# Chapter 14. Mixtures

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1 Chapter 14 Mixtures

2 Warm Up What is the difference between a heterogeneous and homogeneous mixture? Give 1 example of a heterogeneous mixture and 1 example of a homogeneous mixture.

3 Today s Agenda QOTD: How can we describe various mixtures and how do we determine the concentration of solutions? Types of mixtures Percent by mass and volume review Molarity Remember Labs are due tomorrow! Bookwork due Friday: Chapter 14-55, 56, 63, 68, 70, 72, 74, 78, 80, 81

4 Types of Mixtures Tyndall Effect! Heterogeneous mixtures- Suspension liquid with solid precipitate Flour mixed with water Colloids liquid with very small solid particles Homogeneous mixtures- solutions Solutions solute is soluble in Milk the solvent Liquids are said to be miscible

5 Expressing Concentration Concentration - how much solute is dissolved in solvent Solutions are either concentrated or dilute Ways to express concentration Table 14.3 in book!

6 Solution Concentration REVIEW! Percent by mass = mass of solute x 100 mass of solution Percent by volume = volume of solute x 100 volume of solution An aquarium contains 3.6 g of NaCl for every 100 g of water. What is the percent by mass of NaCl?

7 Your Turn What is the percent by mass of NaHCO 3 in a solution containing 20.0 g of NaHCO 3 dissolved in 600 ml of H 2 O? (remember that D H2O = 1 g/ml) What is the percent by volume of ethanol in a solution that contains 35 ml of ethanol dissolved in 155 ml of water?

8 Molarity Molarity is the most common way to express concentration (for chemists). Symbol M 1M = one molar Molarity (M) = moles of solute liters of solution A ml IV solution contains 5.10 g of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ). What is the molarity of this solution?

9 Your turn What is the molarity of an aqueous solution containing 40 g of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) in 1.5 L of a solution? Calculate the molarity of a 1.6 L of a solution containing 1.55 g of dissolved KBr.

10 Warm Up A solution is made by dissolving 3.2 g of CuCl 2 in 350 ml of water. What is the percent of CuCl 2 by mass? What is the molarity of the solution?

11 Warm Up

12 Today s Agenda QOTD: How are solutions made with an accurate concentration? Preparing Solutions Dilution Calculations Molality Practice Problems

13 Preparing Solutions I ask you to make 1 L of a 1.5 M solution of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO 4 5H 2 O). How do you make it? We know that 1.5 M = 1.5 mol/l Find mass in grams to dissolve in 1 L of solution! 1L x 1.5 mol CuSO 4 5H 2 O x g CuSO 4 5H 2 O = 375 g 1 L solution 1 mol CuSO 4 5H 2 O CuSO 4 5H 2 O

14 Your Turn How many grams of CaCl 2 would be dissolved in 1 L of a 0.10 M solution of CaCl 2? How many grams of CaCl 2 should be dissolved in water to make a 0.2 M solution of CaCl 2 if you only need 500 ml?

15 Dilution Calculations Chemists often use a solution that is already prepared and dilute it to get to their desired concentration. Dilution Equation: M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 What volume, in ml, of 2.0 M CaCl 2 stock solution would you use to make 0.5 L of a 0.3 M CaCl 2 solution?

16 Your Turn What volume of a 3.0 M KI stock solution would you use to make 0.3 L of a 1.25 M KI solution? How many milliliters of a 5.0 M H 2 SO 4 stock solution would you need to prepare ml of 0.25 M H 2 SO 4?

17 Molality Volume changes with temperature, so to make measurements using a solution over a temperature range, we use molality instead of molarity! Molality (m) = moles of solute kg of solvent A student adds 4.5 g of NaCl to 100 g of water. What is the the molality of the solution?

18 Warm Up! I have a stock solution of 5 M NaOH. For my experiment I need 300 ml of 1.5 M NaOH. How much stock solution do I need for my dilution?

19 Today s Agenda QOTD: What factors affect solubility? Mole fraction review Solubility of solids and gases Henry s Law Concentration Practice Problems

20 Your Turn What is the molality of a solution containing 10 g of Na 2 SO 4 dissolved in g of water? How many grams of Na 2 CO 3 must be dissolved into 155 g of water to create a solution with a molality of 8.20 mol/kg?

21 Mole Fractions! Review our past work with mole fractions,!!! = mole of component total moles What is the mole fraction of NaOH in an aqueous solution that contains 22.8% NaOH by mass?

22 Your Turn What is the molality and mole fraction of a solute in a 35.5 % by mass aqueous solution of formic acid? Calculate the mole fraction of MgCl 2 in a solution created by dissolving g of MgCl 2 in 175 ml of water.

23 Warm Up! Calculate the molarity of 1270 g of K 3 PO 4 in 4.0 L of aqueous solution. What is the molality of the solution?

24 Today s Agenda QOTD: What factors affect solubility? Solubility Pressure and Henry s Law Homework due Wed: Ch evens Concentration worksheet due Thurs Quiz Thursday Ch 14!

