Creating an Empire Creating an Empire The Roots of Imperialism Ideological and Religious Arguments Strategic Concerns

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1 1 2 Creating an Empire The Roots of Imperialism What arguments were made in favor of American expansion in the late nineteenth century? The Spanish-American War What were the most important consequences of the Spanish- American War? Imperial Ambitions: The United States and East Asia, What opportunities and obstacles did American expansionists find in Asia? 3 Creating an Empire Imperial Power: The United States and Latin America, What was the nature of U.S. involvement in Latin America? Engaging Europe: New Concerns, Old Constraints Why did the United States take a larger role in Europe at the beginning of the twentieth century? 4 5 The American Empire Coup in Hawaii The Spanish-American War War in the Philippines The Roots of Imperialism Ideological and Religious Arguments Strategic Concerns Economic Designs First Steps 1

2 First Steps 6 Ideological and Religious Arguments Americans divided on support for imperialism Social Darwinism Anglo-Saxon superiority Male dominance Missionary impulse Strategic Concerns Alfred Thayer Mahan President of Naval War College The Influence of Sea Power upon History Mahanism Economic Designs Protecting trade Excess production Led to the search for markets Depression of the 1890s First Steps Seward and Blaine Secretaries of State William H. Seward and James G. Blaine Both promoted expansion in the Pacific Hawaii Government overthrown by American planters Chile and Venezuela President Cleveland asserted American authority in the Western hemisphere

3 The Spanish-American War The Cuban Revolution Growing Tensions War and Empire The Treaty of Paris The Cuban Revolution Cuban uprising Americans swayed by yellow press Religious sentiments Opposed to Catholic Spanish rule Growing Tensions President McKinley Support for expansion U.S.S. Maine explosion February 1898 Congress declared war April 1898 Teller Amendment War and Empire Victory in the Philippines May 1898 Victory in Cuba June Rough Riders 10th Negro Cavalry Annexation of Hawaii July The Treaty of Paris Armistice Cuban independence United States gained Puerto Rico and Guam Treaty of Paris Philippines to the United States Long ratification debate Election of

4 Election of 1900 Issue of imperialism Explore the Spanish-American War on MyHistoryLab Imperial Ambitions: The United States and East Asia: The Philippine-American War China and the Open Door Rivalry with Japan and Russia The Philippine-American War Filipino nationalists led by Emilio Aguinaldo Americans used concentration camps Vocal debate about the goals and methods of the war United States established colonial government China and the Open Door European powers established spheres of influence Committee on American Interests in China Lobby Secretary of State John Hay Open Door policy Boxer Rebellion 1900 Rivalry with Japan and Russia Roosevelt brokered agreement 1907 Gentlemen s Agreement Segregation of Japanese school children Imperial Power: The United States and Latin America: U.S. Rule in Puerto Rico Cuba as a U.S. Protectorate The Panama Canal The Roosevelt Corollary 4

5 The Roosevelt Corollary Dollar Diplomacy Wilsonian Interventions 28 U.S. Rule in Puerto Rico Strategic location Insular Cases 1901 Puerto Rico as unincorporated territory Cuba as a U.S. Protectorate Cuban constitutional convention Limited suffrage Platt Amendment United States maintained control The Panama Canal Theodore Roosevelt Colombia refused to sell land Support for Panamanian uprising United States took control of the Canal Zone 1904 Canal completed in The Roosevelt Corollary Opposition to European intervention Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine Drago Doctrine Latin American response Dollar Diplomacy President Taft supported American investment Dollar diplomacy Intervention in Nicaragua 5

6 Intervention in Nicaragua Americans controlled trade in much of Central America Wilsonian Interventions Wilson was vocal in opposition to intervention He intervened more than any other president Caribbean interventions Interfering with Mexico Francisco Madero Victoriano Huerta Pancho Villa Engaging Europe: New Concerns, Old Constraints Britain recognized growing American international power First Hague Peace Conference 1899 Permanent Court of Arbitration Declaration of London Conclusion By Woodrow Wilson s presidency, the United States had been expanding its involvement in world affairs for fifty years. A mix of humanitarian impulses, racism, national security, and economic interest led the United States to create an overseas imperial empire of possessions and dominance. 6

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