Mr. Storie 10F Science Reproduction Unit Review. Reproduction Review YOU ARE EXPECTED TO KNOW THE MEANING OF ALL THE FOLLOWING TERMS:

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1 Reproduction Review YOU ARE EXPECTED TO KNOW THE MEANING OF ALL THE FOLLOWING TERMS: CHROMOSOME GENE DNA TRAIT HEREDITY INTERPHASE MITOSIS CYTOKINESIS ASEXUAL BINARY FISSION CELL CYCLE GENETIC DIVERSITY GAMETE DIPLOID HAPLOID HOMOLOGOUS PAIR MEIOSIS HORMONE TESTOSTERONE ESTROGEN PROGESTERONE (ALL MALE PARTS) (ALL FEMALE PARTS) OVULATION MENSTRUAL CYCLE FERTILIZATION ZYGOTE EMBRYO FETUS ALLELE DOMINANT RECESSIVE GENOTYPE PHENOTYPE HETEROZYGOUS HOMOZYGOUS PUNNETT SQUARE ADAPTATION NATURAL SELECTION MUTATION MUTAGEN CANCER CARCINOGEN B1 ESSENTIAL OUTCOMES (40% + exam) S1-1-13: How are the terms DNA, chromosome, genes, and trait connected? 1. The chromosomes are made of what material? 2. What shape is this material when unpackaged? 3. Chromosomes code for information. 4. Inheritance of every trait is controlled by a section of the chromosome called a. 5. We get chromosomes from our mother and from our father. 6. chromosomes, one from mother, one from father, can be paired because they contain versions of the same genes. 7. There are chromosomes in a human, of which pair(s) is/are sex chromosomes. 8. These are called and 9. Females have sex chromosomes and males have sex chromosomes. S1-1-02: Why do cells divide and how does it work? 10. CELL DIVISION: a) Chromosomes duplicate during this part of the cell cycle? b) Mitosis consists of these phases? c) Another name for mitosis is reproduction d) How many chromosomes does a normal parent cell have in mitosis? e) Duplicated chromosomes, represented together in diagrams as an X are called. f) In the first phase of mitosis,, what happens to the chromosomes?

2 g) In metaphase, do chromosomes line up in homologous pairs or as single chromosomes? h) In the last step of mitosis,, how many chromosomes are present in each cell? i) How many cells are produced by mitosis? j) What is a somatic cell? k) Describe the final outcome of mitosis? l) What is the function(s) of mitosis? S1-1-07: What role do gametes play in reproduction? 11. MEIOSIS: a) Meiosis is the beginning of a larger process called reproduction b) How many chromosomes does a normal parent cell have in meiosis? c) The two stages of meiosis are the stage and stage. d) During the first stage of meiosis, what happens to the number of chromosomes? e) In the first stage, do chromosomes line up in homologous pairs or as single chromosomes? f) After the second stage of meiosis, how many chromosomes are present? g) What is a gamete? h) What type of cell is produced by meiosis in males? Females? i) Describe the final outcome of meiosis? j) What is the function of meiosis? 12. Draw a picture (use interphase, metaphase, cytokinesis) to summarize events of Meiosis and Mitosis:

3 13. A mosquito has 3 pairs of chromosomes. a) If a body cell from a mosquito divides, what is this type of cell division called? b) How many chromosomes will the new body cells have? c) If a mosquito produces sperm cells, what is this type of cell division called? d) How many chromosomes will the sperm cells have? e) If sperm from a male mosquito fertilizes an egg from a female mosquito, how many chromosomes will the new zygote have? 14. Complete the table, using as many entries as you can find in your notes or the text: Method Advantages Disadvantages Asexual Sexual S1-1-09: What parts make up the male and female sex systems and what is the function of each part? 15. What are the functions of these structures in human females: a) Ovary: b) Uterus: c) Fallopian tube: d) Vagina:

4 16. What are the functions of these structures in human males: a) Testis: b) Prostate: c) Vas deferens: d) Epididymis: 17. Label this diagram of the human female reproductive system. a. b. c. g. h. i. j. 18. Label this diagram of the human male reproductive system. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i.

5 19. What are hormones? And which ones are important in reproduction? B2 EXTENTION OUTCOMES (70% + exam) S1-1-10: How does a fertilized egg turn into a baby and what determines the gender? 20. How is ovulation and menstruation controlled by hormones? 21. Define these terms: a) Zygote b) Fetus c) Embryo d) Fertilization S1-1-12: How are the features of the parents inherited to create unique offspring? 22. Explain the difference between heterozygous and homozygous (using the word allele):

6 23. There are many versions of each gene, these are called. One is the allele and the other is the allele. 24. This means that the person will show the trait, even if they have both types of alleles. 25. The word describes how a person looks as a result of the genes they carry. 26. There are thousands and thousands of genes. Some of these are located on the sex chromosomes. These are called - genes. 27. The traits for these genes are seldom expressed in because they have X allele(s), but are usually seen in because they only have X allele(s). 28. Create a Punnett square for the mating of a female with heterozygous genes for narrow nose and a male with a wide nose. (Narrow is dominant.) a) What are the phenotypes for the offspring in the above Punnett square? b) What is the ratio of the genotypes? 29. Jim and Cathy have detached earlobes, but two of their five kids have attached earlobes. Detached earlobes are dominant over attached. a) Is it possible that he is the father of the children? b) Prove your answer by showing the possible genotypes of Jim and Cathy. c) What are the odds that they would have a child with attached earlobes? (Hint: you can use a Punnett square.)

7 30. Dark hair is dominant over light hair colour. A person who is homozygous for dark hair marries a lighthaired person. What are the odds of the children having light hair? Prove your answer with a Punnett square. S1-1-08: What are some ways plants and animals improve their chances to reproduce? 31. Describe how sexual reproduction leads to natural selection and the formation of adaptations. (Be sure to explain each term in your answer). S1-1-15: How can lifestyle choices affect your genetics and development? 32. Explain the difference between the terms carcinogen and a mutagen? Provide an example of each. 33. What is cancer?

8 B3 EXPLORATION OUTCOMES (80% + exam) S1-1-03: What are some specific types of asexual reproduction that occur in plant and animals species? 34. Illustrate (draw) three methods of asexual reproduction used in animals or plants. S1-1-14: What is a pedigree and how is it used to track the inheritance of a trait? 35. This pedigree tracks the heredity of a recessive autosomal trait Nasty Toe. Number the individuals, and make a KEY that shows the sex of each individual (M/F) and your prediction of the genotype for each individual. Fig 1: Pedigree of Nasty Toe heredity in Family X

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