Gymnázium, Brno, Slovanské nám. 7, WORKBOOK - Biology WORKBOOK.

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1 WORKBOOK Subjekt: Biology Teacher: Iva Kubištová Student:.. School year:../. This material was prepared with using Topics: Life of Cell

2 Life of Cell: Task No 1 Metabolism. Complete next table. Energy source Carbon source Example * AUTOTROFS HETEROTROFS * plant, animal, fungi, bacteria, viruses Life of cell Task No 2: Study the diagram of mitosis and answer the questions. Telophase cell wall pinches in nuclear membranes are formed two daughter cells are produced Interphase you can see the nucleolus you can see uncoiled chromatin you cannot see chromosomes Anaphase sister chromatids are pulled to opposite sides of cell each chromatid is now a chromosome Metaphase chromosomes move tothe middle of spindles each sister chromatid is atttached to its ownspindle fiber Prophase chromatin uncoils, chromosomes appear chromosomes duplicate to form sister chromatids spindle forms between centrioles nuclear envelope and nucleolus disappear

3 1. What are the five phases of the cell cycle? 2. Two daughter cells form during which phase of the cell cycle? 3. Sister chromatids form two separate chromosomes during which phase? 4. Chromosomes move to the middle of the spindles during which phase? 5. You first see the chromosomes during which phase? Life of Cell Task No 3: Study the diagram of meiosis. Use the diagram to answer the questions. 1. Meiosis I begins with one cell. By the end of Meiosis II how many cells are formed? 2. Cell division by meiosis is a way to produce gametes that have only half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell. Why is this important?

4 Life of Cell: Task No 4 Vocabulary. Complete table with important terms. Term cell cycle cell division mitosis meiosis reproduction (sexual, asexual) hereditary (genetic) information parents offspring somatic cell gamete (germ cell) sperm and egg diploid/haploid number of chromosomes daughter cell, mother cell male, female fertilization (fusion of a sperm and an egg) zygote differentiation gen, genes development stem cell metabolism, catabolism, anabolism membrane transport autotrophs, heterotrophs carbon, carbon dioxide photosynthesis, chlorophyll metabolic pathways aerobic respiration anaerobic pathway facultative anaerobic pathways enzymes aging of cell death of cells programmed cell death - apoptosis traumatic cell death - necrosis Definition (English or Czech)

5 Fill in terms from table: 1. In biology means production of a new generation of cells or multicellular individuals. 2. Hereditary information is passed from to 3. Somatic cells of multicellular eukaryotic organisms usually have a number of chromosomes, whereas gametes have a number. 4. Each kind of organism contains a characteristic number of in each cell; each of those structures is composed of a molecule with its associated proteins. 5. Define the two types of nuclear division mechanisms that occur in eukaryotes. and. 6. Define the somatic cell and the germ cell 7. What is a chromosome? 8. Gametes called are produced in males and gametes called are produced in females. 9. (kind of division) maintains the number of chromosomes from one cell generation to the next one. 10. Mitosis maintains similar information in daughter cells, meiosis produces information. 11. Meiosis, a nuclear division process happening exclusively in cells, reduces the diploid number of chromosomes to the half. 12. The union of two during fertilization restores the diploid number in the new individual. The gametes have different sets of and information for traits in gametes. 13. Fusion of a sperm and an egg nucleus during produces a diploid cell ( ), which develops into multicellular form by mitosis and differentiation. 14. During the cell, the zygote gives rise to diverse types of specialized cells. 15. Undifferentiated cells in adult animals are 16. Define the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs and give example of each one. (oral definitions) 17. usually dividend into two categories - breaks down large molecules, for example to gain energy in cellular respiration,, whereas, uses energy to construct cellular components such as proteins and nucleic acids. 18. Metabolic chemical reactions are organized into, in which one chemical is transformed to another by a sequence of 19. Stress and mutations can cause of cell. 20. is a form of programmed cell death in multicellular organisms in contrast to, which is a form of traumatic cell death that results from acute cellular injury.

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