fe 2+ Fe Hg 2 Hg 2+ Cobalt(II) Cobalt(III) Chromium(II) Chromium(III) Copper(I) Copper(II) Iron(II) Iron(III) Mercury(I) Mercury(II)

5 Mn 2+ Mn 3+ Ni 2+ Ni 3+ Pb 2+ Pb 4+ Sn 2+ Sn 4+ Zn 2+ Manganese(II) Manganese(III) Nickel(II) Nickel(III) Lead(II) Lead(IV) Tin(II) Tin(IV) Zinc 3. Certain metals form positive ions with more than one positive charge. Determine the and write it in Roman numerals, in parentheses, after the name of the positive ion. FeCl 3 : FeCl 2 : Cr(NO 3 ) 2 : Cr(NO 3 ) 3: Polyatomic Ions: 4. Compounds containing three or more elements contain. Name the positive ion and then the polyatomic ion. Al(NO 3 ) 3 : NH 4 ClO 3 : Na 2 SO 4 :

6 Calcium & sulfate: Aluminum and sulfite: Gallium & hydrogen carbonate: PRACTICE: BaI 2 KNO 2 NiS KClO 4 CuBr Au(ClO 2 ) 3 CoI 3 Al 2 (CO 3 ) 2 AgNO 3 Sn(SO 4 ) 2 GaCl 3 (NH 4 ) 2 O Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Ca(HCO 3 ) 2

7 HYDRATES 1. ionic compounds which retain water in their crystal lattice Ex. 2. CuSO 4 5 H 2 O à 3. Efflorescence: a. process Calculate the % water in BaCl 2 2 H 2 O.

8 WRITING FORMULAS FROM NAMES OF COMPOUNDS Pay attention to the ENDINGS! Potassium bromide Aluminum nitrite Mercury(II) sulfite Iron(II) hydroxide WRITING FORMULAS FROM NAMES PRACTICE 1. Sodium hydroxide 2. Mercury(II) sulfate 3. Calcium hypochlorite 4. Lead(IV) sulfide 5. Silver oxide 6. Copper(I) carbonate 7. Manganese(IV) oxide 8. Manganese(III) sulfate 9. Zinc nitrate 10. Potassium cyanide 11. Calcium hydride 12. Chromium(III) fluoride 13. Ammonium sulfide

9 WRITING EQUATIONS FOR THE FORMATION OF IONIC COMPOUNDS (Synthesis reactions) Write the balanced equation for the formation of Copper(II) oxide from its elements. 1.Write the correct formula for the compound. 2. Write the EQUATION for the formation of the compound. Then balance. + à Write the balanced equation for the formation of iron(iii) chloride from its elements REDOX CHEMISTRY Loss of Electrons- Example:

10 Gain of Electrons- Example: Oxidation Reduction Leo the Lion! Example: Cu(s) + 2 Ag (aq) à Cu 2+ (aq) + 2 Ag(s)

11 OXIDIZING AND REDUCTION AGENTS IDENTIFYING AGENTS IN A REACTION CuO + H 2 à Cu + H 2 O OXIDATION NUMBERS RULES FOR NAMING OXIDATION STATES 1. *In their compounds, the metals of group 1A always have an oxidation number of +1, the charge on their ions. 2. *The oxidation number of fluorine (F) is -1 when it is in a compound. 3. The oxidation number of a monatomic ion is equal to its charge.

12 4. The sum of the oxidation numbers of all the atoms in the formula of a compound is equal to zero (0). 5. *In their compounds, the metals of group 2A always have an oxidation number of +2, the charge on their ions. 6. In compounds, the oxidation number of oxygen is almost always -2 a. EXCEPTION: peroxides such as H 2 O 2 or Na 2 O 2, where oxidation number is *The oxidation number of an atom of a free element is zero. 8. Hydrogen has an oxidation number of +1 in all its compounds, except the metal hydrides: LiH or CaH 2 where oxidation number is In combinations involving nonmetals, the oxidation number of the less electronegative element is positive and of the more electronegative element is negative. 10. The algebraic sum of the oxidation numbers of the atoms of a polyatomic ion is equal to its charge. * Means the rules are an ALWAYS! No exceptions allowed! EXAMPLES IDENTIFYING REDOX REACATIONS

13 PROBLEMS What is the oxidation number of each element? OXIDATION NUMBERS WITH CHARGES Fluorine and oxygen are highly electronegative and will attract electrons very strongly meaning they will have a negative oxidation number. Generally, phosphorus will be 3- oxidation state: however, when combining with oxygen, phosphorus will lose five electrons and take on a 5+ oxidation charge. TYPES OF EQUATIONS 1. SYNTHESIS

14 2. DECOMPOSITION 3. SINGLE REPLACEMENT 4. DOUBLE REPLACEMENT 5. COMBUSTION

15 NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY STABLE NUCLEI BELT OF STABILITY TYPES OF RADIOACTIVE DECAY ALPHA PARTICLES

16 ALPHA DECAY PROBLEMS Write the nuclear equation for the alpha decay of Pa-231 Write the nuclear equation for the alpha decay of Pu-244 BETA PARTICLES BETA DECAY PROBLEMS Write the nuclear equation for the beta decay of Fr-223 Write the nuclear equation for the beta decay of Ti-50 GAMMA RADIATION

17 OTHER NUCLEAR REACTIONS

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