SUPERPAVE PERFORMANCE GRADED BINDER TESTS. Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 1

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "SUPERPAVE PERFORMANCE GRADED BINDER TESTS. Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 1"

Transcription

1 SUPERPAVE PERFORMANCE GRADED BINDER TESTS Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 1

2 PG Specifications Fundamental properties related to pavement performance Environmental factors In-service & construction temperatures Short and long term aging Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 2

3 PG Specifications Based on rheological testing Rheology: study of flow and deformation Asphalt cement is a viscoelastic material Behavior depends on: Temperature Time of loading Aging (properties change with time) Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 3

4 High Temperature Behavior High in-service temperature Desert climates Summer temperatures Sustained loads Slow moving trucks Intersections Viscous Liquid Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 4

5 Pavement Behavior (Warm Temperatures) Permanent deformation (rutting) Mixture is plastic Depends on asphalt source, additives, and aggregate properties Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 5

6 Permanent Deformation Courtesy of FHWA Function of warm weather and traffic Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 6

7 Low Temperature Behavior Low temperature Cold climates Winter Rapid loads Fast moving trucks Elastic Solid Hooke s Law σ = τ E Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 7

8 Pavement Behavior (Low Temperatures) Thermal cracks Stress generated by contraction due to drop in temperature Crack forms when thermal stresses exceed ability of material to relieve stress through deformation Material is brittle Depends on source of asphalt and aggregate properties Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 8

9 Thermal Cracking Courtesy of FHWA Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 9

10 Aging Asphalt reacts with oxygen oxidative or age hardening Short term Volatilization of specific components During construction process Long term Over life of pavement (in-service) Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 10

11 Superpave Asphalt Binder Specification The grading system is based on climate PG Performance Grade Min pavement temperature Average 7-day max pavement temperature Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 11

12 Pavement Temperatures are Calculated Calculated by Superpave software High temperature 20 mm below the surface of mixture Low temperature At surface of mixture Pave temp = f (air temp, depth, latitude) Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 12

13 Tests Used in PG Specifications Construction RV DSR BBR Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 13

14 Concentric Cylinder Rheometers Concentric Cylinder τ Rθ = Mi i 2 π R i2 L γ = Ω R R o -R i Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 14

15 Rotational Viscometer Torque Motor Thermosel Environmental Chamber Inner Cylinder Digital Temperature Controller Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 15

16 Original Properties, Rutting, and Fatigue DSR RV BBR Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 16

17 Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) Parallel Plate Shear flow varies with gap height and radius Non-homogeneous flow τ R = 2 M π R 3 γ R = R Θ Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 17 h

18 Oscillating Plate B A C Fixed Plate A B A C Time Test operates at 10 rad/sec or 1.59 Hz 360 o = 2 π radians per circle 1 rad = 57.3 o 1 cycle Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 18

19 Elastic Viscous B A A Strain Time C Strain in-phase δ = 0 o Strain out-of-phase δ = 90 o Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 19

20 Complex Modulus, G* Viscous Modulus, G δ Storage Modulus, G Complex Modulus is the vector sum of the storage and viscous modulus Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 20

21 DSR Equipment DSR Equipment Computer Control and Data Acquisition Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 21

22 Motor Parallel Plates with Sample Area for Liquid Bath Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 22

23 25 mm Plate with Sample Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 23

24 Rutting RV BBR DSR Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 24

25 Permanent Deformation Addressed by: G*/sin δ on unaged binder > 1.00 kpa G*/sin δ on RTFO aged binder > 2.20 kpa For the early part of the service life Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 25

26 Short Term Binder Aging Rolling Thin Film Oven Simulates aging from hot mixing and construction Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 26

27 Inside of RTFO Fan Rotating Bottle Carriage Air Line Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 27

28 Bottles Before and After Testing Opening in Bottle Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 28

29 Testing Calculate mass loss after RTFO Mass loss, % = Original mass - Aged mass Original mass x 100 Determine G*/sin δ for RTFO aged material at same test temp. used for original asphalt cement Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 29

30 Permanent Deformation Question: Why a minimum G*/sin δ to address rutting? Answer: We want a stiff, elastic binder to contribute to mix rutting resistance How: By increasing G* or decreasing δ Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 30

31 Fatigue RV DSR BBR Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 31

32 Fatigue Cracking Function of repeated traffic loads over time (in wheel paths) Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 32

33 Testing Aged binder Since fatigue is a long term performance problem, include: Short term aging Long term aging Determine DSR parameters using 8 mm plate and intermediate test temperature Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 33

34 Pressure Aging Vessel (Long Term Aging) Simulates aging of an asphalt binder for 7 to 10 years 50 gram sample is aged for 20 hours Pressure of 2,070 kpa (300 psi) At 90, 100 or 110 C Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 34

35 Pressure Aging Vessel Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 35

36 Pressure Aging Vessel Courtesy of FHWA Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 36

37 Fatigue Cracking G* (sin δ) on RTFO and PAV aged binder The parameter addresses the later part of the fatigue life Value must be < 5000 kpa Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 37

38 Fatigue Cracking Question: Why a maximum G* sin δ to address fatigue? Answer: We want a soft elastic binder (to sustain many loads without cracking) How: By decreasing G* or decreasing δ Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 38

39 Thermal Cracking RV DSR BBR Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 39

40 Bending Beam Rheometer Computer Deflection Transducer Air Bearing Load Cell Fluid Bath Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 40

41 Bending Beam Rheometer Sample Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 41

42 Bending Beam Rheometer Equipment Fluid Bath Loading Ram Cooling System Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 42

43 Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 43

44 Bending Beam Rheometer S(t) = P L 3 4 b h 3 δ (t) Where: S(t) = creep stiffness (M Pa) at time, t P = applied constant load, N L = distance between beam supports (102 mm) b = beam width, 12.5 mm h = beam thickness, 6.25 mm d(t) = deflection (mm) at time, t Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 44

