LESSON 29: DEPENDENT CLAUSES (ADJECTIVE)

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1 LESSON 29: DEPENDENT CLAUSES (ADJECTIVE) Relevant Review Dependent clauses are groups of words with a subject and a verb, they can't stand alone, and they act as one part of speech. Adjectives describe nouns or pronouns. Adjective Questions: Which one? What kind? How many? Whose? Lesson You've learned about two of the three types of dependent clauses (noun clauses and adverb clauses), and in this lesson, you'll learn about the third (dependent clauses). For short, we call these clauses. They Act As One Part of Speech (Adjectives) The happy girl played the piano. Happy is a one-word describing the subject girl. WHICH girl? The happy girl. The girl who looks happy played the piano. Who looks happy is now acting as an describing girl. WHICH girl? The girl who looks happy. Who looks happy is a group of words with a subject (who) and a verb (looks), and it cannot stand alone. Notice that we could say Who looks happy?, but that's a question, and it's not expressing the same meaning that it is in the above sentence. Who looks happy is a dependent clause in this sentence. Here are a few more examples of clauses. Can you identify what noun or pronoun each clause is modifying? The man whom I love is a photographer. The book that you lost is overdue from the library. The teacher who taught us math will now teach us history. We drove to the park where I will be playing. Remember that dependent clauses can do anything that an can do. That means they can modify any noun or pronoun. GET SMART (INSTRUCTOR) LESSON

2 Words That Introduce Adjective Clauses Relative Pronouns who, whom, whose, that, which Most clauses are introduced by relative pronouns. Relative pronouns link the clause to the word in the independent clause that the clause is modifying. Relative pronouns also play a role within the clause. They perform one of the noun/pronoun jobs. The book that you lost is overdue from the library. That you lost is the clause. It is modifying the subject of the independent clause (book). That is a relative pronoun. It is linking the clause with the independent clause, and it is acting as the direct object within the clause. Relative Adverbs where, when, why, before, since Sometimes clauses are introduced by relative adverbs. We drove to the park where I run. Where I run is the clause. It is modifying the object of the preposition that is in the independent clause (park). Where is a relative adverb. It is linking the clause with the independent clause, and it is acting as an adverb within the clause. No Introductory Word Sometimes the introductory word in an clause is omitted. The book you lost is overdue from the library. You lost is the clause modifying book. It is a group of words with a subject and a verb acting as an, so we know that it's an clause. The relative pronoun that is implied. It's as if the sentence says: The book (that) you lost is overdue from the library. All of the sentences that we'll be diagramming have introductory words, so don't worry too much about clauses with no introductory word! 2 GET SMART (INSTRUCTOR) LESSON 29

3 Diagramming Adjective Clauses Diagram the independent clause at the top. Diagram the clause below the independent clause on a horizontal line just like a regular sentence. Use a dotted, vertical line to connect the relative pronoun or relative adverb in the clause with the word in the independent clause that the clause modifies. In this example, the clause is modifying the subject of the main clause, and the relative pronoun is the subject of the clause. The man who smiled knows me. In the next example, the clause is modifying the subject of the main clause, and the relative pronoun is the direct object of the clause. GET SMART (INSTRUCTOR) LESSON

4 The man whom I know smiled. In this example, the clause is modifying the object of the preposition in the main clause. The relative adverb is introducing the clause and acting as an adverb in the clause. We drove to the park where I run. 4 GET SMART (INSTRUCTOR) LESSON 29

5 Lesson 29 Sentence Diagramming Exercises 1. The girl who looks happy played the piano. Hint: Who looks happy is an clause. Key The girl who looks happy played the piano. The girl played the piano girl The played piano the who looks happy who looks happy sentence - statement independent clause subject (noun) verb (transitive active) direct object (noun) dependent clause modifying girl subject of clause (relative pronoun) verb of clause (intransitive linking) predicate in clause () GET SMART (INSTRUCTOR) LESSON

6 2. The girl played the piano that her grandmother bought. Hint: That her grandmother bought is an clause. Diagram it as if it says her grandmother bought that. Key The girl played the piano that her grandmother bought. The girl played the piano girl The played piano the that her grandmother bought grandmother her bought that sentence - statement independent clause subject (noun) verb (transitive active) direct object (noun) dependent clause modifying piano subject of clause (noun) in clause verb of clause (transitive active) direct object of clause (relative pronoun) 6 GET SMART (INSTRUCTOR) LESSON 29

7 3. The shirt that you wore yesterday is dirty. Hint: That you wore yesterday is an clause. Key The shirt that you wore yesterday is dirty. The shirt is dirty shirt The is dirty that you wore yesterday you wore that yesterday sentence - statement independent clause subject (noun) verb (intransitive linking) predicate dependent clause modifying shirt subject of clause (pronoun) verb of clause (transitive active) direct object of clause (relative pronoun) adverb in clause GET SMART (INSTRUCTOR) LESSON

8 4. The singer whom I love will release a new song today. Hint: Whom I love is an clause. Diagram it as if it says I love whom. Key The singer whom I love will release a new song today. The singer will release a new song today singer The will release will release song sentence - statement independent clause subject (noun) verb phrase helping verb main verb (transitive active) direct object (noun) a, new s today whom I love I love whom adverb dependent clause modifying singer subject of clause (pronoun) verb of clause (transitive active) direct object of clause (relative pronoun) 8 GET SMART (INSTRUCTOR) LESSON 29

9 5. The movie that I like is playing at the movie theater. Key The movie that I like is playing at the movie theater. The movie is playing at the movie theater movie The is playing is playing at the movie theater at theater the, movie that I like I like that sentence - statement independent clause subject (noun) verb phrase helping verb main verb (intransitive complete) prepositional phrase (adverb) preposition object of the preposition (noun) s dependent clause modifying movie subject of clause (pronoun) verb of clause (transitive active) direct object of clause (relative pronoun) GET SMART (INSTRUCTOR) LESSON

10 Extra Practice: Diagramming Adjective Clauses Directions: Diagram the following sentences on a separate sheet of paper. Teachers, the answers are on the next page. 1. The woman who called lives in San Francisco. 2. The poem that I wrote is being read on the radio tonight! 3. Comets, which are made of ice and dirt, typically have elliptical orbits. 4. The students smiled at the teacher whom they loved. 5. The pancakes that he made smelled delicious. 10 GET SMART (INSTRUCTOR) LESSON 29

11 Lesson 29 Extra Practice Answers Diagramming Adjective Clauses 1. The woman who called lives in San Francisco. 2. The poem that I wrote is being read on the radio tonight! 3. Comets, which are made of ice and dirt, typically have elliptical orbits. 4. The students smiled at the teacher whom they loved. 5. The pancakes that he made smelled delicious. GET SMART (INSTRUCTOR) LESSON

12 12 GET SMART (INSTRUCTOR) LESSON 29

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