Intercultural. Communication Theory. Professor Hossein Dadfar. Communication

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1 Intercultural Communication Theory Professor Hossein Dadfar Communication You cannot not communicate. Non-communication is a form of communication. 1

2 What will be accomplish in this part? How we define communication Explore process and components of communication The 3Vs of communication modes Verbal Vocal Visual Your communication style How to improve your communication skill What is Communication A simple definition of interpersonal communication: intentional transmission of a message (meaning) from one individual to another 2

3 Communication is the exchange of messages between people for the purpose of achieving common meanings. Communication is the process of sharing our ideas, thoughts, and feelings with other people and having those ideas, thoughts and feelings understood by the people we are talking with. The key element is understanding 3

4 Communication is a cooperative endeavor. Communication requires both the skillful sending and the skillful receiving of messages. Definition of Communication To communicate is not to say, to communicate is to be understood 4

5 Communication Strategies Successful Communication Strategies- 4WH Model W W H W W 5

6 Successful Communication Strategies- 4WH Model Why? Know why you are communicating, and what you want to accomplish Who? Know who your targets are What? Know what is expected of you and when to go into details How to communicate effectively? When? Know when to speak and when to remain silent and let others continue the discussion Communication Strategies (4WH Model) Why, Who, What, When, and How Why Know why you are communicating, and what you want to accomplish Who Know who your targets are What Know what is expected of you and when to go into details 6

7 Communication Strategies Why, Who, What, When, and How When Know when to speak and when to remain silent and let others continue the discussion How Know how to communicate effectively Communication Models Communication process model UMPI model 3 Vs model 7

8 Stimulus Communication Model Sending Channel Message Encoding Understanding Decoding Decoding Understanding Encoding Person A Feedback Channel Person B Communication Process Model Sender (Meaning Encode) Message Medium Message Receiver Decode Meaning Noise Culture Feedback 8

9 The Communication Process Sender: initiator of message Encoding: translating intended meaning into words and gestures Message: the combination of verbal & nonverbal symbols expressed Message channel - the conduit or medium that will carry a message from the sender to the receiver. Noise: anything that interferes with message-achieving common meaning Decoding - the translation of a message by a receiver. Feedback - a verbal or nonverbal response by a i t th d Information Richness of Communication Channels Low channel richness High channel richness Routine Nonroutine 9

10 The Essence of ICC Is UMPI UMPI Source: Dadfar (2002) Direction of Communication Downward Lateral Upward 10

11 Formal Internal Communication Network Downward Supervisor Upward Supervisor Staff Staff Department Horizontal Department 3 Vs Modes of Interpersonal Communication Verbal-the words you say, the message itself Vocal-how you say, the intonation, projection and resonance of the voice that carries the message the words Visual-what people see Total 100 Exercise: put your estimate of which element carries the most creditability in interpersonal communication to pseudo a listener. 11

12 Modes of Communication Verbal (Words) Vocal Paralanguage (Pitch, tone, resonance) Body Language 7% 38% 55% Communication Modes: Communication Verbal &Vocal Pause and non-words Voice quality Language Humour and proverbs 12

13 Why ICC The most important thing in communication is hearing what isn't said Peter F. Drucker , American management guru 3 Cs of understanding Non-verbal communication Context Congruence Cluster 13

14 Some Types of Nonverbal Communication Facial Expression Touching Behavior Gestures and Postures Non-Verbal Communication Facial expressions (smiles ) Hand gestures Walking Posture Space usage (proxemics) Touching Colour symbolism Artefacts (jewellery ) Clothing Hairstyles Cosmetics Time symbolism Graphic symbols Silence Eye contact Olfaction (e.g. perfume) 14

15 Visual- Non verbal Communication Visual- Non verbal Eye contact Gesture and facial expressions Posture and movement space Dress and appearance Physical touch Non-verbal Communication or Bady language Refers to messaging without words 15

16 Duration Direction Eye Contact Posture and movement Body position 16

17 Facial expressions-truth Space Personal space Public space 17

18 This image cannot currently be displayed. SPACE (Proxemics) Intimate distance 18 Personal distance 18 to 4 Social distance 4 to 8 Public distance 8 to 10 Body language (Students Illustrations) Sweden: uncertainty Germany: Closed herself off from argumentation Austria: thinking Italy: Italy: augmenting Ti spacco il culo 18

19 Body language Sweden: uncertainty Germany: Closed herself off from argumentation Austria: thinking Italy: Ti spacco il culo 3 Styles/Types of Communication 1. Passive Communication/ Nonassertive Unwillingness to say what one thinks, feels, or wants. Frequently associated with anxiety about others opinions Creates distance rather than intimacy. 19