45 Bending Beam Rheometer Evaluates low temperature stiffness properties Creep stiffness Slope of response (called m-value) Log Creep Stiffness, S(t) Log Loading Time, t (sec) Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 45

46 Is Stiffness Enough? Need to assess strength at low temperatures Thermal cracking occurs when thermal stress exceeds pavement strength Direct tension test Combined with BBR results to calculate critical cracking temperature (t crit ) States choice to use AASHTO M320 or MP-1a DTT is no longer an option in AASHTO M320 Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 46

47 Direct Tension Test Courtesy of Instron Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 47

48 Direct Tension Test Courtesy of FHWA Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 48

49 Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 49

50 Top View ball joint pins specimen inserts Side View Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 50

51 L L e Load Failure L L+ Δ L Failure load failure stress (σ f ) = Original cross-section area Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 51

52 DTT Data stress σ f Constant Strain Rate ε f strain Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 52

53 Different Binders or Temps stress brittle brittle-ductile ductile Different types of behavior strain Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 53

54 Failure Strain, % = 1 brittle brittle-ductile ductile Temperature Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 54

55 stress modified unmodified strain Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 55

56 What Do You Need to Calculate T crit? BBR Data for at least 2 Temperatures 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 seconds Stiffness, MPa DTT Data for at least 1 Temperature Failure Stress, MPa TSAR software Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 56

57 Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 57

58 Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 58

59 Tcrit = the temperature at which the thermal stress in the material (BBR) exceeds its strength (DTT) Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 59

60 Summary Construction Rutting Fatigue Cracking Low Temp Cracking [DTT] [RV] [DSR] [BBR] No aging RTFO Short Term Aging PAV Long Term Aging Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 60

61 Questions does it all make sense? Superpave Performance Graded Binder Tests 61

Superpave includes a new mixture design and analysis system based on performance characteristics of the pavement. It is a multi-faceted system with a

Superpave includes a new mixture design and analysis system based on performance characteristics of the pavement. It is a multi-faceted system with a Superpave Technology The Superpave is the acronym for Superior Performing Asphalt Pavements' system It is the product of the Strategic Highway Research Program of USA It gives highway engineers and contractors

More information

Asphalt Specifications and Testing Tri-Party Transportation Conference Brett Lambden March 23-24, 2015

Asphalt Specifications and Testing Tri-Party Transportation Conference Brett Lambden March 23-24, 2015 Asphalt Specifications and Testing Tri-Party Transportation Conference Brett Lambden March 23-24, 2015 Overview Asphalt Cement Production Composition Pavement Distresses Previous asphalt specifications

More information

Asphalt Pavement Association Of Michigan Selecting the Right Mix. 2937 Atrium Drive, Suite 202 Okemos, MI 48864 517-323-7800 www.apa-mi.

Asphalt Pavement Association Of Michigan Selecting the Right Mix. 2937 Atrium Drive, Suite 202 Okemos, MI 48864 517-323-7800 www.apa-mi. 2937 Atrium Drive, Suite 202 Okemos, MI 48864 517-323-7800 www.apa-mi.org History Performance Graded Binders MDOT Local Agency Guide NAPA Guide Outline Other Considerations For each there are: Right

More information

UNDERGRADUATE ASPHALT TESTING LABORATORY

UNDERGRADUATE ASPHALT TESTING LABORATORY Session 1526 UNDERGRADUATE ASPHALT TESTING LABORATORY Vito A. Guido, Jameel Ahmad The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art INTRODUCTION In 1987, Congress launched a five-year $150 million

More information

Performance Graded Asphalt Binders Bob Horan, P.E. Consulting Engineer Mechanicsville, VA

Performance Graded Asphalt Binders Bob Horan, P.E. Consulting Engineer Mechanicsville, VA Performance Graded Asphalt Binders Bob Horan, P.E. Consulting Engineer Mechanicsville, VA October 30, 2003 T3S - Superpave for Low Volume Roads - R. Horan 1 What is Asphalt? October 30, 2003 T3S - Superpave

More information

Evaluation of Performance Graded Asphalt Binder Equipment. and Testing Protocol

Evaluation of Performance Graded Asphalt Binder Equipment. and Testing Protocol Evaluation of Performance Graded Asphalt Binder Equipment and Testing Protocol John P. Zaniewski Michael E. Pumphrey Asphalt Technology Program Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Morgantown,

More information

Testing Asphalt Binders with Emphasis on Modified Asphalt Characterization

Testing Asphalt Binders with Emphasis on Modified Asphalt Characterization Testing Asphalt Binders with Emphasis on Modified Asphalt Characterization Mike Anderson Understanding Modified Asphalt Binder Technology November 2014 How Asphalt Behaves Behavior is affected by : Temperature

More information

EVALUATION OF VESTENAMER REACTIVE MODIFIER IN CRUMB RUBBER ASPHALT

EVALUATION OF VESTENAMER REACTIVE MODIFIER IN CRUMB RUBBER ASPHALT EVALUATION OF VESTENAMER REACTIVE MODIFIER IN CRUMB RUBBER ASPHALT Performance of Asphalt Binder and Asphalt Concrete Modified by Ground Tire and VESTENAMER A Laboratory Study Presented to Degussa Corporation

More information

NorthEast Transportation Training and Certification Program (NETTCP) Course Registration Form

NorthEast Transportation Training and Certification Program (NETTCP) Course Registration Form (NETTCP) Course Registration Form Interim Certification (Cost $300 members / $425 non-members) HMA Plant Technician* HMA Paving Inspector* Soils & Aggregate Inspector* Soils & Aggregate Lab Technician*

More information

Historical Background

Historical Background Chapter 3 Asphalt Binder Historical Background Shipbuilding in Sumeria (6000 BC) Waterproofing, building and paving construction, mummification (2600 BC) Road construction (Roman Empire) First use of asphalt

More information

Asphalt Institute Technical Bulletin. Laboratory Mixing and Compaction Temperatures

Asphalt Institute Technical Bulletin. Laboratory Mixing and Compaction Temperatures ASPHALT INSTITUTE EXECUTIVE OFFICES AND RESEARCH CENTER Research Park Drive P.O. Box 14052 Lexington, KY 40512-4052 USA Telephone 859-288-4960 FAX No. 859-288-4999 Asphalt Institute Technical Bulletin

More information

Final Report FHWA/IN/JTRP-2006/13 INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF NEAT AND MODIFIED ASPHALT BINDERS. Yalan Tang Graduate Research Assistant.

