Overview of Database Systems. Kanda Runapongsa Dept of Computer Engineering Khon Kaen University

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1 Overview of Database Systems Kanda Runapongsa Dept of Computer Engineering Khon Kaen University

2 Overview What is a Database, in particular, a relational DBMS? Why should we consider a DBMS to manage data? How is application data represented in a DBMS? How is data in a DBMS retrieved and manipulated? How does a DBMS support concurrent access and protect data during system failures? What are the main components of a DBMS? Who is involved with databases in real life? 2

3 Why Study Database? The success of an organization depends Being able to acquire accurate data Being able to acquire timely data Being able to manage data effectively Being able to analyze data Information processing is a rapidly growing multibillion Bahts industry We can acquire more and more data, but does it mean that it is always good for us? 3

4 What is a DBMS? A database A very large, integrated collection of data Models real-world enterprise Entities (e.g., students, courses) Relationships A Database Management System (DBMS) A software package designed to store and manage databases 4

5 File Systems vs. DBMS (1/4) A motivating scenario A company has a large collection (500 GB) of data on employees, departments, products, sales, and so on This data is accessed concurrently by several employees Questions about the data must be answered quickly Changes made to the data by different users must be applied consistently Access to certain parts of the data must be restricted 5

6 File Systems vs. DBMS (2/4) We can try to store the data in files This approach has many drawbacks We probably do not have 500 GB of main memory to hold all the data We must therefore store data in a storage device Even if we have 500 GB of main memory, on computer systems with 32- bit addressing, we cannot refer directly to all data items 6

7 File Systems vs. DBMS (3/4) Using Files to store and manage data We have to write special programs to answer each question that users may want to ask These programs are likely to complex because of large volume of data to be searched We must protect the data from inconsistent changes made by different users accessing the data concurrently 7

8 File Systems vs. DBMS (4/4) Using Files to store and manage data We must ensure that data is restored to a consistent state if the system crashes while changes are being made Operating systems provide only a password mechanism for security. This is not sufficiently flexible to enforce security policies in which different users have permission to access different subsets of the data 8

9 Why Use a DBMS? (1/3) Reduced application development time This can be done by using queries Data independence The DBMS can provide an abstract view of the data to insulate application code from such details Efficient data access A DBMS utilizes a variety of sophisticated techniques to store and retrieve data efficiently 9

10 Why Use a DBMS? (2/3) Concurrent access Users can think of the data as being accessed by only one user at a time Crash recovery The DBMS protects users from the effects of system failures Uniform data administration When several users share the data, centralizing the administration of data can offer significant improvements, such as fine-tuning the storage of the data 10

11 Why Use a DBMS? (3/3) Data integrity The DBMS can enforce integrity constraints on the data For example, before inserting salary information for an employee, the DBMS can check that the department budget is not exceeded Security The DBMS can enforce access controls that govern what data is visible to different classes of users 11

12 Data Models (1/2) A data model is a collection of highlevel data description constructs that hide many low-level storage details A DBMS allows a user to define the data to be stored in terms of a data model What is the model that most DBMSs today are based on? The relational data model 12

13 Data Models (2/2) The data models of the DBMS are closer to how the DBMS stores data than to how a user thinks about the underlying enterprise A semantic data model is a more abstract, high-level data model that makes it easier for a user to come up with a good initial description of the data in an enterprise What is a widely used semantic data model? The entity-relationship model 13

14 The Relational Data Model (1/2) Most widely DBMS data model today Central data construct: a relation A set of records A table with rows and columns Every relation has a schema, which describes the columns, or fields A schema specifies the relation s name, the name of each filed (or attribute or column), and the type of each field 14

15 The Relational Data Model (2/2) The integrity constraints are conditions that the records in a relation must satisfy For example We could specify that every student has a unique sid value The ability to specify uniqueness of the values in a field increases the accuracy with which we can describe data 15

16 Other Data Models Relational data model IBM s DB2, Informix, Oracle, Sybase, Microsoft s Access, FoxBase, Paradox, Tandem, and Teradata Hierarchical model IBM s IMS DMS Network model IDS and IDMS Object-oriented model ObjectStore and Versant Object-relational model IBM s DB2, Informix, ObjectStore, Oracle, Versant 16

17 Levels of Abstraction The database description consists of a schema at each of these three levels of abstraction Physical schemas Conceptual schemas External schemas A Data Definition Language (DDL) is used to define the external and conceptual schemas 17