25 Warm Up! (I really had to figure these out this morning) I need 1.5 L of 0.1 M solution of NaOH. How many grams of NaOH do I need? We needed 900mL of 0.01M KMnO 4 solution. How many grams should I have weighed out?

26 Factors Affecting Solubility When molecules dissolve in water they are. solvated If a solute is polar it is more likely to dissolve in a polar solvent. If the solute is non-polar it is more likely to dissolve in a non-polar solvent. Knowing this Determine a rule for solubility!

27 Like Dissolves Like!

28 Solubility Saturated solutions one that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute for a solvent at a certain T and P Unsaturated solutions - one that contains less dissolved solute for a solvent at a certain T and P than a saturated solution. Supersaturated solution - one that contains more than the maximum amount of dissolved solute for a solvent at a certain T and P

29 Solubility of Gases As temperature increases the solubility of gases decreases. More kinetic energy more chances of escape! As external pressure increases gas solubility increases. Soda is bottled under pressure so all that CO 2 is soluble until you open it!

30 Henry s Law At a given temperature, the solubility of a gas is directly proportional to external pressure. What s the equation?? S 1 = S 2 P 1 P 2 (S = Solubility (g/l)) If 0.85 g of a gas at 4.0 atm of pressure dissolves in 1.0 L of water at 25 C, how much will dissolve in 1.0 L at 1 atm?

31 Your Turn If 0.55 g of a gas dissolves in 1.0 L of water at 20 kpa, how much will dissolve at 110 kpa? A gas has a solubility of 0.66 g/l at 10 atm of pressure. What is the pressure on a 1.0 L sample that contains 1.5 g of gas?

32 Warm Up! (I really had to figure this out this morning) I need 1.5 L of 0.1 M solution of NaOH. How many grams of NaOH do I need?

33 Today s Agenda QOTD: What are the 4 colligative properties of solutions? Colligative Properties Electrolytes vs. Nonelectrolytes 4 Types Please check the Missing list to see if you re on it!!!

34 BOOK CHECK - Wednesday! Bring in the Glencoe chemistry book that was assigned to you to class on WEDNESDAY. If you lose your book you are required to replace it!! If you never took an assigned book, bring any that you find in lockers etc.

35 Colligative Properties How physical properties of solutions are affected by the number of solute particles. Depend on the NUMBER of solute particles. Electrolytes vs. Nonelectrolytes Remember that ionic compounds (salts) dissociate into ions in solution. Molecular compounds do not dissociate!

36 Electrolyte or Nonelectrolyte?! Electrolyte! Electrolyte! Electrolyte! Electrolyte! Electrolyte! NaCl C 6 H 6 KClO 3 C 2 H 6 O SO 3 KMnO 4 HCl MgCO 3 Nonelectrolyte! Nonelectrolyte! Nonelectrolyte!

37 4 Ways Solute Particles Change Lower Vapor Pressure Properties Pressure of gas particles above a solution in a closed container Elevate (raise) Boiling Point Vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure Depress (lower) Freezing Point Particles do not possess enough energy to overcome IMF s Determine osmotic pressure

38 Vapor Pressure Lowering Vapor pressure is lower in a solution than a pure solvent. Solute particles get in the way of solvent particles, so there are less of them in the gas phase!

39 Boiling Point Elevation Since vapor pressure and boiling point are related, if the vapor pressure is affected, so is the bp! VP of a solution is lowered so MORE energy is required to overcome P atm and the BP is higher. T b = K b mi T b = change in temperature K b = molal bp elevation constant m = molality of solution i = # ions in solution

40 Freezing Point Depression Solute particles get in the way AGAIN and make it difficult for IMF s to take over, so more energy needs to be removed to freeze!

41 Freezing Point Depression T f = K f mi T b = change in temperature K f = molal fp depression constant m = molality of solution i = # of ions in solution K f and K b are specific to solvents.

42 Practice Problem! NaCl is often used to prevent icy roads and to freeze ice cream! Calculate the boiling and freezing points of a 0.029m aqueous solution of NaCl. (Water : K b = C/m, K f = 1.86 C/m) Equation: T = Kmi

43 To find NEW bp and fp: Remember to ADD T b to normal boiling point Remember to SUBTRACT freezing point T f from normal

44 Practice problem What are the bp and fp of a m aqueous solution of any nonvolatile, nonelectolyte solute? (Water : K b = C/m, K f = 1.86 C/m)

45 Your Turn: A cook prepares a solution for boiling by adding 12.5 g of NaCl to a pot holding a L of water. At what temperature will the pot boil? Hint: Use water K constants. A rock salt NaCl, ice, water mixture is used to make ice cream. How many grams of rock salt must be added to lower the freezing point by 10 C?

46 Osmotic Pressure Osmosis: diffusion through a semi-permeable membrane Important for biological function

47 Osmotic Pressure Additional pressure caused by water molecules that moved into the concentrated solution. The more particles are present, the higher the osmotic pressure!

48 Answer these! What are the 4 colligative properties of solutions? How do you distinguish between an electrolyte and non-electrolyte? Why do we put salt on icy roads?

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