Final Report FHWA/IN/JTRP-2006/13 INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF NEAT AND MODIFIED ASPHALT BINDERS. Yalan Tang Graduate Research Assistant. Final Report FHWA/IN/JTRP-2006/13 INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF NEAT AND MODIFIED ASPHALT BINDERS by Yalan Tang Graduate Research Assistant and John E. Haddock Professor School of Civil Engineering

More information

Comparison of Results of SHRP and Conventional Binder Tests on Paving Asphalts

Comparison of Results of SHRP and Conventional Binder Tests on Paving Asphalts International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering 2004. 2, 3: 245-256 Comparison of Results of SHRP and Conventional Binder Tests on Paving Asphalts Ming-Gin Lee a, Chui-Te Chiu b, Yu-Cheng Kan

More information

EVALUATION OF ASPHALT BINDER CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPICAL ONTARIO SUPERPAVE CRM AND RAP-HMA MIXTURES

EVALUATION OF ASPHALT BINDER CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPICAL ONTARIO SUPERPAVE CRM AND RAP-HMA MIXTURES EVALUATION OF ASPHALT BINDER CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPICAL ONTARIO SUPERPAVE CRM AND RAP-HMA MIXTURES Sina Varamini, Ph.D. Candidate and Graduate Research Assistant Centre for Pavement and Transportation

More information

PERFORMANCE OF POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS

PERFORMANCE OF POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS Int. J. Struct. & Civil Engg. Res. 2012 Ravi K Sharma et al., 2012 Research Paper ISSN 2319 6009 www.ijscer.com Vol. 1, No. 1, November 2012 2012 IJSCER. All Rights Reserved PERFORMANCE OF POLYMER MODIFIED

More information

PERFORMANCE OF RECYCLED HOT MIX ASPHALT MIXTURES

PERFORMANCE OF RECYCLED HOT MIX ASPHALT MIXTURES NCAT Report 95-01 PERFORMANCE OF RECYCLED HOT MIX ASPHALT MIXTURES By Prithvi S. Kandhal Shridhar S. Rao Donald E. Watson Brad Young May 1995 277 Technology Parkway Auburn, AL 36830 PERFORMANCE OF RECYCLED

More information

Testing and appraisal of Lucobit polymer effect as an additive on asphalt mixture performance

Testing and appraisal of Lucobit polymer effect as an additive on asphalt mixture performance Abstract Testing and appraisal of polymer effect as an additive on asphalt mixture performance Hamid Sabbagh mollahosseini*,golazin Yadollahi**, Ershad Amoosoltani*** *, ***Executive of Engineering and

More information

FIELD AGING EFFECTS ON THE FATIGUE OF ASPHALT CONCRETE AND ASPHALT-RUBBER CONCRETE

FIELD AGING EFFECTS ON THE FATIGUE OF ASPHALT CONCRETE AND ASPHALT-RUBBER CONCRETE Raad et al. 1 FIELD AGING EFFECTS ON THE FATIGUE OF ASPHALT CONCRETE AND ASPHALT-RUBBER CONCRETE by Lutfi Raad. Professor of Civil Engineering Director, Transportation Research Center University of Alaska

More information

Evaluation of Bituminous Materials. Kristen E. Derewecki. A thesis submitted to the. Graduate School-New Brunswick

Evaluation of Bituminous Materials. Kristen E. Derewecki. A thesis submitted to the. Graduate School-New Brunswick Applications of the 4 mm Dynamic Shear Rheometer Geometry for the Forensic Evaluation of Bituminous Materials By Kristen E. Derewecki A thesis submitted to the Graduate School-New Brunswick Rutgers, The

More information

Development of a Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) PG binder Specification

Development of a Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) PG binder Specification Development of a Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) PG binder Specification Gaylon Baumgardner Paragon Technical Services A P.O. Box 1639 Jackson, MS 39215 g.baumgardner@ptsilab.com John A. D Angelo D Angelo

More information

Viscosity, stiffness and deformation of bituminous materials

Viscosity, stiffness and deformation of bituminous materials Chapter 28 Viscosity, stiffness and deformation of bituminous materials 28.1 Viscosity and rheology of binders The viscosity of a liquid is the property that retards flow, so when a force is applied to

More information

DEVELOPMENT OF A TESTING TEMPERATURE TO BE USED WITH THE HAMBURG WHEEL TRACKING DEVICE ON ASPHALT MIXTURES THAT UTILIZE PERFORMANCE GRADE BINDERS

DEVELOPMENT OF A TESTING TEMPERATURE TO BE USED WITH THE HAMBURG WHEEL TRACKING DEVICE ON ASPHALT MIXTURES THAT UTILIZE PERFORMANCE GRADE BINDERS DEVELOPMENT OF A TESTING TEMPERATURE TO BE USED WITH THE HAMBURG WHEEL TRACKING DEVICE ON ASPHALT MIXTURES THAT UTILIZE PERFORMANCE GRADE BINDERS by Jason Nielson A thesis submitted to the faculty of The

