The Continuity of Life How Cells Reproduce

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1 The Continuity of Life How Cells Reproduce

2 Cell division is at the heart of the reproduction of cells and organisms Organisms can reproduce sexually or asexually. Some organisms make exact copies of themselves, asexual reproduction.

3 Other organisms make similar copies of themselves in a more complex process, sexual reproduction

4 Cells arise only from preexisting cells Cellular reproduction is called cell division Cell division allows an embryo to develop into an adult It also ensures the continuity of life from one generation to the next

5 What happens during the Prokaryotic Cell Cycle? Prokaryotic cells divide asexually These cells possess a single chromosome, containing genes The chromosome is replicated The cell then divides into two cells, a process called binary fission

6 What Occurs During the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle? The cell cycle consists of two major phases: Interphase, where chromosomes duplicate and cell parts are made. The mitotic phase, when cell division occurs Interphase consists of three main stages: G1 or Gap 1 S or Synthesis G2 or Gap 2

7 Cell division cell division cell growth and DNA replication

8 The chromosomes of eukaryotes duplicate with each cell division A eukaryotic cell has many more genes than a prokaryotic cell The genes are grouped into multiple chromosomes, found in the nucleus The chromosomes of this plant cell are stained dark purple

9 Chromosomes contain a very long DNA molecule with thousands of genes Sister chromatids Individual chromosomes are only visible during cell division They are packaged as chromatin. Before a cell starts dividing, during S, the chromosomes are duplicated. This process produces sister chromatids Centromere

10 There Are Two Types of division in Eukaryotic Cells: Mitotic Cell Division and Meiotic Cell Division Mitotic cell division This is the type of cell division when a mother cell produces two genetically identical daughter cells. For example: If the mother cell has 46 chromosomes the daughter cells will also have 46 chromosomes. Cell division has two steps: Mitosis or division of the nucleus and cytokinesis or division of the cytoplasm. Mitosis has four phases: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase. Cytokinesis begins at the end of anaphase.

11 The process of mitotic cell division is used for growth, healing, repair and regeneration.

12 Meiosis Meiosis is the process of cell division that we use for the formation of sex or reproductive cells. In humans, Meiosis takes place in the reproductive organs: the testis in males and the ovaries in females. In plants, Meiosis takes places in the anthers (male structures) and in the ovary (female structure) of the flower. When a mother cell divides, it produces four genetically different daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes than the mother cell.

13 Chromosomes are matched in homologous pairs Somatic cells of each species contain a specific number of chromosomes Human cells have 46, making up 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes Chromosomes Centromere Sister chromatids

14 Gametes have a single set of chromosomes Cells with two sets of chromosomes are said to be diploid Gametes are haploid, with only one set of chromosomes

15 The human life Haploid gametes (n = 23) Egg cell cycle Sperm cell MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION Multicellular diploid adults (2n = 46) Diploid zygote (2n = 46) Mitosis and development

16 At fertilization, a sperm fuses with an egg, forming a diploid zygote. Repeated mitotic divisions lead to the development of a mature adult The adult makes haploid gametes by meiosis All of these processes make up the sexual life cycle of organisms

17 mitotic cell division, differentiation, and growth baby mitotic cell division, differentiation, and growth adults embryo egg meiotic cell division in ovaries meiotic cell division in testes mitotic cell division, differentiation, and growth fertilized egg fertilization sperm

18 Homologous chromosomes carry different versions of genes The differences between homologous chromosomes are based on the fact that they can carry different versions of a gene at corresponding loci

19 Coat-color genes Eye-color genes Brown Black C E C E C E c e c e c e White Pink Tetrad in parent cell (homologous pair of duplicated chromosomes) Chromosomes of the four gametes

20 Some DNA information Cellular DNA is organized into chromosomes. The genome is all the genetic information (all the genes) of one organism. A gene is a fragment of DNA that has the information for one specific trait. Examples: color of the eyes. All the variations of one gene are called alleles: for example, blue, green, almond, brown, red, etc.

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