20 Nonassertive Nonverbal Signs Lack of eye contact; looking down or looking away Swaying from side to side Whining and hesitancy when speaking 2. Assertive Communication Involves the expression of thoughts, feelings, & desires I statements Giving yourself the right to be who you are without infringing on your partners rights to be who he/she is. 20

21 Nonverbal Assertive Stand steady and straight Face the person Make and maintain eye contact Speak in a clear, steady voice Speak with assurance and confidence 3. Aggressive Communication Aims to hurt or put down another person Characterized by you statements Reinforces that partner is to blame. 21

22 Nonverbal Signs Aggressive Leaning forward Eyes glaring Pointing a finger Shouting Clenching fists Putting hands on hips and wagging the head Passive + Passive Relationship is devitalized and boring. Both people lose. Low level of intimacy. 22

23 Passive + Aggressive Relationship is dominated by one person. I win, You lose outcome Low level of intimacy Aggressive + Aggressive Relationship is conflicted Both lose. Low level of intimacy 23

24 Assertive + Assertive Relationship is vital and growing. Both Win High level of intimacy. Davies and Cain s 6 Styles (Among team members) Aggressive Dominating Worrying Talkative Quietly confident Hinting 24

25 How to Improve Your Communication Skills 5 Skills of listening (Understanding) 5 Skills of talking (sending message, making understood) Listening Listening is the foundation of good communication 25

26 The Goal of Listening is Important Control vs. Discover 3 Types of Listening: 1. Persuasive Listening 2. Directive Listening 3. Attentive Listening 5 Skills that Improve Your Listening Ability 1. Attend Give Full Attention Stop other Activity Put your concerns aside and give your partner the floor. 26

27 2. Acknowledge Way to validate your partner s experience. Can range from a simple nod of your head or an uh-huh to a brief statement (e.g., that sounds important ). 3. Invite more Information Say or do something that encourages your partner to continue spontaneously talking about whatever it is he or she wants to tell you. Tell me more Say more about that What else can you tell me? 27

28 4. Summarize Repeat in your own words what you just heard your partner say. Helps ensure the accuracy of your understanding of your partner. Do not just say I understand what you are saying - Demonstrate that you accurately understand. 5. Disclose Wants I want to be fair What you want for yourself, your partner, your relationship NOT what you want from your partner 28

29 Talking Skills- 5 skills to use 1. Speak for yourself: Use I, Me, My, Mine Indicates that you take responsibility for what you say. When you use you statements, you stimulate selfdefensiveness in others. For example: You re not listening Now you re angry We don t believe that 2. Describe Sensory Data Describe what you see, hear, taste, smell. Provides concrete examples of what you observed at a particular time and place. 29

30 3. Express Thoughts The world is filtered through our belief system. Saying what you are thinking believing, interpreting, expecting. For example: I believe it is important It seems possible to me 4. Share Feelings Stating your emotions directly. For example: I m really happy that we worked so well together, I m proud of you I m relieve to hear from you 30

31 Successful Communication Strategies- 4WH Model W H W W W Successful Communication Strategies- AWH Model Why? Know why you are communicating, and what you want to accomplish What? Know what is expected of you and when to go into details How to communicate effectively? Who? Know who your targets are When? Know when to speak and when to remain silent and let others continue the discussion 31

32 Eye Communication 1 Do you know where you when you are talking to another person? 2 Are you aware where you look when you are listening to another person? 3 Do you have a feeling for how long to maintain eye contact in one-to-one conversation? 4 Do you know how long to maintain eye contact with specific when presenting to a large group? 5 Are you aware where you look where you look when you look away from a person? 6 Do you know what eye dart is and whether or not you have it? 7 Do you know what slow-blink is and why it occurs? 8 Do you realise that eye contact is the most important behavioural skill in interpersonal communication Yes No Voice and vocal 1 Does your voice project to others or do you simply speak? Yes No 2 Do you know if you have a high nasal or low resonant voice, or one somewhere in between? 3 Are you aware when your voice goes into a monotone, and for what reasons? 4 Has anyone ever complimented you on your nice voice? (if so why? If not, why not) 5 Does your telephone voice differ from your speaking voice? 6 Are you are of what impact your voice has over the phone? 7 Do you know how to put a smile in your voice? 8 When you hear a person answer a phone for an organization do you think about what kind of image is covered? 9 Do you know that what impact of the tone your voice has 32

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