More information

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR BITUMINOUS BINDERS

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR BITUMINOUS BINDERS PERFORMANCE EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR BITUMINOUS BINDERS A. Vanelstraete, W. Teugels, Belgian Road Research Centre, Belgium, Nynas Bitumen, Belgium Abstract Understanding the behaviour and performance of bituminous

More information

EFFECT OF RAP ON BINDER GRADE. Rebecca McDaniel North Central Superpave Center

EFFECT OF RAP ON BINDER GRADE. Rebecca McDaniel North Central Superpave Center EFFECT OF RAP ON BINDER GRADE Rebecca McDaniel North Central Superpave Center Roads and Bridges Paving Innovations Chicago, Illinois September 23, 2009 CONVENTIONAL WISDOM RAP contains old, hardened binder

More information

Laboratory Mixing and Compaction Temperatures for Asphalt Binders

Laboratory Mixing and Compaction Temperatures for Asphalt Binders Laboratory Mixing and Compaction Temperatures for Asphalt Binders Mike Anderson North Central Asphalt User Producer Group Meeting 15 February 2012 Indianapolis, IN Acknowledgments DTFH61-08-H-00030 Cooperative

More information

MSE200 Lecture 7 (CH ) Mechanical Properties I Instructor: Yuntian Zhu Objectives/outcomes: You will learn the following:

MSE200 Lecture 7 (CH ) Mechanical Properties I Instructor: Yuntian Zhu Objectives/outcomes: You will learn the following: MSE200 Lecture 7 (CH. 6.2-6.4) Mechanical Properties I Instructor: Yuntian Zhu Objectives/outcomes: You will learn the following: Stresses and strains in solids. Normal and shear stresses. Elastic and

More information

Rigid pavement design

Rigid pavement design Chapter 29 Rigid pavement design 29.1 Overview As the name implies, rigid pavements are rigid i.e, they do not flex much under loading like flexible pavements. They are constructed using cement concrete.

More information

RESILIENT MODULUS: WHAT, WHY, AND HOW?

RESILIENT MODULUS: WHAT, WHY, AND HOW? RESILIENT MODULUS: WHAT, WHY, AND HOW? Shane Buchanan, Vulcan Materials Company, 08/1/07 Resilient modulus (M r ) continues to be a key design parameter for pavement systems. Accurate knowledge of the

More information

Implementation of the Bitumen Performance Grading System in Estonia

Implementation of the Bitumen Performance Grading System in Estonia Implementation of the Bitumen Performance Grading System in Estonia Pouya Teymourpour Hussain U. Bahia University of Wisconsin-Madison Tallinn, Estonia Feb 19, 2015 Outline How US has reached to currently

More information

Effect of Ultraviolet Aging on Asphalt Rheological Properties

Effect of Ultraviolet Aging on Asphalt Rheological Properties Scientific Research China Petroleum Processing and Petrochemical Technology 2013, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp 26-32 December 30, 2013 Effect of Ultraviolet Aging on Asphalt Rheological Properties Wang Jiani 1,

More information

Rheology and Polymer Characterization

Rheology and Polymer Characterization Rheology and Polymer Characterization Asst Prof Anongnat Somwangthanaroj Anongnat.s@chula.ac.th 20 Sep 2010 http://pioneer.netserv.chula.ac.th/~sanongn1/course.html Fundamentals: Why Rheology? Fundamental

More information

A View From The Bureau of Materials & Physical Research. IAPA March 2015 Matt Mueller, PE BMPR Illinois Dept of Transportation

A View From The Bureau of Materials & Physical Research. IAPA March 2015 Matt Mueller, PE BMPR Illinois Dept of Transportation A View From The Bureau of Materials & Physical Research IAPA March 2015 Matt Mueller, PE BMPR Illinois Dept of Transportation HMA Issues HMA Issues HMA Issues HMA Issues a Technical Opinion Cautious HMA

More information

Hello viewers welcome to lesson 4.7 which is on pavement materials part IV and in this lesson we will be covering bituminous binders.

Hello viewers welcome to lesson 4.7 which is on pavement materials part IV and in this lesson we will be covering bituminous binders. Introduction to Transportation Engineering Prof. K. Sudhakar Reddy Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 30 Pavement Materials IV Hello viewers welcome to

More information

Effect of Crumb Rubber Modifiers (CRM) on Performance-Related Properties of Asphalt Binders. Hussain U. Bahia 1 and Robert Davies 2

Effect of Crumb Rubber Modifiers (CRM) on Performance-Related Properties of Asphalt Binders. Hussain U. Bahia 1 and Robert Davies 2 414 Effect of Crumb Rubber Modifiers (CRM) on Performance-Related Properties of Asphalt Binders Hussain U. Bahia 1 and Robert Davies 2 Introduction Crumb rubber derived from used vehicular tires has been

More information

Asphalt concrete mix design

Asphalt concrete mix design CEEN 3144 Construction Materials Asphalt concrete mix design Francisco Aguíñiga Assistant Professor Civil Engineering Program Texas A&M University Kingsville Page 1 Asphalt concrete Hot-mix asphalt Asphalt

More information

Properties Comparison of Asphalt Cement and Multigrade Asphalt in Asphalt Concrete.

Properties Comparison of Asphalt Cement and Multigrade Asphalt in Asphalt Concrete. Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.) 35 : 467-475 (2001) Properties Comparison of Asphalt Cement and Multigrade Asphalt in Asphalt Concrete. Kosintra Jetiyanonta and Watcharin Witayakul ABSTRACT The engineering properties

More information

Rutting Based Evaluation of Asphalt Mixes

Rutting Based Evaluation of Asphalt Mixes Pak. J. Engg. & Appl. Sci. Vol., July, 22 (p. 6-65) Rutting Based Evaluation of Asphalt Mixes Kamran Muzaffar Khan, Mumtaz Ahmed Kamal 2. Associate Professor, Civil Engg. Department, University of Engg.

