How to Create Root and Other Certificates for IoT Devices

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1 How to Create Root and Other Certificates for IoT Devices Authors: Eustace Asanghanwa, Strategic Marketing Manager, Secure Products Group The internet of things (IoT) is spurring dramatic levels of innovation as new companies with great ideas create devices and services across a wide range of industries. The great concern is that the criticality of security is not always built into people s plans, and all IoT devices require security! Security is based on transactions involving keys and certificates. Keys can be generated, but certificates typically need to be created based on some well-trusted Root Certificate, and this results in the oft-asked question, How do I go about getting a Root Certificate? A certificate proves the identity of a device, an OEM, or a cloud application that interacts with a device. It proves that a device both belongs on the network and wasn t cloned during manufacturing. Let s look at how to obtain certificates for typical IoT manufacturing scenarios. There are more complex scenarios that would build upon this simple case, but those are beyond the scope of this paper.

2 Important definitions There are several concepts central to security, and it s easy to mix up similar-sounding entities. So the following definitions are intended as a baseline for the rest of the discussion. Key A key is a fundamental security artifact. This discussion assumes asymmetric cryptography, which involves a private key that should never be disclosed and a public key that can be distributed to others. Digest A digest is a fingerprint of some content that may involve a key. The process of creating the digest is called hashing. With a good hashing technique, the chances of two different pieces of content resulting in the same digest becomes vanishingly small. A hash should not be confused with encryption. When content is encrypted, it can then be decrypted with the right key. By contrast, a hash can never be reversed to obtain the original content. Digital signature A digital signature is used to prove the authenticity of some content. It shows both that the originator of the content is legitimate and that the content wasn t changed by some other third party. A signature is a digest signed with the originator s private key. The receiver can take the same content, recreate the digest, and use the originator s public key to verify the signature. Both security artifacts (like certificates) and documents can be digitally signed. In either one, the signature typically follows the content. A signature should also not be confused with encryption. The content may be encrypted or not; the signature doesn t depend on that. Certificate A certificate is a digital artifact that attests to the authenticity of an entity a device, a cloud service anything that might interact in an IoT setting. A certificate is signed by a trusted authority using its private key. A certificate will typically contain the public key of the signer as well as application-related data, like license or brand information, that helps an application manage device functions and privileges. 2

3 Certificates come in two common formats: DER, which is binary and therefore not human-readable. PEM, which is ASCII. Although ASCII characters are used, it is also not human-readable. The benefit is that elements of certificates can be cut-and-pasted into new certificates with this format. The format is typically chosen by the certificate authority from whom a Root Certificate is obtained. Figure 1 A certificate contains a content section and a signature. Certificate Chain, Root Certificate, and Certificate Authority A certificate is intended to create trust. One entity is vouched for by some other entity via a signed certificate. That signing entity may also need to be vouched for by yet some other entity. At some point, however, there must be a signature by an entity that is commonly known to be trustworthy. This is referred to as the Root Certificate. The idea is that, if the Root Certificate is trusted, then a second certificate signed by the creator of the Root Certificate will also be trusted. Since that second entity is now trusted, it can in turn vouch for a third entity. If someone wants to validate the legitimacy of this third element, they can trace back down the chain, ultimately to find the Root Certificate that establishes well-accepted legitimacy. Figure 2 Certificate chains. The root signs a new certificate, which in turn can sign other certificates. 3

4 There are two ways of obtaining a Root Certificate. The most common way is to use a well-known company in the business of issuing Root Certificates. Such a company is referred to as a certificate authority, or CA. Symantec and GlobalSign are examples of such companies. If your certificate chain terminates in a certificate from a CA, then your system is considered trustworthy. Such public Root Certificates allow for broader device interoperability, since any devices, clouds, and networks with which your device interacts will recognize the CA. Public Root Certificates can, however, have some cost associated with them. To avoid that cost, it is possible to create your own Root Certificate a so-called self-signed root. Because a self-signed root isn t well recognized by others, it limits potential interoperability and usually applies to a closed ecosystem of devices that are recognized by each other, but not by anyone outside the ecosystem. Microchip offers a Root Module Kit to assist with the creation of self-signed Root Certificates. So, What s the Process? Once you have a certificate, there s a process that needs to be designed in. Let s examine more closely the development flow illustrated in Figure 3. It supports a simple chain involving the following: a certificate for each device ( Device Certificate ) signed by the OEM building the device the OEM s certificate ( Signer Certificate ) signed by a CA a public Root Certificate from a CA a certificate for use in the cloud to ensure that, when the device contacts the cloud, the cloud and device can authenticate each other. Figure 3. High-level provisioning flow. 4