18 Levels of Abstraction (Cont.) All DBMS vendors also support SQL commands to describe aspects of the physical schema External Conceptual Conceptual Physical Physical Disk 18

19 Conceptual Schema The conceptual schema (the logical schema) describes the stored data in terms of the data model of the DBMS In a relational DBMS, The conceptual schema describes all relations that are stored in the database The choice of relations, and the choice of fields for each relation is selected in the process of a conceptual design 19

20 Physical Schema The physical schema summarizes how the relations described in the conceptual schema are actually stored on secondary storage devices such as disks and taps We must decide what file organizations to use to store the relations, and create auxiliary data structures called indexes to speed up data retrieval operations 20

21 External Schema (1/2) External schemas allow data access to be customized (and authorized) at the level of individual users or groups of users Any given database has exactly one conceptual schema and one physical schema, but it may have several external schemas Each external schema consists of a collection of a collection of one or more views and relations from the conceptual schema 21

22 External Schema (2/2) A view is conceptually a relation, but the records in a view are not stored in the DBMS Rather, they are computed using a definition for the view, in terms of relations stored in the DBMS A user can treat a view just like a relation Even though the records in the view are not stored explicitly, they are computed as needed 22

23 Example: University Database Conceptual schema: Students(sid:string, name:string, login:string, age:integer, gpa:real) Courses(cid:string, cname:string, credit:integer) Enrolled(sid:string, cid:string, grade:string) Physical schema: Relations stored as unordered files Index on first column of Students External schema (view): Course_info(cid:string, enrollment:integer) 23

24 Data Independence (1/2) Application programs are insulated from changes in the way the data is structured and stored Data independence is achieved through use of the three levels of data abstraction; in particular, the conceptual schema and external schema One of the most important benefits of using a DBMS 24

25 Data Independence (2/2) Physical data independence Protection from changes in physical structure of data Logical data independence The conceptual schema insulates users from changes in the physical storage of data Protection from changes in logical structure of data The users can be shielded from changes in the logical structure of the data, or changes in the choice of relations to be stored 25

26 Queries in a DBMS Questions involving the data stored in a DBMS are called queries A DBMS provides a specification language, called the query language, in which queries can be posed A DBMS enables users to create, modify, and query data through a Data Manipulation Language (DML) 26

27 Concurrency Control (1/3) An important task of a DBMS is to schedule concurrent access to data so that each user can safely ignore the fact that others are accessing the data concurrently A DBMS allows users to think of their programs as if they were executing in isolation, one after the other in some order chosen by the DBMS 27

28 Concurrency Control (2/3) Concurrent execution of user programs is essential for good DBMS performance Because disk accesses are frequent, and relatively slow, it is important to keep the cpu humming by working on several user programs concurrently Interleaving actions of different user programs can lead to inconsistency :e.g., check is cleared while account balance is being computed DBMS ensures such problems don t arise: users can pretend they are using a single-user system 28

29 Concurrency Control (3/3) A locking protocol A set of rules to be followed by each transaction (and enforced by the DBMS) To ensure that even though actions of several transactions might be interleaved, the net effect is identical to executing all transactions in some serial order A lock is a mechanism used to control access to database objects 29

30 Locks Two kinds of locks are commonly supported by a DBMS Shared locks on an object can be held by two different transactions at the same time When do we want to use shared locks? Read an object Exclusive locks on an object ensures that no other transactions hold any lock on this object When do we want to use exclusive locks? Write an object 30

31 Transaction Management A transaction is any one execution of a user program in a DBMS This is the basic unit of change as seen by the DBMS Partial transactions are not allowed The effect of a group of transactions is equivalent to some serial execution of all transactions 31

32 Incomplete Transactions Transactions can be interrupted before running to completion for a variety of reasons, e.g., a system crash A DBMS must ensure that the changes made by such incomplete transactions are removed from the database For example, if the DBMS is in the middle of transferring money form account A to account B, but the crash occurs, both accounts must be in the same state before the transfer 32

33 Transaction: Key Concept A transaction is an atomic sequence of database actions (reads/writes) atomic sequence : all instructions in the sequence need to be executed together There is no effect of the execution of only a single instruction for the sequence that has multiple instructions Each transaction, executed completely, must leave the DB in a consistent state if DB is consistent when the transaction begins 33

