1 Waging Warners War by Randi Hokett The connection between Hollywood and American politics has become an increasingly pertinent area of inquiry in our post 9/11 culture. Viewed through the lens of history, it is clear that the marriage between the media, its moguls and the American political system has long affected public life in this country and around the world. Nowhere is this more apparent than at Warner Bros. during World War II, where a personal crusade against fascism ultimately became an important part of American public policy. Hollywood, like much of the United States, did not appear to oppose Nazism in the 1930s. Despite the fact that Hollywood s film empire had been built largely by Jews, there was little overt acknowledgement of the atrocities committed against Jews in Germany. The exception was Warner Bros. Armed with one of Hollywood s most powerful studios, Jack and Harry Warner fought a war against Hitler with all the tools at their disposal personal, professional and political. Before the War A 1933 Nazi edict demanded that American film studios operating in Germany fire all German-Jews. Despite the tremendous financial impact it would have on the studio, this convinced Harry Warner that it was time to pull out of Germany. By 1934, Warner Bros. had severed business ties with Germany and Harry had announced plans to produce an anti-nazi film. 8. A souvenir pop-up from the benefit premiere of Yankee Doodle Dandy (1942). Producing an anti-nazi film in 1934 was easier said than done, and no studio would release an anti-nazi film until Confessions of a Nazi Spy (1930) by Warner Bros. Complex issues conspired against the Warners plans to create a film naming the Nazi threat. As Hitler gained power, the distribution of such a film in Europe grew increasingly difficult. At home, isolationist sentiment and anti-semitism, together with industry concern that an anti-nazi film could damage relations with the still important German film market, resulted in a 1934 Production Code Administration (PCA) ban on anti-nazi films. Unable to explicitly fight fascism through feature films, Jack and Harry monitored the spread of Nazism throughout Europe and America. They were active with the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League, provided jobs for refugees from Europe and raised money for anti- Nazi organizations. Harry, especially, acted as a watchdog, even enlisting studio employees to inform him of anti-semitic and Nazi activities. 1 Harry kept a list of newsreel coverage of the escalating situation in Germany. In his zealous fight to root out Nazism, Harry banned the 1938 newsreel Inside Nazi Germany from all Warner theatres, believing it to be pro-nazi. But even Harry s daughter Doris disagreed that the newsreel was pro-nazi, telling him, I think that for you to accuse the March of Time of making a pro-nazi picture is all wrong. 2 In 1939, when a group of Nazi newspaper editors toured the Metro Goldwyn Mayer lot, Harry took MGM to task, admonishing, I just can t bring myself to believe that you people would entertain those whom the world regards as the murderers of their own families WARNERS WAR: POLITICS, POP CULTURE & PROPAGANDA IN WARTIME HOLLYWOOD 15
2 As part of his crusade against Nazism, Harry gave several speeches to employees, industry heads and The American Legion urging listeners to be on guard for Nazi presence in America. Complacency, he believed, would leave America vulnerable to fascist infiltration. Jack and Harry both made numerous appeals to President Franklin Roosevelt, whom they had known since aiding Roosevelt in his 1933 presidential run. The Warners pledged to aid the country in whatever way possible and specifically offered up the use of the studio for the good of the country, an offer the Roosevelt Administration would eventually take advantage of. Though surviving memos are often vague and cloaked in diplomatic language, Harry once suggested to Roosevelt a way in which a still officially isolationist America could offer aid to war-torn Britain if we consider the Atlantic Ocean our life-line, it is an assured fact that the Island of Great Britain is certainly a part of the life-line. What fault could anyone find if we undertook to man the Island to protect it from invasion. 4 In an effort to aid Britain, Jack and Harry donated two Spitfire planes to the British Royal Air Force. The Warners named the war planes after President Roosevelt and Secretary of State Cordell Hull. At the studio, a 1933 Warner Bros. cartoon Bosko s Picture Show was the first American production to poke fun at Hitler, who was caricatured as the incompetent ruler of Pretzel, Germany. 5 Warner Bros. feature films attacked fascist ideology by confronting the then controversial issues of racial and religious discrimination. The Life of Emile Zola, for instance, chronicles the life of French writer Emile Zola and his efforts to clear accused traitor Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jew, of racially motivated charges. Though the eradication of specific references to Dreyfus Jewishness may have weakened the film as a commentary on the contemporary European situation, the film made strides towards addressing the topic and found tremendous support in Jewish communities. 