Network Data Model Hierarchical Data Model Trends

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1 Network Data Model Hierarchical Data Model Trends First Generation DBMS o Network Data Model o Hierarchical Data Model Net / Hier / Trends - 1 Net / Hier / Trends - 2 Network Model Basic Concepts Network Model Basic Concepts o Data are represented as collection of records o Relationships are represented as links o Each record is a collection of fields: type customer = type account = record customer-name: string; customer-street: string; customer-city: string; end record end account-number: string; balance: integer; Net / Hier / Trends - 3 Net / Hier / Trends - 4

2 Network Model Data-Structure Diagrams Data-structure diagram: - Same purpose as an ER diagram. - Boxes (record types) - Lines (links) Network Model Data-Structure Diagrams Many to Many: One to Many from customer to account: One to One: Net / Hier / Trends - 5 Net / Hier / Trends - 6 Network Model Relating 3 Record Types A customer may have several accounts, each in a specific branch. An account may belong to several different customers. Network Model Relating 3 Record Types A link can connect only 2 record types => We need to use a new record type (Rlink) as below: Net / Hier / Trends - 7 Net / Hier / Trends - 8

3 Network Model DBTG Model o DBTG Model (late 1960s) First database-standard specification. o Using DBTG Sets to discribe inter-record structures. o Eg. a Depositor (1:M) link: Network Model DBTG Model Consider: An account, b2 of a1, cannot appear as an account of any other customer record (the same DBTG set). But b2 can appear as a member of a branch record (another DBTG set). Parents Members Customer records Account records The DBTG Set (Depositor) is {(a1,(b1,b2)), (a2,(b3,b4,b5)), (a3,(b6))} Net / Hier / Trends - 9 Net / Hier / Trends - 10 Network Model DML (DBTG) Network Model Implementation (DBTG) DML o The DML consists of commands to be embedded in a host language (eg. C). o To select records based on a specified field value. o To iterate over selected records by repeated comments. o To find the owner record from a member. o Links are implemented as pointer fields. o Eg. M:1 from account to customer In an account record, a pointer is stored to point to the customer record. In a customer record, instead of using multiple pointers to point to the accounts, we use a ring structure. o To find the members of an owner by iteration. o To update the database. Net / Hier / Trends - 11 Net / Hier / Trends - 12

4 Network Model Implementation (DBTG) Network Model vs Relational Model o Difficult to implement M:N using pointers o Therefore, DBTG Model does not allow M:N links. o To describe M:N relationships, a new dummy record type is required (ie. using two 1:M links) : The Network Model o It is closely tied to the implementation increases the burden on the programmer for DB design and data manipulationship. o Is efficient compared with early relational implementations. Net / Hier / Trends - 13 Net / Hier / Trends - 14 Hierchical Model o Also use Records, Links (similar to Network Model) o Database is collection of rooted trees => forest Hierchical Model Tree-Structure Diagrams Tree-structure diagram (cf. Data-structure diagram ) o No cycle (cf. arbitrary graph in Network Model) o Only 1:1 and 1:M can be directly represented Net / Hier / Trends - 15 Net / Hier / Trends - 16

5 Hierchical Model Tree-Structure Diagrams Hierchical Model Sample Database Trees o For M:N relationships, we need 2 separate treestructure diagrams. Net / Hier / Trends - 17 Net / Hier / Trends - 18 Hierchical Model Tree-Structure Diagrams o For the following relationships between branch, account, and customer: Hierchical Model Implementation o To avoid record duplication, use virtual records: we need 2 separate tree-structure diagrams: Net / Hier / Trends - 19 Net / Hier / Trends - 20

6 Hierchical Model Implementation Hierchical Model IMS Implementation example: IMS: Information Management System (IBM,mid-1960s) - One of oldest and most widely used DB system - The first to deal with the issues of concurrency, recovery, integrity, efficent query processing. - Similar disadvantages and impact as Network Model. Net / Hier / Trends - 21 Net / Hier / Trends - 22 Trends Distributed DBMSs Trends o Distributed DBMS o Object DBMS Distributed Database A logically interrelated collection of shared data (and a description of this data), physically distributed over a computer network. Distributed DBMS Software system that permits the management of the distributed database and makes the distribution transparent to users. Net / Hier / Trends - 23 Net / Hier / Trends - 24

7 Trends Distributed DBMSs Trends Distributed DBMSs Distributed DBMSs Three key issues: Fragmentation Relation may be divided into a number of subrelations, which are then distributed. Allocation Each fragment is stored at site with "optimal" distribution. Replication Copy of fragment may be maintained at several sites. Net / Hier / Trends - 25 Net / Hier / Trends - 26 Trends Distributed DBMSs Trends Object DBMSs Advantages o Organizational Structure o Shareability & Local Autonomy o Improved Availability o Improved Reliability o Improved Performance o Economics o Modular Growth Disadvantages o Complexity o Cost o Security o Difficult Integrity Control o Lack of Standards o Lack of Experience o Complex DB Design The needs of advanced DB applications: o Computer-Aided Design (CAD) o Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) o Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) o Office Information Systems (OIS) and Multimedia Systems o Digital Publishing o Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Net / Hier / Trends - 27 Net / Hier / Trends - 28

8 Trends Object DBMSs Object Oriented Concepts Abstraction o Identify essential aspects of an entity and ignore the unimportant properties. o Concentrate on what an object is and what it does. o Delay implementation details. o 2 aspects: Encapsulation An object contains data structure and operations. Information hiding We present external aspects of an object to the outside world and hide its internal details. Net / Hier / Trends - 29 Trends Object DBMSs Object : Employee Attributes : Name Date of Birth Dept. Salary Methods : Change Salary Calculate Age Delete method void ChangeSalary(int change) { Salary = Salary + change; } Objects communicate by sending messages: Staff_object.ChangeSalary(1000) Net / Hier / Trends - 30 Trends Object DBMSs Class o Similar objects can be grouped as a class (cf. a type or a structure in C) o Each such object is called an instance (cf. a variable) Inheritance o Allows one class to be defined as a special case of a more general class (subclass / superclass) Employee Person Customer Superclass Trends Object DBMSs vs Relational DBMSs Debate: Object DBMSs vs Relational DBMSs OODBMS proponents: Relational DBMSs are satisfactory for standard business applications but lack the capability of supporting more complex applications Relational supporters: Relational technology is a necessary part of any real DBMS, and complex applications can be handled by extensions to the relational model Officer Teller Secretary Subclass Net / Hier / Trends - 31 Net / Hier / Trends - 32

9 Trends - Summary First Generation DBMS - Network and Hierarchical o Required complex programs for even simple queries. o Minimal data independence. o No widely accepted theoretical foundation. Second Generation DBMS - Relational DBMS o Helped overcome these problems. Third Generation DBMS - OODBMS and ORDBMS o Response to increasing complexity of DB applications Net / Hier / Trends - 33

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