Chapter 7, Section 1. The Imperialist Vision

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1 Chapter 7, Section 1 The Imperialist Vision

2 Building Support for Imperialism Big Ideas: Imperialism: The economic and political domination of a strong nation over weaker ones. Imperialism was the result of racist attitudes, a desire for access to world markets, and a continuation of the idea of Manifest Destiny.

3 Building Support for Imperialism Americans of the post civil war period were not concerned with expanding the nation s territory. Citizens were interested in rebuilding the south, settling the west, and developing centers of industry. European countries were continuing to expand their empires in order to obtain raw materials for their factories and to open up new markets for their manufactured goods.

4 Building Support for Imperialism For example, Europeans ruled nearly the entire African Continent. After a series of expeditions, Europeans realized that the African continent was full of valuable resources. To avoid starting a war over African territory European powers met in Berlin in 1884 to divide up the continent amongst themselves.

5 Building Support for Imperialism As Europeans began investing more of their money into foreign operations, they became concerned about the safety of their investments. To safeguard their money, many European countries developed overseas protectorates. Unlike a colony, a protectorate is allowed to keep their own rulers, but had to accept advice from their European protectors.

6 Building Support for Imperialism The expansion of the European empires resulted in Americans feeling as if they were being left behind and shut-out of overseas markets. Supporters of Social Darwinism also felt that it was the destiny of Anglo-Saxons to dominate the world. For Americans, the idea of Anglo-Saxonism reinforced the idea of Manifest Destiny. Imperialism was also tied to the desire of many to Christianize the globe.

7 Building Support for Imperialism The US found itself increasingly having to enforce the Monroe Doctrine as European powers sought to increase their influence in the South Pacific as well as in Central and South America. Before the US could take advantage of overseas markets and assert itself on the world scene, it needed to have a modern navy capable of defending its merchant ships and enforcing foreign policy.

8 Building Support for Imperialism In 1890, Captain Alfred T. Mahan, a teacher at the Naval War College, published his lectures on naval power in a book called The Influence of Sea Power on History. His book became a best seller and its popularity created a movement in Congress to build a modern navy on par with the major European powers. The new navy became a visual representation of America s power. USS Maine The launch of the USS Nebraska from Moran Shipyards in Seattle, 1904

9 American Expansion in the Pacific Big Ideas: Expanding westward had become an American pastime, and by the late 1800s the only westward territory lay out in the Pacific Ocean. America used it s new industrial might to create inroads in Japan, conquer Hawaii, and challenge the Spanish Empire in Latin America. To accomplish these goals, the US needed safe regions where they could moor, refuel and resupply their war and merchant ships.

10 American Expansion in the Pacific One of the first instances of American might being used to open economic doors occurred in Business leaders wanted access to Asian markets, particularly Japan. Japan, under the leadership of Tokugawa, wanted nothing to do with the west for fear that trade would diminish Japanese culture as it had done in China.

11 American Expansion in the Pacific In 1852 President Millard Fillmore ordered Commodore Mathew C. Perry to take a fleet of ships to Japan to negotiate a treaty. The Japanese people had never before seen a steamship or warships with so much firepower.

12 American Expansion in the Pacific The Japanese had no means of resisting American technology and agreed to a treaty of peace that opened two of Japan s ports to American trade and allowed the US Navy to purchase supplies for their vessels and crews. The opening of Japan was a pivotal point in their history that ended the shogunate and led to the Meiji Restoration and industrialization. By the 1890s, Japan had a modern navy and army on par with those of its European rivals. Japanese Battleship Mikasa -1905

13 American Expansion in the Pacific American businessmen and missionaries were involved in Hawaii since the early 1800s. Americans established sugar plantations on the island in the mid 1800s, but saw their profits suffer from the increasing American tariffs on imported sugar. Worried that disgruntled farmers would turn to Europeans for help, the US negotiated a treaty that ended the tariffs in exchange for exclusive rights to base ships in Pearl Harbor.

14 American Expansion in the Pacific As the sugar growers power increased, the monarchy became weaker. In 1887 businessmen and sugar planters led by Sanford Dole used a private army to force King Kalakaua to sign a new constitution or be deposed. The Bayonet Constitution stripped the voting rights of all Asians, expanded voting rights to foreign residents, and implemented an income requirement for voting.

15 American Expansion in the Pacific In 1891, after king Kalakaua died, his sister, Liliuokalani, became queen and, in 1893, set out to replace the Bayonet Constitution. The American minister in Hawaii, John L. Stevens, called in American troops to seize the royal palace and take custody of the queen. Sanford Dole declared himself governor of the islands. "I yield to the superior force of the United States of America, whose minister, his excellency John L. Stevens, has caused United States troops to be landed at Honolulu.... Now, to avoid any collision of armed forces and perhaps the loss of life, I do, under this protest, and impelled by said force, yield my authority until such time as the government of the United States shall undo the action of its representative and reinstate me. Queen Liliuokalani, 1893

16 American Expansion in the Pacific After investigating the coup, President Grover Cleveland fired Stevens and apologized to Queen Liliuokalani. Hawaii s new leaders refused to reinstate the queen and instead waited for Cleveland s term to run out. In 1898, Americans elected Republican William McKinley who approved the annexation of Hawaii.

17 Diplomacy in Latin America Americans were not only concerned about Pacific expansion, but also expansion in Latin America. American business didn t like the idea that Latin Americans purchased most of their manufactured goods from Europe. Especially since Americans bought many raw materials from Latin America. James G. Blaine, US Secretary of State, called for a conference of American Nations in D.C. to discuss peace and trade.

18 Diplomacy in Latin America The cooperation between the US and Latin American countries was called Pan- Americanism. The main goal was to reduce barriers to trade and keep Europeans from meddling in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere. The nations agreed to create a Commercial Bureau of the American Republics to promote cooperation.

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