6 The Warner Bros film Black Legion, a true story about a fascist, Ku Klux Klan-like organization in the Midwest, continued to test the boundaries of PCA rules against the provocative and inflammatory subject of racial and religious prejudice. Joseph Breen notified Jack Warner on June 18, 1936 that the film would not receive approval. However, a meeting between the PCA and Black Legion writers on June 19 th shows they planned to treat the subject (of racial and religious prejudice) as broadly and strongly as (they) wished so that they might test the limits of the PCA rules. 7 Contemporary criticism reproached Hollywood for not addressing the situation in Europe. A New York Times review praised Black Legion but also criticized Hollywood in general for being afraid to address social issues outside the U.S. 8 But the film was breaking boundaries and would help pave the way for the first anti-nazi film from a major studio, Confessions of a Nazi Spy. The Warner Bros. series of Patriotic Shorts, based on important historic American figures and events, promoted American democracy. Begun in 1936, the series hit its stride in 1938 when Jack Warner declared, I am more than ever convinced that we have a double duty to perform. We must sell America while we entertain the world. 9 Patriotic shorts like The Declaration of Independence, Lincoln in the White House, Flag of Humanity and Sons of Liberty sold American ideals and the concept that sometimes those ideals had to be defended. Sons of Liberty stands out as a particularly interesting example from the series. It tells the story of the important role played by Jewish banker Haym Salomon in helping finance the American Revolution. The short depicts a scene in a synagogue bold imagery in a time when Jewish identity had been largely eliminated from the American movie screen. 10 In 1939, Warner Bros. released the groundbreaking film Confessions of a Nazi Spy. Confessions was based on actual events and warned Americans of the presence of Nazis in America, a message that echoed Harry s earlier speeches. Although concentration camps are mentioned in the film, like the earlier films dealing with racial and religious discrimination, the word Jew is never uttered. Confessions was a controversial film from the very start, and Warner Bros. considered leaving out the credits. In the end, the credits were included, though some of the actors chose to work under an alias to protect European family members from Nazi retaliation. A particularly striking ad for the film depicted a man, feet indifferently thrown upon his desk, spouting, Nazi spies in America? That s got nothing to do with me! He ll learn differently when he sees Confessions of a Nazi Spy, the ad confidently retorts. 11 The ad demonstrates how well the Warners understood contemporary attitudes toward the European conflict, and their faith in their ability to influence popular opinion through film. Confessions elicited strong reaction from all sides. Warner Bros. received letters from the public exclaiming their new-found 9. The ad campaign for Confessions of a Nazi Spy (1939) confronted isolationist sentiment head on. 16 WARNERS WAR: POLITICS, POP CULTURE & PROPAGANDA IN WARTIME HOLLYWOOD 17
3 10. Lincoln in the White House (1939), part of the Patriotic Shorts series that celebrated important American historical figures and events. patriotism, and employees gushed that they were proud to work for an organization willing to produce such a bold and timely film. Detractors accused the Warners of communism. 12 Confessions of a Nazi Spy was so effective that it inspired a second PCA ban on anti-nazi films. 11. Nana Bryant as Clara Barton, founder of the Red Cross, in Flag of Humanity (1940). 12. Claude Rains as Haym Salomon in Sons of Liberty (1939), one of the few films to portray a Jewish character. Though the second ban on anti-nazi films slowed the Warners direct attack on fascism, they did not lay down their celluloid weapon altogether. In mid-1940, Warner Bros. was asked by military officials to produce a series of short films aimed at introducing the public to the various branches of the military. Shown in commercial theatres, shorts like Service with the Colors, March On, Marines and The Tanks Are Coming were likely intended to help prepare the country for armament. Several of these groundbreaking Technicolor shorts received Academy Awards for Best Short Subject. The Patriotic Military Shorts were written by Owen Crump, who would be instrumental, along with Jack Warner, in organizing the Army Air Corps First Motion Picture Unit (FMPU) once the U.S. entered the war. In 1941, with the PCA anti-nazi rule again relaxed, Warner Bros. released Underground, a film about a resistance group fighting the Nazis in Germany. The film makes several references to concentration camps and includes a shocking scene within one. Nazi leaders were shown beating and intimidating members