More information

Test Report No. 48/2005. Degussa AG Paul-Baumann-Straβe 1 45764 Marl. Binder tests of bitumen modified with Road+

Test Report No. 48/2005. Degussa AG Paul-Baumann-Straβe 1 45764 Marl. Binder tests of bitumen modified with Road+ Test Report No. 48/2005 Client: Degussa AG Paul-Baumann-Straβe 1 45764 Marl Project: Binder tests of bitumen modified with Road+ Subject of the Study: Production of 50/70 and 70/100 mixtures of bitumen

More information

FEHRL OVERVIEW AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

FEHRL OVERVIEW AIMS AND OBJECTIVES FEHRL OVERVIEW FEHRL is a registered International Association with a permanent Secretariat based in Brussels. Formed in 1989 as the Forum of European National Highway Research Laboratories, FEHRL is governed

More information

Superpave Asphalt Mixture Design Workshop Workbook

Superpave Asphalt Mixture Design Workshop Workbook Version 6.2 Updated July 1999 U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Superpave Asphalt Mixture Design Workshop Workbook "Superpave Asphalt Mix Design & Field Management" Demonstration

More information

Durability assessment of asphalt mixtures by anti stripping additives

Durability assessment of asphalt mixtures by anti stripping additives Durability assessment of asphalt mixtures by anti stripping s Masood Nasr Azadani*,Hamid Sabbagh Mollahosseini*,Ershad Amoosoltani** Abstract Executive of Engineering and civil organization of Tehran municipality,

More information

A different approach to design road pavements PERFORMANCE TESTS ON BITUMEN AND BITUMEN MIXES

A different approach to design road pavements PERFORMANCE TESTS ON BITUMEN AND BITUMEN MIXES A different approach to design road pavements PERFORMANCE TESTS ON BITUMEN AND BITUMEN MIXES This article takes starting point from the technical article published on the Italian magazine STRADE & AUTOSTRADE,

More information

Stress and Deformation Analysis. Representing Stresses on a Stress Element. Representing Stresses on a Stress Element con t

Stress and Deformation Analysis. Representing Stresses on a Stress Element. Representing Stresses on a Stress Element con t Stress and Deformation Analysis Material in this lecture was taken from chapter 3 of Representing Stresses on a Stress Element One main goals of stress analysis is to determine the point within a load-carrying

More information

Stress-Strain Relationship

Stress-Strain Relationship (Strength of Materials) Dave Morgan Stress-Strain Relationship p. 1/21 The tension test: Stress-Strain Relationship p. 2/21 The tension test: Is a common standardised test that can

More information

Laboratory Evaluation of Asphalt Rubber Mixtures Using the Dynamic Modulus (E*) Test

Laboratory Evaluation of Asphalt Rubber Mixtures Using the Dynamic Modulus (E*) Test Laboratory Evaluation of Asphalt Rubber Mixtures Using the Dynamic Modulus (E*) Test By Kamil E. Kaloush, Ph.D., P.E. (corresponding author) Assistant Professor Arizona State University Department of Civil

More information

Material Types and Properties

Material Types and Properties Material Types and Properties 1 Material Types There are many kinds of materials, but most of them can be divided into four groups: Metals - Metals are composed of one or more metallic elements and often

More information

A8 Thermal properties of materials

A8 Thermal properties of materials A8 Thermal properties of materials Thermal properties the melting temperature, T m, and the glass temperature (temperatura de transição vítrea), T g, relate directly to the strength of the bonds in the

More information

RHEOTEST Messgeräte Medingen

RHEOTEST Messgeräte Medingen RHEOTEST Messgeräte Medingen Series RHEOTEST RN Traditions Rheometers with the mark name RHEOTEST are in use in many countries for more than 40 years and represent constancy of Medingen's traditions in

More information

Evaluation and Implementation of a Heavy Polymer Modified Asphalt Binder through Accelerated Pavement Testing

Evaluation and Implementation of a Heavy Polymer Modified Asphalt Binder through Accelerated Pavement Testing Florida Department of TRANSPORTATION Evaluation and Implementation of a Heavy Polymer Modified Asphalt Binder through Accelerated Pavement Testing FDOT Office State Materials Office Research Report Number

More information

Mechanics of bones. Skeletal system. Femur. Philippe GILLET (Chirurgie( Serge CESCOTTO (FSA, Ulg) de l appareil locomoteur,, CHU)

Mechanics of bones. Skeletal system. Femur. Philippe GILLET (Chirurgie( Serge CESCOTTO (FSA, Ulg) de l appareil locomoteur,, CHU) Mechanics of bones Philippe GILLET (Chirurgie( de l appareil locomoteur,, CHU) Serge CESCOTTO (FSA, Ulg) Skeletal system Femur 1 Example of the long bone 2 types of materials : Cortical bone Cancellous

More information

Statics and Mechanics of Materials

Statics and Mechanics of Materials Statics and Mechanics of Materials Chapter 4 Stress, Strain and Deformation: Axial Loading Objectives: Learn and understand the concepts of internal forces, stresses, and strains Learn and understand the

More information

The Effect of Loading Level and Rate in the Indirect Tensile Test

The Effect of Loading Level and Rate in the Indirect Tensile Test The Effect of Loading Level and Rate in the Indirect Tensile Test Xinjun Li Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering Iowa State University 394 Town Engineering Ames, IA 50011 E-mail:

More information

SEAUPG Annual Meeting Williamsburg, VA Thursday, November 19, 2015

SEAUPG Annual Meeting Williamsburg, VA Thursday, November 19, 2015 LADOTD Balanced Mixture Design Samuel Cooper III, Ph.D., P.E. Southeastern Asphalt User Producer Group November 6 9, 25 Williamsburg, Va. Acknowledgements LTRC Asphalt Research Group Jeremy Icenogle, Patrick

More information

σ = F / A o Chapter Outline Introduction Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads?

