Wave Vocabulary- 25 words 1. WAVE 2. MEDIUM 3. MECHANICAL WAVE 4. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 5. ENERGY 6. TRANSVERSE WAVES 7. LONGITUDINAL WAVES 8.

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1 WAVES Chapter 11

2 Wave Vocabulary- 25 words 1. WAVE 2. MEDIUM 3. MECHANICAL WAVE 4. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 5. ENERGY 6. TRANSVERSE WAVES 7. LONGITUDINAL WAVES 8. CREST 9. TROUGH 10. INTERFERENCE 11. CONSTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE 12. DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE 13. AMPLITUDE 14. WAVELENGTH 15. PERIOD 16. FREQUENCY 17. WAVE SPEED 18. DOPPLER EFFECT 19. REFLECTION 20. DIFFRACTION 21. REFRACTION 22. STANDING WAVES 23. HERTZ 24. COMPRESSION 25. RAREFACTION

3 A. Types of Waves 1. Wave: a disturbance that transmits energy through matter or space a. The object the wave travels through doesn t move outward with the wave b. Example: leaf and water droplets in a pond

4 2. Most waves travel through a medium a. Medium: the matter through which a wave travels 1. Examples: water in a pond, air for sound, earth for earthquakes b. Mechanical waves: a wave that requires a medium through which to travel 1. Almost all waves are mechanical except for electromagnetic waves

5 c. Electromagnetic waves: a wave caused by a disturbance in electric and magnetic fields and that does not require a medium 1. Examples: UV radiation, television, and radio waves

6 3. Waves transfer energy a. Energy: ability to do work b. Examples: sound waves on your eardrum, light waves on your eyes, ocean waves on a shore

7 c. As the wave travels, it spreads out in circles, spreading out the energy over a larger area

8 4. Most waves are caused by vibrating objects a. Vibrations involve energy transformations between kinetic and potential

9 b. The motion of particles in a medium is like the motion of masses on springs c. As one part of the wave moves, it pulls on the next part, transferring the energy

10 5. Transverse and Longitudinal waves a. Waves are classified according to which direction that the particles in the medium move as a wave passes

11 b. Transverse waves 1. Transverse waves: a wave that causes the particles of the medium to vibrate perpendicularly to the direction the wave travels a. Example: light waves

12 c. Longitudinal Waves 1. Longitudinal waves: a wave that causes the particles of the medium to vibrate parallel to the direction the wave travels a. Example: sound waves

13 d. Surface waves 1. Particles move both perpendicular and parallel to the direction that the wave travels a. Example: water waves

14 B. Characteristics of Waves 1. Wave Properties a. Crest: the highest point of a transverse wave b. Trough: the lowest point of a transverse wave c. Amplitude: the greatest distance that particles in a medium move from their normal position when the wave passes 1. Larger waves have larger amplitudes and carry more energy

15 d. Longitudinal waves 1. Compressions: crowded areas of the medium 2. Rarefactions: stretched-out areas of the medium

16 e. Wavelength: the distance between any two successive identical parts of a wave f. Period: the time required for one full wavelength to pass a certain point g. Frequency: the number of vibrations that occur in a 1s time interval 1. Measured in hertz (Hz) Hz is lowest sound we hear, while is the highest sound

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18 f. Light 1. Electromagnetic spectrum: the full range of light at different frequencies and wavelengths

19 g. Wave speed 1. Wave speed: the speed at which a wave passes through a medium 2. Wave speed = frequency x wavelength

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21 3. Speed of a wave depends on the medium- (fastest in solid, then liquid, then gas) 4. Speed of light = 3 x 10 8 m/s (186,000 mi/s) in empty space a. Light travels slower when passing through medium

22 4. The Doppler Effect a. Pitch (high/low) determined by the frequency at which sound strikes the eardrum b. Doppler Effect: an observed change in the frequency of a wave when the source or observer is moving c. Example: ambulance coming and going

23 C. Wave Interactions 1. Reflection: the bouncing back of a wave as it meets a surface or boundary a. Example: echo

24 2. Diffraction: the bending of a wave as it passes an edge or an opening a. Example: hearing sound outside a doorway in school

25 3. Refraction- the bending of waves as they pass from one medium to another

26 4. Interference: the combination of two or more waves that exist in the same place at the same time a. Produces a new, single wave- once they pass, they return to their original shape

27 b. Types of interference: 1. Constructive interference: any interference in which waves combine so that the resulting wave is bigger than the original waves a. Crest meets crest, trough meets trough 2. Destructive interference: any interference in which waves combine so that the resulting wave is smaller than the largest of the original waves a. Crest meets trough, trough meets crest

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29 c. Interference of light creates color swirls on bubbles

30 d. Interference of sound waves produce beats

31 5. Standing waves a. Standing waves: a wave form caused by interference that appears not to move along the medium and that shows some regions of no vibrations (nodes) and other regions of maximum vibrations (antinodes) 1. Nodes: crest of original wave meets trough of reflected wave- destructive interference 2. Antinodes: crest of original wave meets crest of reflected wave- constructive interference

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