of the resistance as well as their own officers, but like Confessions, the atrocities committed against Jews were never mentioned. That same year saw the release of the Warner Bros. hit Sergeant York. The film followed the life of World War I hero Sgt. Alvin York in his transformation from hillbilly troublemaker to Christian pacifist to war hero. 13 In the tradition of Americanism established by the studio s Patriotic Shorts, Sergeant York emphasized simple American ideals and the idea that a man, even a pacifist, must sometimes step up and fight when those ideals are threatened. As the country moved closer to war, isolationist senators recognized the Warner Bros. message. Senators Gerald Nye (North Dakota) and Bennett Champ Clark (Missouri) accused Hollywood of being a Jewish-controlled monopoly involved with the Roosevelt Administration in warmongering. Senator Nye proclaimed that Hollywood Jews were more of a problem than Hitler was 14 and that the motion picture industry did not deserve First Amendment protection. 15 The House and the Senate brought charges of propagandizing 13. Service with the Colors (1940), one of a series of military shorts introducing movie-goers to branches of the military. against the motion picture industry and named Warner Bros. as the ringleader. Confessions of a Nazi Spy and Sergeant York were identified as films intended to incite the country to war. Harry Warner testified in September 1941 before the Senate Subcommittee that Warner Bros. films were not propaganda but were strictly for entertainment. 16 Warner argued that Warner Bros. films specifically Confessions of a Nazi Spy and Sergeant York were based on real events and that the films had been tremendously popular. But statements made by both Jack and Harry and their memos to President Roosevelt and others reveal that the Warner brothers were well aware of the persuasive power of the motion picture. America (and Hollywood) Goes to War The Senate Subcommittee hearings on propaganda in motion pictures were halted when the U.S. entered the war in December The President almost immediately issued a memorandum recognizing the importance of film to the war effort and stated that the government should not censor the industry. With war declared, the Warners could continue their crusade against fascism without fear of reprisal. In 1942, Jack Warner was commissioned a Lieutenant Colonel and helped establish the Army s (FMPU), which would eventually include enlisted men from all the major studios. Warner Bros. donated studio space in east Hollywood and immediately put Warner Bros. staff to work on Winning Your Wings, a recruitment short starring Lieutenant James Stewart. The studio produced the short without profit. 14. March On, Marines (1940), a military short produced at the request of military officials. Between its inception in 1942 and the end of the war in 1945, the FMPU used military personnel and studio resources to produce hundreds of short films for public and military use. The films gave instruction on numerous subjects including identifying the enemy, properly using weapons and contributing to the war effort on the home front. Warner Bros. aided the FMPU in producing dozens of short films. Striking set drawings from The Battle against Shop Thirteen, one of the Warner Bros. produced shorts, caricature the leaders of Germany, Italy and Japan as befuddled buffoons, and were likely intended to illustrate a less-than-threatening enemy. Warner Bros. previously used caricature, in Bosko s Picture Show, to spoof Hitler and would use it again in an episode from their racy animated series of military training shorts, Private SNAFU. The Office of War Information Bureau of Motion Pictures, the government s liason to Hollywood, was formed after the U.S. entered the war. The Bureau established guidelines by which the motion picture industry could support the war effort. Whenever possible, films were to fall into one of six Bureau-approved categories: The Production Front, The Issues, The Enemy, The Armed Forces, Our Allies and The Home Front. In November 1942, Jack Warner resigned his commission as Lieutenant Colonel. Though he had been in the military for less than a year, Jack had helped establish and organize the FMPU. With that 18 WARNERS WAR: POLITICS, POP CULTURE & PROPAGANDA IN WARTIME HOLLYWOOD 19