σ = F / A o Chapter Outline Introduction Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? and Tension Compression Shear Torsion Elastic deformation Chapter Outline Introduction To understand and describe how materials

More information

4 The strength of the lithosphere

4 The strength of the lithosphere 4 The strength of the lithosphere Constitutive equations specify the relations between stress and strain or the time derivatives of strain and thus can be used in conjunction with the equations of motion

More information

THE TRANSITION TO A PG GRADING SYSTEM FOR ASPHALT CEMENT IN IRAQ

THE TRANSITION TO A PG GRADING SYSTEM FOR ASPHALT CEMENT IN IRAQ THE TRANSITION TO A PG GRADING SYSTEM FOR ASPHALT CEMENT IN IRAQ Prof. Hamed M. H. Alani, (Civil Eng. Dept.) / Baghdad Univ. Dr. Amjad H. Albayati, (Civil Eng. Dept.) / Baghdad Univ. Alaa S. Abbas, (Highway

More information

Chapter Outline. Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads?

Chapter Outline. Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? Stress and Strain Tension Compression Shear Torsion Elastic deformation Plastic Deformation Yield Strength Tensile Strength Ductility

More information

Pin jointed structures are often used because they are simple to design, relatively inexpensive to make, easy to construct, and easy to modify.

Pin jointed structures are often used because they are simple to design, relatively inexpensive to make, easy to construct, and easy to modify. 4. FORCES in PIN JOINTED STRUCTURES Pin jointed structures are often used because they are simple to design, relatively inexpensive to make, easy to construct, and easy to modify. They can be fixed structures

More information

Investigation of the Effect of Oil Modification on Critical Characteristics of Asphalt Binders

Investigation of the Effect of Oil Modification on Critical Characteristics of Asphalt Binders Investigation of the Effect of Oil Modification on Critical Characteristics of Asphalt Binders By Amir Golalipour A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor

More information

SHRP Testing Equipment

SHRP Testing Equipment SHRP Testing Equipment Cannon Thermoelectric Bending-Beam Rheometer Rotational Viscometer Dynamic Shear Rheometer Rolling Thin Film Oven Pressure Aging Vessel Vacuum Degassing Oven www.hoskin.ca Supplying

More information

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution

More information

Strength of Materials

Strength of Materials FE Review Strength of Materials Problem Statements Copyright 2008 C. F. Zorowski NC State E490 Mechanics of Solids 110 KN 90 KN 13.5 KN A 3 = 4.5x10-3 m 2 A 2 = 2x10-3 m 2 A 1 = 5x10-4 m 2 1. A circular

More information

Introduction to Structure and Properties Winter 2005 Final Exam March 17, 2005 TOTAL POINTS 37

Introduction to Structure and Properties Winter 2005 Final Exam March 17, 2005 TOTAL POINTS 37 Materials 101 Introduction to Structure and Properties Winter 005 Final Exam March 17, 005 Solutions TOTAL POINTS 37 Problem 1: Tensile Test and Plastic Deformation (10 Points) A copper rod is deformed

More information

There are three principle ways a load can be applied:

There are three principle ways a load can be applied: MATERIALS SCIENCE Concepts of Stress and Strains Stress-strain test is used to determine the mechanical behavior by applying a static load uniformly over a cross section or a surface of a member. The test

More information

3 rd Year Dental Materials Science

3 rd Year Dental Materials Science 3 rd Year Dental Materials Science Dr. Graham Cross School of Physics and CRANN SFI Nanoscience Building, Rm 1.5 http://www.tcd.ie/physics/people/graham.cross/ Graham.Cross@tcd.ie 16.11.2007 Dental Materials

More information

Evaluation of Rheological Measurements for Unmodified and Modified Asphalt Cements

Evaluation of Rheological Measurements for Unmodified and Modified Asphalt Cements 72 TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH RECORD 1488 Evaluation of Rheological Measurements for Unmodified and Modified Asphalt Cements MARY STROUP-GARDINER AND DAVE NEWCOMB A rigorous evaluation of the dynamic shear

More information

Effect of rubber on dynamic creep of asphalt concrete mixtures

Effect of rubber on dynamic creep of asphalt concrete mixtures Effect of rubber on dynamic creep of asphalt concrete mixtures Taisir S. Khedaywi 1 and Jameel M. Al - Mashagbeh 2 1 Prof. of Civil Engineering Philadelphia University, Amman - Jordan, Tel: + 962 2 7242540

More information

Comparison of Lime and Liquid Additives on the Moisture Damage of Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures

Comparison of Lime and Liquid Additives on the Moisture Damage of Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures Comparison of Lime and Liquid Additives on the Moisture Damage of Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures Peter E. Sebaaly, Ph.D., P.E. Pavement Specialist Reno, Nevada USA Prepared for the National Lime Association

More information

Engineering Properties of Asphalt Cement Binders and their Relation to Pavement Performance

Engineering Properties of Asphalt Cement Binders and their Relation to Pavement Performance Engineering Properties of Asphalt Cement Binders and their Relation to Pavement Performance Presentation to Third Year Civil Engineering Civil Engineering Department Royal Military College of Canada By

More information

MAE 20 Winter 2011 Assignment 5

MAE 20 Winter 2011 Assignment 5 MAE 20 Winter 2011 Assignment 5 6.7 For a bronze alloy, the stress at which plastic deformation begins is 275 MPa (40,000 psi), and the modulus of elasticity is 115 GPa (16.7 10 6 psi). (a) What is the

More information

Chapter 4 Strain and Material Relations

Chapter 4 Strain and Material Relations CIVL 222 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS Chapter 4 Strain and Material Relations Terminology 1. Displacement 2. Deformation 3. Strain 4. Average Axial Strain 5. Shearing Strain 6. Poisson s Ratio 7. Mechanical Properties

More information

Figure 12 1 Short columns fail due to material failure

Figure 12 1 Short columns fail due to material failure 12 Buckling Analysis 12.1 Introduction There are two major categories leading to the sudden failure of a mechanical component: material failure and structural instability, which is often called buckling.

