2 Warm Up What is the difference between a heterogeneous and homogeneous mixture? Give 1 example of a heterogeneous mixture and 1 example of a homogeneous mixture.
3 Today s Agenda QOTD: How can we describe various mixtures and how do we determine the concentration of solutions? Types of mixtures Percent by mass and volume review Molarity Remember Labs are due tomorrow! Bookwork due Friday: Chapter 14-55, 56, 63, 68, 70, 72, 74, 78, 80, 81
4 Types of Mixtures Tyndall Effect! Heterogeneous mixtures- Suspension liquid with solid precipitate Flour mixed with water Colloids liquid with very small solid particles Homogeneous mixtures- solutions Solutions solute is soluble in Milk the solvent Liquids are said to be miscible
5 Expressing Concentration Concentration - how much solute is dissolved in solvent Solutions are either concentrated or dilute Ways to express concentration Table 14.3 in book!
6 Solution Concentration REVIEW! Percent by mass = mass of solute x 100 mass of solution Percent by volume = volume of solute x 100 volume of solution An aquarium contains 3.6 g of NaCl for every 100 g of water. What is the percent by mass of NaCl?
7 Your Turn What is the percent by mass of NaHCO 3 in a solution containing 20.0 g of NaHCO 3 dissolved in 600 ml of H 2 O? (remember that D H2O = 1 g/ml) What is the percent by volume of ethanol in a solution that contains 35 ml of ethanol dissolved in 155 ml of water?
8 Molarity Molarity is the most common way to express concentration (for chemists). Symbol M 1M = one molar Molarity (M) = moles of solute liters of solution A ml IV solution contains 5.10 g of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ). What is the molarity of this solution?
9 Your turn What is the molarity of an aqueous solution containing 40 g of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) in 1.5 L of a solution? Calculate the molarity of a 1.6 L of a solution containing 1.55 g of dissolved KBr.
10 Warm Up A solution is made by dissolving 3.2 g of CuCl 2 in 350 ml of water. What is the percent of CuCl 2 by mass? What is the molarity of the solution?
11 Warm Up
12 Today s Agenda QOTD: How are solutions made with an accurate concentration? Preparing Solutions Dilution Calculations Molality Practice Problems
13 Preparing Solutions I ask you to make 1 L of a 1.5 M solution of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO 4 5H 2 O). How do you make it? We know that 1.5 M = 1.5 mol/l Find mass in grams to dissolve in 1 L of solution! 1L x 1.5 mol CuSO 4 5H 2 O x g CuSO 4 5H 2 O = 375 g 1 L solution 1 mol CuSO 4 5H 2 O CuSO 4 5H 2 O
14 Your Turn How many grams of CaCl 2 would be dissolved in 1 L of a 0.10 M solution of CaCl 2? How many grams of CaCl 2 should be dissolved in water to make a 0.2 M solution of CaCl 2 if you only need 500 ml?
15 Dilution Calculations Chemists often use a solution that is already prepared and dilute it to get to their desired concentration. Dilution Equation: M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 What volume, in ml, of 2.0 M CaCl 2 stock solution would you use to make 0.5 L of a 0.3 M CaCl 2 solution?
16 Your Turn What volume of a 3.0 M KI stock solution would you use to make 0.3 L of a 1.25 M KI solution? How many milliliters of a 5.0 M H 2 SO 4 stock solution would you need to prepare ml of 0.25 M H 2 SO 4?
17 Molality Volume changes with temperature, so to make measurements using a solution over a temperature range, we use molality instead of molarity! Molality (m) = moles of solute kg of solvent A student adds 4.5 g of NaCl to 100 g of water. What is the the molality of the solution?
18 Warm Up! I have a stock solution of 5 M NaOH. For my experiment I need 300 ml of 1.5 M NaOH. How much stock solution do I need for my dilution?
19 Today s Agenda QOTD: What factors affect solubility? Mole fraction review Solubility of solids and gases Henry s Law Concentration Practice Problems
20 Your Turn What is the molality of a solution containing 10 g of Na 2 SO 4 dissolved in g of water? How many grams of Na 2 CO 3 must be dissolved into 155 g of water to create a solution with a molality of 8.20 mol/kg?
21 Mole Fractions! Review our past work with mole fractions,!!! = mole of component total moles What is the mole fraction of NaOH in an aqueous solution that contains 22.8% NaOH by mass?
22 Your Turn What is the molality and mole fraction of a solute in a 35.5 % by mass aqueous solution of formic acid? Calculate the mole fraction of MgCl 2 in a solution created by dissolving g of MgCl 2 in 175 ml of water.