4 16. F.D.R. in Washington, The Sergeant York (1941) marketing campaign positioned York among other important historic figures, including Teddy Roosevelt. 15. This advertisement for Mission to Moscow (1943) suggests that Joseph Stalin is a lot like Ambassador Joseph Davies. task completed, Jack felt he could be of more service back at the studio where they were producing probably one hundred or more Feature and Short subjects pertaining to the War Effort. 17 Many of those films followed the Bureau of Motion Picture guidelines and celebrated the American military, her allies and patriotic historical figures. Films in the Production Front category are probably best represented by the Republic film Rosie the Riveter. Production Front films were intended to keep up morale and to show Americans that they could contribute even at home. Wings for the Eagle is one of the few films in the Production Front category made by Warner Bros. Films that fell into The Issues category were intended to highlight the issues of the war and was exemplified, at Warner Bros., by the Bette Davis film Watch on the Rhine. But it was in the other four categories that Warner Bros. found an extension of the work they had already done to combat fascism. Warner Bros. Armed Forces films celebrated the American military with heroic wartime stories. Titles like Air Force, Dive Bomber 18 and Destination Tokyo depict diverse groups of men, bonded through their military service, as they faced conflict and eventually emerged victorious. 19 The stories of American military victory were designed to help maintain morale for viewers with relatives fighting overseas. Similar filmic devices were found in Warner films like Captains of the Clouds (about the Royal Canadian Air Force), which fell into the Our Allies category. However, the studio s most notorious film, Mission to Moscow, was produced to suggest that Russia was our ally in the fight against Nazism. Based on the memoirs of Joseph Davies, U.S. ambassador to Russia, and produced, according to Jack Warner, at the request of President Roosevelt himself, the film garnered strong reactions on both sides. Warner Bros. received many letters both praising their efforts and accusing the Warners of being communists. 20 Advertisements for the film simplify the differences between the U.S. and Russia, touting the film as the Story of Two Guys Named Joe Joseph Davies and Joseph Stalin. Perhaps as a preemptive strike, advertisements stressed that the film was the Story of an American Told American Style. 21 Though Mission to Moscow was clearly in line with the Warners war against Nazism, the film would haunt the studio during the House Un-American Activities Committee hearings of the late 1940s and early 1950s. Having fought for so long to produce the first anti-nazi film, Warner Bros. was adept at the presentation of The Enemy. Across the Pacific is a story of intrigue depicting Sydney Greenstreet and Sen Young as an American and a Japanese-American working covertly for the Japanese cause. A publicity photo of Young as Joe Totsuiko portrays the enemy standing, a cigarette defiantly hanging from his lips, and a less-thansubtle spider web rising up in shadow behind him Totsuiko is clearly not a man to be trusted. 22 Regarded by many film critics and fans as one of the best movies of all time, Casablanca is a fascinating study of the many faces of The Enemy. There is never any question that the Nazis are the enemy and 20 WARNERS WAR: POLITICS, POP CULTURE & PROPAGANDA IN WARTIME HOLLYWOOD 21
5 18. A Medal for Merit was given to Jack Warner for his contribution to the war effort. that the Vichy French are, to some degree, allied with them. However, the greatest threat in Casablanca comes from the enemy within. Rick Blaine (Humphrey Bogart), a hardened nightclub owner, struggles to suppress his past as a romantic freedom fighter and maintain a cynical detachment from his customers and their politics. When an old love turns up with her husband, who is a famous member of the Resistance, Rick refuses to help the couple escape the Nazis. Rick eventually realizes that the problems between him and his lost love Ilsa (Ingrid Bergman) don t amount to a hill of beans in a war-torn world, and he ultimately sacrifices his own happiness so that Ilsa and her husband can escape to freedom in America. Casablanca is likely so well remembered because it skillfully weaves its message of sacrifice in wartime with a timeless love story. 19. Dennis Morgan plays aircraft worker Corky Jones in Wings for the Eagle (1942). 20. Bette Davis and Paul Lukas as Sara and Kurt Muller in Watch on the Rhine (1943). The Home Front category presented the greatest opportunity to combine Jack and Harry s personal and professional war against fascism. Home Front films employed the stories of patriotic Americans to inspire the viewing public. All profits from This Is the Army, based on the successful stage show by Irving Berlin, were donated by Warner Bros. to the Army Emergency Relief Fund. Yankee Doodle Dandy starred James Cagney as George M. Cohan in this film about the life of the patriotic American composer/performer who penned Yankee Doodle Boy and Over There. The film begins with Cohan receiving a Medal of Honor from President Roosevelt. It was the first time a living president was portrayed by an actor in a film. Since Roosevelt received many requests by studios to use his image in a film, Roosevelt likely agreed to be portrayed in Yankee Doodle Dandy thanks to his friendly relationship with Jack and Harry Warner. Proceeds from the premiere of Yankee Doodle Dandy were donated by Warner Bros. to purchase war bonds to build ships. In addition to the millions Jack and Harry donated to the war effort, Warner Bros. employees regularly donated up to 10% of their paychecks to purchase war bonds. Warner Bros., along with the other Hollywood studios, produced war bond shorts and advertised war bonds in many of their print ads until the end of the war. 21. Sen Young embodies The Enemy in Across the Pacific (1942). Jack and Harry Warner had been dedicated to the defeat of fascism since Hitler took power in Germany in They recognized the power of motion pictures to influence popular attitudes and worked to utilize their position as media moguls to bring to light what they considered to be a very real threat to American freedoms. Consistent 22 WARNERS WAR: POLITICS, POP CULTURE & PROPAGANDA IN WARTIME HOLLYWOOD 23