More information

Presented by: Mark Belshe Asphalt Rubber Binder

Presented by: Mark Belshe Asphalt Rubber Binder Asphalt Rubber Workshop Ixtapa Mexico April 3rd, 2008 Presented by: Mark Belshe 1 ASTM D8 Standard Definitions of Terms Relating to Materials for Roads and Pavements Asphalt Rubber a blend of asphalt cement,

More information

COMPACTING BITUMINOUS SPECIMENS USING THE SUPERPAVE GYRATORY COMPACTOR (SGC)

COMPACTING BITUMINOUS SPECIMENS USING THE SUPERPAVE GYRATORY COMPACTOR (SGC) Test Procedure for COMPACTING BITUMINOUS SPECIMENS USING THE SUPERPAVE TxDOT Designation: Tex-241-F Effective Date: December 2015 1. SCOPE 1.1 Use this test method to: compact cylindrical specimens of

More information

20. Security Classif. (of this page) Unclassified

20. Security Classif. (of this page) Unclassified 1. Report No. 1250-5 4. Title and Subtitle MIXING AND COMPACTION TEMPERATURES FOR HOT MIX ASPHALT CONCRETE 7. Author(s) Yetkin Yildirim, Mansour Solaimanian, and Thomas W. Kennedy Technical Report Documentation

More information

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ASPHALT MIXTURES AND BINDERS WITH RECLAIMED ASPHALT SHINGLE PREPARED USING THE WET PROCESS

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ASPHALT MIXTURES AND BINDERS WITH RECLAIMED ASPHALT SHINGLE PREPARED USING THE WET PROCESS LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ASPHALT MIXTURES AND BINDERS WITH RECLAIMED ASPHALT SHINGLE PREPARED USING THE WET PROCESS A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural

More information

FAILURE MODES and MATERIALS PROPERTIES. Component failures. Ductile and Brittle Fracture COMPONENT FAILURES. COMPONENT FAILURE MODES examples:

FAILURE MODES and MATERIALS PROPERTIES. Component failures. Ductile and Brittle Fracture COMPONENT FAILURES. COMPONENT FAILURE MODES examples: FAILURE MODES and MATERIALS PROPERTIES MECH2300 - Materials Lecture 10 R. W. Truss Materials Engineering R.Truss@uq.edu.au COMPONENT FAILURES Structures lectures es on component es cause response in component

More information

Rheology. Definition of viscosity. Non-newtonian behaviour.

Rheology. Definition of viscosity. Non-newtonian behaviour. Rheology. Definition of viscosity. Non-newtonian behaviour. Rheology Rheology is the science of the flow and deformation of matter (liquid or soft solid) under the effect of an applied force Deformation

More information

Asphalt Binder, Cutback Asphalts, and Emulsion Asphalts

Asphalt Binder, Cutback Asphalts, and Emulsion Asphalts Page 1 of 5 Asphalt Binder APAC-Missouri, Inc. Springfield, MO Willow Springs, MO Vicksburg, MS HollyFrontier Refining & Marketing LLC Catoosa, OK (Delek US) El Dorado, AR (Frontier) Muskogee, OK (Port

More information

Performance Evaluation of Jet Fuel Resistant Polymer-Modified Asphalt for Airport Pavements

Performance Evaluation of Jet Fuel Resistant Polymer-Modified Asphalt for Airport Pavements Performance Evaluation of Jet Fuel Resistant Polymer-Modified Asphalt for Airport Pavements By: Ronald C. van Rooijen (Email: rvrooijen@ooms.nl) Manager R&D Laboratory, Ooms Avenhorn Holding The Netherlands

More information

Florida s Experience with Crumb Rubber

Florida s Experience with Crumb Rubber Florida s Experience with Crumb Rubber Jim Warren Executive Director Asphalt Contractors Association of Florida, Inc. www.floridaridesonus.org Slides Courtesy of FDOT State Materials Office Background

More information

Properties of Hardened Concrete

Properties of Hardened Concrete Outline Properties of Hardened Concrete Dr. Kimberly Kurtis School of Civil Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia Compressive strength E Tensile strength Drying Shrinkage Creep Compression

More information

Assessing Fatigue Life of Reclaimed Asphalt Concrete Recycled with Nanomaterial Additives

Assessing Fatigue Life of Reclaimed Asphalt Concrete Recycled with Nanomaterial Additives International Journal of Advanced Materials Research Vol. 1, No. 1, 2015, pp. 1-7 http://www.publicscienceframework.org/journal/ijamr Assessing Fatigue Life of Reclaimed Asphalt Concrete Recycled with

More information

Investigation of using waste engine oil blended with reclaimed asphalt materials to improve pavement recyclability

Investigation of using waste engine oil blended with reclaimed asphalt materials to improve pavement recyclability Michigan Technological University Digital Commons @ Michigan Tech Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports 2011 Investigation of using

More information

COMPREHENSIVE LABORATORY PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WMA WITH LEADCAP ADDITIVES

COMPREHENSIVE LABORATORY PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WMA WITH LEADCAP ADDITIVES COMPREHENSIVE LABORATORY PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WMA WITH LEADCAP ADDITIVES Jongsub Lee Graduate Research Assistant Dept. of Civil, Construction, & Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 798 North Carolina