23 Warm Up! Calculate the molarity of 1270 g of K 3 PO 4 in 4.0 L of aqueous solution. What is the molality of the solution?
24 Today s Agenda QOTD: What factors affect solubility? Solubility Pressure and Henry s Law Homework due Wed: Ch evens Concentration worksheet due Thurs Quiz Thursday Ch 14!
25 Warm Up! (I really had to figure these out this morning) I need 1.5 L of 0.1 M solution of NaOH. How many grams of NaOH do I need? We needed 900mL of 0.01M KMnO 4 solution. How many grams should I have weighed out?
26 Factors Affecting Solubility When molecules dissolve in water they are. solvated If a solute is polar it is more likely to dissolve in a polar solvent. If the solute is non-polar it is more likely to dissolve in a non-polar solvent. Knowing this Determine a rule for solubility!
27 Like Dissolves Like!
28 Solubility Saturated solutions one that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute for a solvent at a certain T and P Unsaturated solutions - one that contains less dissolved solute for a solvent at a certain T and P than a saturated solution. Supersaturated solution - one that contains more than the maximum amount of dissolved solute for a solvent at a certain T and P
29 Solubility of Gases As temperature increases the solubility of gases decreases. More kinetic energy more chances of escape! As external pressure increases gas solubility increases. Soda is bottled under pressure so all that CO 2 is soluble until you open it!
30 Henry s Law At a given temperature, the solubility of a gas is directly proportional to external pressure. What s the equation?? S 1 = S 2 P 1 P 2 (S = Solubility (g/l)) If 0.85 g of a gas at 4.0 atm of pressure dissolves in 1.0 L of water at 25 C, how much will dissolve in 1.0 L at 1 atm?
31 Your Turn If 0.55 g of a gas dissolves in 1.0 L of water at 20 kpa, how much will dissolve at 110 kpa? A gas has a solubility of 0.66 g/l at 10 atm of pressure. What is the pressure on a 1.0 L sample that contains 1.5 g of gas?
32 Warm Up! (I really had to figure this out this morning) I need 1.5 L of 0.1 M solution of NaOH. How many grams of NaOH do I need?
33 Today s Agenda QOTD: What are the 4 colligative properties of solutions? Colligative Properties Electrolytes vs. Nonelectrolytes 4 Types Please check the Missing list to see if you re on it!!!
34 BOOK CHECK - Wednesday! Bring in the Glencoe chemistry book that was assigned to you to class on WEDNESDAY. If you lose your book you are required to replace it!! If you never took an assigned book, bring any that you find in lockers etc.
35 Colligative Properties How physical properties of solutions are affected by the number of solute particles. Depend on the NUMBER of solute particles. Electrolytes vs. Nonelectrolytes Remember that ionic compounds (salts) dissociate into ions in solution. Molecular compounds do not dissociate!
36 Electrolyte or Nonelectrolyte?! Electrolyte! Electrolyte! Electrolyte! Electrolyte! Electrolyte! NaCl C 6 H 6 KClO 3 C 2 H 6 O SO 3 KMnO 4 HCl MgCO 3 Nonelectrolyte! Nonelectrolyte! Nonelectrolyte!
37 4 Ways Solute Particles Change Lower Vapor Pressure Properties Pressure of gas particles above a solution in a closed container Elevate (raise) Boiling Point Vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure Depress (lower) Freezing Point Particles do not possess enough energy to overcome IMF s Determine osmotic pressure
38 Vapor Pressure Lowering Vapor pressure is lower in a solution than a pure solvent. Solute particles get in the way of solvent particles, so there are less of them in the gas phase!
39 Boiling Point Elevation Since vapor pressure and boiling point are related, if the vapor pressure is affected, so is the bp! VP of a solution is lowered so MORE energy is required to overcome P atm and the BP is higher. T b = K b mi T b = change in temperature K b = molal bp elevation constant m = molality of solution i = # ions in solution
40 Freezing Point Depression Solute particles get in the way AGAIN and make it difficult for IMF s to take over, so more energy needs to be removed to freeze!
41 Freezing Point Depression T f = K f mi T b = change in temperature K f = molal fp depression constant m = molality of solution i = # of ions in solution K f and K b are specific to solvents.