34 Scheduling Concurrent Transactions DBMS ensures that execution of {T1,.., Tn} is equivalent to some serial execution of T1,, Tn Before reading/writing an object, a transaction requests a lock on the object, and waits till the DBMS gives it the lock. All locks are released at the end of the transaction Idea; If an action of Ti (say, writing X) affects Tj (which perhaps reading X), one of them, say Ti, will obtain the lock on X first and Tj is forced to wait until Ti completes; this effectively orders the transactions What if Tj already has a lock on Y and Ti later requests a lock on Y? 34

35 Ensuring Atomicity (1/2) DBMS ensures atomicity (all-ornothing property) even if system crashes in the middle of a Xact Idea: keep a log (history) of all actions carried out by the DBMS while executing a set of Xacts 35

36 Ensuring Atomicity (2/2) Before a change is made to the database, the corresponding log entry is forced to a safe location (WAL protocol; OS support for this is often inadequate) After a crash, the effects of partially executed transactions are undone using the log (Thanks to WAL, if log entry wasn t saved before the crash, corresponding change was not applied to database!) 36

37 A Log (1/3) To do a database recovery The DBMS maintains a log of all writes to the database A crucial property of the log Each write action must be recorded in the log (on disk) before the corresponding change is reflected in the database itself Why it must be recorded on disk first? If the system crashes just after making the change in the database but before the change is recorded in the log, the DBMS would be unable to detect and undo this change 37

38 A Log (2/3) The property that the change in database must be recorded in the log first before making the change in the database itself is called Write-Ahead Log or WAL To ensure this property, the DBMS must be able to selectively force a page in memory to disk The log is used to ensure that the changes made by a successfully completed transaction are not lost due to a system crash 38

39 A Log (3/3) The following actions are recorded in the log: Ti writes an object: the old value and the new value Log record must go to disk before the change in DBMS Ti commits/aborts: a log record indicating this action Log records chained together by Xact id, so it s easy to undo a specific Xact (e.g., to resolve a deadlock) 39

40 Recovery (1/2) Bringing the database to a consistent state after a system crash can be a slow process Why is it slow? The DBMS must ensure that the effects of all transactions that complete prior to the crash are restored The DBMS must also ensure that the effects of incomplete transactions are undone 40

41 Recovery (2/2) We can speed up this slow process by? Periodically forcing some information to disk The periodic operation is called a checkpoint Periodic checkpointing can reduce the time needed to recover from a crash However, checkpointing too often also slows down normal execution 41

42 Structure of a DBMS (1/6) A typical DBMS has a layered architecture The DBMS accepts SQL commands generated from a variety of user interfaces, produces query evaluation plans, execute these plans against the database, and returns the answers When a user issues a query, the parsed query is present to a query optimizer 42

43 Structure of a DBMS (2/6) A query optimizer uses information about how the data is stored to produce an efficient execution plan for evaluating the query An execution plan is a blueprint for evaluating a query, and is usually presented as a tree of relational operators 43

44 Structure of a DBMS (3/6) The codes that implements relational operators sits on top of the file and access methods layer A file in a DBMS is a collection of pages or a collection of records The files and access methods layer code sits on top of the buffer manager, which brings pages in from disk to main memory as needed in response to read requests 44

45 Structure of a DBMS (4/6) The lowest layer of the DBMS software deals with management of space on disk, where the data is stored Higher layers allocate, deallocate, read, and write pages through this layer, called the disk space manager The DBMS supports concurrency and crash recovery by carefully scheduling user requests and maintaining a log of all changes to the database 45

46 Structure of a DBMS (5/6) The transaction manager ensures that transactions request and release locks according to a suitable locking protocol and schedules the execution transactions The lock manager keeps tracks of requests for lock and grant locks on database objects when they become available 46

47 Structure of a DBMS (6/6) The recovery manager is responsible for maintaining a log, and restoring the system to a consistent state after a crash The disk space manager, buffer manager, and file and access methods layers must interact with these components 47

48 Databases make these folks happy End users and DBMS vendors DB application programmers E.g., smart webmasters Database administrator (DBA) Designs logical/physical schemas Handles security and authorization Data availability, crash recovery Database tuning as needs evolve 48

49 Summary (1/2) DBMS used to maintain, query large datasets Benefits include recovery from system crashes, concurrent access, quick application development, data integrity and security Levels of abstraction give data independence 49

50 Summary (2/2) A DBMS typically has a layered architecture DBAs hold responsible jobs and are all well-paid DBMS R&D is one of the broadest, most exciting areas in CS 50

51 Reference Database Management Systems, Third Edition by Ramakrishnan and Gehrke 51

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