More information

EVALUATION OF BITUMEN PROPERTIES MODIFIED WITH ADDITIVE

EVALUATION OF BITUMEN PROPERTIES MODIFIED WITH ADDITIVE www.arpapress.com/volumes/vol13issue1/ijrras_13_1_09.pdf EVALUATION OF BITUMEN PROPERTIES MODIFIED WITH ADDITIVE *Suleiman Arafat Yero & Mohd. Rosli Hainin Department of Transportation and Geotechnics

More information

Evaluation of Asphalt Binders Used for Emulsions

Evaluation of Asphalt Binders Used for Emulsions 2003-24 Final Report Evaluation of Asphalt Binders Used for Emulsions Minnesota Local Road Research Board Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. 2. 3. Recipients Accession No. MN/RC 2003-24

More information

Pavement materials: Bitumen

Pavement materials: Bitumen Chapter 23 Pavement materials: Bitumen 23.1 Overview Bituminous materials or asphalts are extensively used for roadway construction, primarily because of their excellent binding characteristics and water

More information

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME 2 ENGINEERING COMPONENTS TUTORIAL 1 STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME 2 ENGINEERING COMPONENTS TUTORIAL 1 STRUCTURAL MEMBERS ENGINEERING COMPONENTS EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME ENGINEERING COMPONENTS TUTORIAL 1 STRUCTURAL MEMBERS Structural members: struts and ties; direct stress and strain,

More information

Determining Asphalt Binder Bond Strength by Means of the Bitumen Bond Strength (BBS) Test

Determining Asphalt Binder Bond Strength by Means of the Bitumen Bond Strength (BBS) Test Standard Method of Test for Determining Asphalt Binder Bond Strength by Means of the Bitumen Bond Strength (BBS) Test AASHTO Designation: TP-XX-11 1. SCOPE 1.1 This test method quantifies the tensile force

More information

MANUFACTURING FOAM BITUMEN IN A STANDARD DRUM MIXING ASPHALT PLANT

MANUFACTURING FOAM BITUMEN IN A STANDARD DRUM MIXING ASPHALT PLANT 7 TH CONFERENCE ON ASPHALT PAVEMENTS FOR SOUTHERN AFRICA MANUFACTURING FOAM BITUMEN IN A STANDARD DRUM MIXING ASPHALT PLANT DC Engelbrecht Director National Asphalt (Pty.) Ltd. PO Box 1657 Hillcrest 3650

More information

KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK. UNIT I STRESS STRAIN DEFORMATION OF SOLIDS PART- A (2 Marks)

KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK. UNIT I STRESS STRAIN DEFORMATION OF SOLIDS PART- A (2 Marks) KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK SUB CODE/NAME: CE1259 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS YEAR/SEM: II / IV 1. What is Hooke s Law? 2. What are the Elastic Constants?

More information

Thin Asphalt Overlays Deliver Cost Effective Quality Performance

Thin Asphalt Overlays Deliver Cost Effective Quality Performance Thin Asphalt Overlays Deliver Cost Effective Quality Performance Mansour Solaimanian Penn State University 47 th Annual Mid-Atlantic Quality Assurance Workshop Atlantic City, NJ February 5, 2014 1 PennDOT

More information

Laboratory Weeks 9 10 Theory of Pure Elastic Bending

Laboratory Weeks 9 10 Theory of Pure Elastic Bending Laboratory Weeks 9 10 Theory of Pure Elastic Bending Objective To show the use of the Sagital method for finding the Radius of Curvature of a beam, to prove the theory of bending, and find the elastic

More information

SAMPLE OF THE STUDY MATERIAL PART OF CHAPTER 1 STRESS AND STRAIN

SAMPLE OF THE STUDY MATERIAL PART OF CHAPTER 1 STRESS AND STRAIN SAMPLE OF THE STUDY MATERIAL PART OF CHAPTER 1 STRESS AND STRAIN 1.1 Stress & Strain Stress is the internal resistance offered by the body per unit area. Stress is represented as force per unit area. Typical

More information

Research. Asphalt Institute

Research. Asphalt Institute AI Research Asphalt Institute Procedure for Resolving Differences in Asphalt Binder Testing Using an Acceptable Range of Variability in the Superpave Binder Testing Specification Executive Summary The

More information

Mechanics of Materials Stress-Strain Curve for Mild Steel

Mechanics of Materials Stress-Strain Curve for Mild Steel Stress-Strain Curve for Mild Steel 13-1 Definitions 13-2a Hooke s Law Shear Modulus: Stress: Strain: Poisson s Ratio: Normal stress or strain = " to the surface Shear stress = to the surface Definitions

More information

Pavement Research Capabilities at the University of Arkansas

Pavement Research Capabilities at the University of Arkansas Pavement maintenance/ Portland Cement Concrete Asphalt Concrete rehabilitation Pavement Research Capabilities at the University of Arkansas This document briefly describes the laboratory capabilities of

More information

Mechanics of Materials Qualifying Exam Study Material

Mechanics of Materials Qualifying Exam Study Material Mechanics of Materials Qualifying Exam Study Material The candidate is expected to have a thorough understanding of mechanics of materials topics. These topics are listed below for clarification. Not all

More information

GUIDELINE ON IN SITU RECYCLING WITH CEMENT GUIDELINE ON IN SITU RECYCLING WITH CEMENT GUIDELINE ON IN SITU RECYCLING WITH CEMENT INTRODUCTION

GUIDELINE ON IN SITU RECYCLING WITH CEMENT GUIDELINE ON IN SITU RECYCLING WITH CEMENT GUIDELINE ON IN SITU RECYCLING WITH CEMENT INTRODUCTION International Seminar on Recycling Warsaw, 10-11 October 2002 GUIDELINE ON IN SITU RECYCLING WITH CEMENT Carlos Jofré IECA, Spain GUIDELINE ON IN SITU RECYCLING WITH CEMENT Working group Australia Austria

More information