42 Practice Problem! NaCl is often used to prevent icy roads and to freeze ice cream! Calculate the boiling and freezing points of a 0.029m aqueous solution of NaCl. (Water : K b = C/m, K f = 1.86 C/m) Equation: T = Kmi
43 To find NEW bp and fp: Remember to ADD T b to normal boiling point Remember to SUBTRACT freezing point T f from normal
44 Practice problem What are the bp and fp of a m aqueous solution of any nonvolatile, nonelectolyte solute? (Water : K b = C/m, K f = 1.86 C/m)
45 Your Turn: A cook prepares a solution for boiling by adding 12.5 g of NaCl to a pot holding a L of water. At what temperature will the pot boil? Hint: Use water K constants. A rock salt NaCl, ice, water mixture is used to make ice cream. How many grams of rock salt must be added to lower the freezing point by 10 C?
46 Osmotic Pressure Osmosis: diffusion through a semi-permeable membrane Important for biological function
47 Osmotic Pressure Additional pressure caused by water molecules that moved into the concentrated solution. The more particles are present, the higher the osmotic pressure!
48 Answer these! What are the 4 colligative properties of solutions? How do you distinguish between an electrolyte and non-electrolyte? Why do we put salt on icy roads?
Name: Honors Unit 10 Notes Solutions [Chapter 10] Objectives: 1. Students will be able to calculate solution concentration using molarity, molality, and mass percent. 2. Students will be able to interpret
Role of Disorder in Solutions Disorder (Entropy) is a factor Solutions mix to form maximum disorder Two Ways to Form Solutions 1. Physical Dissolving (Solvation) NaCl(s) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) C 12 H 22
Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions Learning goals and key skills: Describe how enthalpy and entropy changes affect solution formation Describe the relationship between intermolecular forces and solubility,
Colligative Properties Vapor pressures have been defined as the pressure over a liquid in dynamic equilibrium between the liquid and gas phase in a closed system. The vapor pressure of a solution is different
Chem 112 Solutions From the book (10, 12, 16, 18, 22, 24 52, 54, 56, 58, 62, 64, 66, 68, 74, 76, 78, 80, 82, 86, 88, 90, 92, 106 and 116) 1. Which of the following compounds are nonelectrolytes? A. NaF
Chapter 14 Solutions 1 14.1 General properties of solutions solution a system in which one or more substances are homogeneously mixed or dissolved in another substance two components in a solution: solute
What is a Colligative Property? 0 Defined as bulk liquid properties that change when you add a solute to make a solution 0 Colligative properties are based on how much solute is added but NOT the identity
Chapter Thirteen Physical Properties Of Solutions 1 Solvent: Solute: Solution: Solubility: Types of Solutions Larger portion of a solution Smaller portion of a solution A homogeneous mixture of 2 or more
Chemistry 100 Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 6 Solutions & Colloids Solutions Components of a Solution Solvent: The substance
1. Classify the following reaction as precipitation, acid-base or oxidation-reduction: Ce4+(aq) + Fe2+(aq) Ce3+(aq) + Fe3+(aq) Ans. oxidation-reduction 2. Classify the following reaction as precipitation,
16 SOLUTIONS SECTION 16.1 PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS (pages 471 477) This section identifies the factors that affect the solubility of a substance and determine the rate at which a solute dissolves. Solution
13 Sample Test 1 SAMPLE TEST 1. CHAPTER 12 1. The molality of a solution is defined as a. moles of solute per liter of solution. b. grams of solute per liter of solution. c. moles of solute per kilogram
CHAPTER 14 Solutions The Dissolution Process 1. Effect of Temperature on Solubility 2. Molality and Mole Fraction Colligative Properties of Solutions 3. Lowering of Vapor Pressure and Raoult s Law 4. Fractional
Prelab Assignment Before coming to lab: Lab 9. Colligative Properties an Online Lab Activity Chemistry 162 - K. Marr Revised Winter 2014 This lab exercise does not require a report in your lab notebook.
TYPES OF SOLUTIONS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. Solute: substance being dissolved; present in lesser amount. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving; present
Name: Class: Date: Unit 13 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The dissolution of water in octane (C 8 H 18 ) is prevented by.
COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES: A colligative property is a property that depends only on the number of solute particles present, not their identity. The properties we will look at are: lowering of vapor pressure;
Big Idea: Liquids will mix together if both liquids are polar or both are nonpolar. The presence of a solute changes the physical properties of the system. For nonvolatile solutes the vapor pressure, boiling
13.4 Ways of Expressing Concentration All methods involve quantifying the amount of solute per amount of solvent (or solution). Concentration may be expressed qualitatively or quantitatively. The terms
Lecture Presentation Chapter 13 Properties of Yonsei University homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances: may be gases, liquids, or solids In a solution, the solute is dispersed uniformly throughout
CHEMISTRY The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change Third Edition Chapter 13 The Properties of Mixtures: Solutions and Colloids Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction
Solutions 1 Solutions Concentration Solution concentration = how much solute dissolved in solvent Coffee crystal = solute Water = solvent Liquid Coffee = solution so a solute is dissolved in solvent to
John W. Moore Conrad L. Stanitski Peter C. Jurs Solubility & Intermolecular Forces Solution = homogeneous mixture of substances. It consists of: http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/moore solvent - component
Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 01 Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 02 Colligative Properties: Depend on the amount not on the identity There are four main colligative properties:
Colligative Properties Discussion Chem. 1A The material covered today is found in sections Chapter 12.5 12.7 This material will not be covered in lecture, you will have homework assigned. Chem. 1A Colligative
Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions 13.1 The Solution Process - Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances. - In a solution, the solute is dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.
Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 13 Properties of are homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances. In a solution,
1 Chapter 7 Solutions Solutions: Solute and Solvent Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances form when there is sufficient attraction between solute and solvent molecules have two components:
Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction Name: Note: a word marked (?) is a vocabulary word you should know the meaning of. A homogeneous (?) mixture, or, is a mixture in which the individual
12.1 Thirsty Solutions: Why You Shouldn t Drink Seawater 544 12.2 Types of Solutions and Solubility 546 12.3 Energetics of Solution Formation 551 12.4 Solution Equilibrium and Factors Affecting Solubility
Lecture Presentation Chapter 12 Solutions Sherril Soman, Grand Valley State University Thirsty Seawater Drinking seawater can cause dehydration. Seawater Is a homogeneous mixture of salts with water Contains
Osmolality Explained What is osmolality? Simply put, osmolality is a measurement of the total number of solutes in a liquid solution expressed in osmoles of solute particles per kilogram of solvent. When
CHEMISTRY The Central Science Properties of Solutions The Solution Process Solutions: Air; brass; body fluids; sea water When a solution forms some questions we can ask are: What happens on a molecular
Intermolecular forces, acids, bases, electrolytes, net ionic equations, solubility, and molarity of Ions in solution: 1. What are the different types of Intermolecular forces? Define the following terms:
Colligative properties 1 1. What does the phrase like dissolves like mean. 2. Why does the solubility of alcohols decrease with increased carbon chain length? Alcohol in water (mol/100g water) Methanol
118 ChemQuest 39 Name: Date: Hour: Information: Molarity Concentration is a term that describes the amount of solute that is dissolved in a solution. Concentrated solutions contain a lot of dissolved solute,
Chapter 7 s 7.1 s Solute and Solvent s are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances. consist of a solvent and one or more solutes. 1 2 Nature of Solutes in s Examples of s Solutes spread evenly throughout
Chemistry B11 Chapter 6 Solutions and Colloids Solutions: solutions have some properties: 1. The distribution of particles in a solution is uniform. Every part of the solution has exactly the same composition
Molarity Practice Worksheet Find the molarity of the following solutions: 1) 0.5 moles of sodium chloride is dissolved to make 0.05 liters of solution. 2) 0.5 grams of sodium chloride is dissolved to make
Solutions Properties of Solutions... the components of a mixture are uniformly intermingled (the mixture is homogeneous). Solution Composition 1. Molarity (M) = 4. Molality (m) = moles of solute liters
Guide to Chapter 11. Solutions and their properties We will spend three lecture days on this chapter. You may want to start by reviewing the concepts of heterogeneous solutions (Chapter 2) Read the introductory
12.3 Colligative Properties Changes in solvent properties due to impurities Colloidal suspensions or dispersions scatter light, a phenomenon known as the Tyndall effect. (a) Dust in the air scatters the
48 Practice Problems for Ch. 17 - Chem 1C - Joseph 1. Which of the following concentration measures will change in value as the temperature of a solution changes? A) mass percent B) mole fraction C) molality
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) All of the following statements describing solutions are true except A) Solutions are homogeneous.