5 Step 1: Generate a signer key pair To start the certification process, you first generate a private/public pair of keys as the signer or OEM. Microchip s Signer Module Kit can help with this and many of the following steps. Figure 4. A tool creates the signer key pair. Step 2: Obtain a public Root Certificate This is the most expensive step, but as a company, it needs to be done only once; all other certificates will flow from this one, so the cost will be spread out over every other certificate you generate. You obtain a public Root Certificate by purchasing it from a CA through a certificate signing request, or CSR. You have a choice of CAs to use, and the low-level details of the CSR process will vary by CA; contact your chosen CA to learn how their CSR process works. Because they ll be vouching for you, they ll want to know something about your company. They ll also need your public key. The CA will return two certificates: A Signer Certificate that you can use to sign further certificates, containing the CA s public key and signed by the CA s private key. A Root Certificate for use in validating your chains. You ll keep one copy around and send another to your cloud. Figure 5. Obtaining a public Root Certificate from a CA. Given a CSR and the signer public key, the CA returns a Signer Certificate and the Root Certificate (which goes to the cloud) 5

6 Step 3: Create security artifacts for the cloud Cloud artifacts will be used when your device interacts with the cloud, and you need to do it only once when setting up your cloud infrastructure. This represents a rare case where you will transmit a private key for storage. Transmission of the key must be done extraordinarily securely. Then storage must likewise be airtight so that no one can hack into the cloud to get the key. One way of providing key security is to have the key reside not in the cloud itself, but in a resource accessible to the cloud on an as-needed basis. That resource would perform authentication on request so that the cloud server would never have possession of the key. If that resource is a system containing a device similar to the ECC508A, which is naturally resistant to attack, then the risk of a successful attack is significantly reduced. Next you create the Cloud Certificate. It will contain the cloud public key and be signed by the cloud private key. You may also have application-related other information to include (you can refer to Wikipedia s page on X.509 to learn more about this). The cloud certificate is stored in each device so that the device can verify the legitimacy of the cloud when it connects. There are also open-source utilities that can help automate this process. Figure 6. Create cloud keys and certificate. The private key and certificate go securely to the cloud. Step 4: Provision devices To provision devices, you create a device key pair and then create and load all the necessary certificates into the device. This will typically be done on individual chips, especially devices like the ECC508A, before they re soldered to a board. First you create a key pair unique to each device. When using an ECC508A or similar device, the chip itself can generate an internal key pair, and there will be no way to view the private key. With other devices, you may need to use a hardware secure module (HSM) to generate the key pair. 6

7 Once the keys are in the device, you create a Device Certificate. This contains the device public key and is signed by the signer private key. It may also include application-specific other information. Then you load the security chip with the necessary artifacts: The Device Certificate The Signer Certificate The Cloud Certificate Figure 7. Provisioning devices includes self-generating device keys, creating a Device Certificate, and loading the Cloud and Signer certificates and the Signer public key. Step 5: Assemble provisioned devices onto board Your security chips now have all the necessary security components, and they can be affixed to their printed circuit board. 7

8 If you need more information on this flow, or if you have a scenario that s different, you can learn more with Microchip s online security resources. Simply going without security is no longer an option. Atmel Corporation 1600 Technology Drive, San Jose, CA USA T: (+1)(408) F: (+1)(408) Atmel Corporation. Atmel, Atmel logo and combinations thereof, Enabling Unlimited Possibilities, and others are registered trademarks or trademarks of Atmel Corporation in U. S. and other countries. Other terms and product names may be trademarks of others. Disclaimer: The information in this document is provided in connection with Atmel products. No license, express or implied, by estoppel or otherwise, to any intellectual property right is granted by this document or in connection with the sale of Atmel products. EXCEPT AS SET FORTH IN THE ATMEL TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALES LOCATED ON THE ATMEL WEBSITE, ATMEL ASSUMES NO LIABILITY WHATSOEVER AND DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY WARRANTY RELATING TO ITS PRODUCTS INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL ATMEL BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE, SPECIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES FOR LOSS AND PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, OR LOSS OF INFORMATION) ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THIS DOCUMENT, EVEN IF ATMEL HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. Atmel makes no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this document and reserves the right to make changes to specifications and products descriptions at any time without notice. Atmel does not make any commitment to update the information contained herein. Unless specifically provided otherwise, Atmel products are not suitable for, and shall not be used in, automotive applications. Atmel products are not intended, authorized, or warranted for use as components in applications intended to support or sustain life. 8

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