Micropropagation of Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera)

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1 Micropropagation of Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera)

2 What is plant propagation? The reproduction or increasing in number of plants. Can be done in one of two ways. Sexual. Asexual.

3 Sexual Propagation Pollen is transferred from the anther to the stigma. Fertilization occurs and seeds are produced.

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5 Advantages of Sexual Propagation Fast way to get many plants. Easy to do. Economical.

6 Disadvantages of Sexual Propagation Some plants, especially hybrids, do not reproduce true to parents. Some plants are difficult to propagate from seeds.

7 Asexual Propagation The use of growing parts other than seeds to reproduce plants. The types are. Cuttings Layering Division/Separation Budding Grafting Tissue Culture

8 Layering The rooting of plant parts while they are still attached to the parent plant. Severed from the parent plant, the rooted plant becomes a new plant

9 Layering Methods Tip Layer Simple Layer Compound Layer Stooling Air Layer Stolons

10 Air Layering Wound stem and cover with moist medium to induce rooting

11 Grafting Joining separate plant parts together so that they form a union and grow together to make one plant. Scion Piece of plant at the top of the graft. Rootstock The piece of the plant at the root or bottom of the graft.

12 Bud/ Graft Union Scion Rootstock

13 Division Division taking tubers, roots, bulbs, or corms and dividing them.

14 Advantages of Asexual Propagation Produce plants faster Disease free stock Works when seeds are hard to germinate Plants produced are genetically identical to the parent plant Clones Plants with or without reproductive parts can be produced

15 Disadvantages of Asexual Propagation Some methods require special equipment & skills. The plants gradually lose their vigour as there is no genetic variation. They are more prone to diseases that are specific to the species. This can result in the destruction of an entire crop. Since many plants are produced, it results in overcrowding and lack of nutrients.

16 The genetic basis of propagation There are two types of plant cell divisions which include somatic cells and sex cells Mitosis somatic cells Meiosis sex cells

17 Mitosis every somatic cell is diploid (2n) usually with 2 sets of chromosomes The chromosomes duplicate and then segregate From this 2 new cells form, each with an identical set of chromosomes to the original cell

18 Meiosis or reduction division, is the process of forming sexually reproductive cells In meiotic division the 2n cell splits in two The chromosomes segregate so that one set goes to each of the new sex cells or gametes which is now haploid or 1n.

19 Mitosis and meiosis share many similarities, but they have very different outcomes. Mitosis is a single cell division that results in two daughter cells that are genetically identical to each other and to the original cell. Meiosis consists of two cell divisions that result in four haploid, genetically different daughter cells

20 Micropropagation Production of whole plants from small sections of plant such as a stem tip, node, meristem, embryo, or even a seed Plant tissue culture is basically the same thing, except that it implies the use of callus tissue generated from plant cells cultured in-vitro. Micropropagation and plant tissue culture are used to produce large numbers of plants from small pieces of the stock plant in relatively short periods of time.

21 Plant cells have the ability to reproduce the whole plant from single cells. This is called totipotency. Totipotency is the ability of a single cell to express the full genome in the cells to which it gives rise by cell division. Totipotency in reference to fertilized eggs (zygotes) are totipotent because they produce a population of differentiated cells forming an entire organism, whereas for example human skin cells are not totipotent since in culture they divide to produce only more skin cells (not nerve, muscle etc.).

22 The only limitation is that each plant is propagated differently and not every plant will respond the same way. Each genus, species and variety may require a different tissue which will obtain the best results.

23 Positives and negatives positives rapid multiplication rates low space requirement negatives labor costs high overhead (equipment, facilities, supplies) loss by contamination danger of variation

24 Stages of micropropagation stage I initiation or establishment of an aseptic culture preferred explant type: shoot tip or ax. bud medium: incubation: temp, photoperiod problems contamination browning of the explant

25 stage II multiplication: obtaining max. no. of propagules (tissue pieces or clumps used to generate future plantlets) cytokinin : auxin ratio adjusted to stimulate shoot production (usually high cytokinin:auxin ratio) stage III rooting (in vitro): or regeneration of roots on shoots from stage II cultures cytokinin is usually removed; auxin may or may not be added to the medium this stage is usually skipped with many plants stage IV acclimatization: survival and establishment after transfer to soil (ex vitro)

26 Date Palm

27 Sexual Propagation

28 Seed propagation, also called sexual propagation, although useful for breeding purposes, * Date palm is a dioecious species and consequently half of the progeny will be males and half will be females, with no certain way to determine at an early stage the sex of the progeny, nor fruit or pollen quality previous to flowering (often only seven years later); * Female plants originating from seedlings usually produce late maturing fruits of variable and generally inferior quality compared to established clonal palms. In a seedling plantation it is rare that more than 10 percent of the palms produce fruit of satisfactory quality; * Date palms are heterozygous, and thus there will be much variation within the progeny, and desirable characteristics of the parent palm may be lost. In other words, it is not true to type propagation and no two seedling palms are alike; * Seedlings differ in production potential, fruit quality and harvesting time, making them very difficult to market as one harvest; * The above reasons result in waste of time, space and money.

29 Asexual Propagation

30 In comparison to the seed propagation technique, offshoots which are axillary vegetative buds, will offer the following two advantages: - The fruits produced will be of the same quality as the mother palm and ensure uniformity of produce (true to type). - The offshoot will bear fruit earlier than seedlings (by 2-3 years). offshoot propagation is true to type but it is not very practical from a mass propagation point of view, and consequently does not satisfy the large needs of plant material. - Offshoot production is limited to a certain period in the palm's life span (a short vegetative phase of about 10 to 15 years); - During this short phase, only a limited number of offshoots are produced (20 to 30 offshoots, at most, depending on the variety); - Some varieties produce more than others (some do not produce offshoots at all); it will be lost if not propagated through another technique; - Depending on the care given, a low planting survival rate is frequently obtained when using offshoots; - The use of offshoots will enhance the spread of date palm diseases and pests; - Offshoot propagation is difficult, laborious, and therefore expensive.

31 Tissue Culture Propagation

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101 Thank You

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