16.3 Colligative of Solutions > 16.3 Colligative of Solutions > CHEMISTRY & YOU Chapter 16 Solutions 16.1 of Solutions 16.2 Concentrations of Solutions 16.3 Colligative of Solutions 16.4 Calculations Involving
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Solutions David A. Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College A solution is a HOMOGENEOUS mixture of 2 or more substances in a single phase. One constituent t is usually regarded as the SOLVENT
Sample Exercise 13.1 (p. 534) By the process illustrated below, water vapor reacts with excess solid sodium sulfate to form the hydrated form of the salt. The chemical reaction is Na 2 SO 4(s) + 10 H 2
version: master Exam 1 - VDB/LaB/Spk This MC portion of the exam should have 19 questions. The point values are given with each question. Bubble in your answer choices on the bubblehseet provided. Your
Problems - Chapter 13 (with solutions) 1) The following question concerns mixing of liquids. a) Consider mixing two liquids where mixing is exothermic (Hsoln < 0). Would you expect a solution to form (yes/maybe/no)?
Name: Thursday, March 06, 2008 Solutions Review Questions 1. Compared to pure water, an aqueous solution of calcium chloride has a 1. higher boiling point and higher freezing point 3. lower boiling point
Colligative Properties Vapour pressure Boiling point Freezing point Osmotic pressure Learning objectives Describe meaning of colligative property Use Raoult s law to determine vapor pressure of solutions
Purpose: Colligative Properties: Freezing Point Depression and Molecular Weight The first purpose of this lab is to experimentally determine the van't Hoff (i) factor for two different substances, sucrose
Chapter 13 - Solutions 13-1 Types of Mixtures I. Solutions A. Soluble 1. Capable of being dissolved B. Solution 1. A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase C. Solvent 1. The dissolving
SOLUTIONS UNIT Assignment #1 How do heterogeneous mixtures differ from homogeneous mixtures? Of the following, which are homogeneous mixtures and which are heterogeneous mixtures: black coffee, household
, the van t Hoff Factor, and Molar Mass Objectives To understand colligative properties. To find the freezing point depression of a solution. To determine the van't Hoff factor for acetic acid dissolved
Concentration of Solutions and Molarity The concentration of a solution is a measure of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given quantity of solvent. A dilute solution is one that contains a small
Chapter 14 Solutes and Solvents A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. The relative abundance of the substances in a solution determines which is the solute and which is the solvent.
Colligative properties CH102 General Chemistry, Spring 2014, Boston University here are four colligative properties. vapor-pressure lowering boiling-point elevation freezing-point depression osmotic pressure
Chapter 8 1 Chapter 8 Solutions Solutions to In-Chapter Problems 8.1 A heterogeneous miture does not have a uniform composition throughout a sample. A solution is a homogeneous miture that contains small
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CH302 LaBrake and Vanden Bout Colligative Properties PROBLEM #1: Give the molecular formula, the van t hoff factor for the following Ionic Compounds as well as guess the solubility of the compounds. If
Chapter 13 part 4: Colligative Properties Read: BLB 13.5-13.6 HW: BLB 13:9, 58, 61, 67, 69, 75 Packet 13:13-18 Know:, Colloids!vapor pressure lowering Raoult s Law: P A = X A P A!boiling point elevation
Colligative Properties of Solutions Freezing Point Depression Objectives: To investigate the colligative property of freezing point depression; to examine the relationship between freezing point depression
Review of Basic Concepts, Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions and Beer s Law Aqueous Solutions In Chemistry, many reactions take place in water. This is also true for Biological processes. Reactions that take
AP* Chemistry PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS IMPORTANT TERMS Solution a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase. Does not have to involve liquids. Air is a solution of nitrogen, oxygen,
SOLUBILITY CURVES WORKSHEET 1.) Which compound is least soluble at 20 o C? At 80 o C? 2.) Which substance is the most soluble at 10 o C? At 50 o C? At 90 o C? 3.) The solubility of which substance is most
Name Solutions Extra Credit Page 1 1. Which compound is most soluble in water? A) silver acetate B) silver chloride C) silver nitrate D) silver sulfate 2. According to Reference Table F, which compound
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Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version Freezing point depression describes the process where the temperature at which a liquid freezes is lowered by adding another
Appendix C Molarity C.1 MOLARITY AND THE MOLE The molar mass is the mass of a mole of a pure substance while the molarity, M, is the number of moles of a pure substance contained in a liter of a solution.
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SOLUTIONS EXPERIMENT 13 OBJECTIVE The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate the concepts of concentrations of solutions and the properties of solution. Colloids will be demonstrated. EQUIPMENT
CHAPTER 15 1. Specific answers depend on student choices.. A heterogeneous mixture does not have a uniform composition: the composition varies in different places within the mixture. Examples of non homogeneous
Chemistry 9 SOLUTIONS Y ou know that when sugar or salt is added to water, it dissolves. The resulting mixture is called a solution. Solutions play an important role in our life. In industry, solutions