6 offers to help the Roosevelt Administration in any way possible led to the establishment of the First Motion Picture Unit, which would produce hundreds of shorts to aid the war. The complex web of films they produced, both before and during the war, pushed the boundaries of important issues like racism and the role of popular film in society, leaving as the Warners legacy some of the most important films of the period. Harry s personal dedication to the cause earned him the respect and admiration of his employees and colleagues, and Jack s active supervision of wartime production won him a Medal for Merit. The Warners personal war against the spread of Nazi fascism also earned them an important place in the history of the intersection between politics, popular culture and propaganda. NOTES 1. Nazi Data Files. Jack L. Warner Collection, School of Cinema- Television Library, University of Southern California. 2. Letter from Doris (Warner) Leroy to Harry Warner, undated. Jack L. Warner Collection, School of Cinema-Television Library, University of Southern California. 3. Letter from Harry Warner to Sam Katz at Metro Goldwyn Mayer, June 27, Jack L. Warner Collection, Cinema-Television Library, University of Southern California. 4. Letter from Harry Warner to Franklin Roosevelt, July 23, PFF 1050, Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. 5. The cartoon transcript in the USC Warner Bros. Archives does not contain the reference to Pretzel, Germany. For a description of the cartoon see Jerry Beck, Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies: A Complete Illustrated Guide to the Warner Bros. Cartoons. (New York: H. Holt, 1989), See Christine Ann Colgan, Warner Bros. Crusade against the Third Reich: A Study of Anti-Nazi Activism and Film Production, , diss., University of Southern California, 1985 for a wide sampling of films dealing with issues of race and religion. Also see Leo Braudy s essay in this book for a discussion of titles that obliquely address the war in Europe. 7. Black Legion (Warner Bros., 1936), Production Code Administration. Margaret Herrick Library, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. 8. Frank S. Nugent, Second Thoughts on Black Legion, New York Times, January 24, Black Legion Publicity, File 691, Warner Bros. Archives, University of Southern California. 9. As quoted in Colgan, Sons of Liberty, Flag of Humanity and Lincoln in the White House, along with the Warner Bros. animated short Old Glory, were screened continuously during the exhibition. Many thanks to Leith Adams at the Warner Bros. Corporate Archive for arranging to have the shorts made available. 11. Confessions of a Nazi Spy. Pressbook, Warner Bros. Archives, School of Cinema-Television, University of Southern California. 12. Confessions of a Nazi Spy, Correspondence, File 12508, Warner Bros. Archives, School of Cinema-Television, University of Southern California. 13. For a lengthy discussion of Sergeant York see Michael E. Birdwell, Celluloid Soldiers: The Warner Bros. Campaign against Nazism (New York: New York University Press, 1999). 14. Birdwell, Birdwell, Harry Warner, Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Interstate Commerce, United States Senate, September 25, Letter from Jack Warner to Lowell Mellett, November 10, 1942, PFF 1050, Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. 18. Dive Bomber was retroactively categorized by Warner Bros. as an Armed Forces film. It was not uncommon for early films to be identified by the categories later established by the Office of War Information Bureau of Motion Pictures. 19. See Dana Polan in this book for a discussion of the heroic narrative, especially in Destination Tokyo. 20. Mission to Moscow, Correspondence, File 2085, Warner Bros. Archives, School of Cinema-Television, University of Southern California. 21. Mission to Moscow, Publicity, File 684, Warner Bros. Archives, School of Cinema-Television, University of Southern California. 22. Depicting the enemy in a standing position, with a cigarette hanging from the lips, was visual shorthand for identifying the enemy. Publicity photos for Confessions of a Nazi Spy, Across the Pacific and Edge of Darkness all use the same visual device. See masterphotos for each title at the Warner Bros. Archives, School of Cinema-Television, University of Southern California. 22. The Warner Bros. iconic water tower. Essays & Reflections 24 WARNERS WAR: POLITICS, POP CULTURE & PROPAGANDA IN WARTIME HOLLYWOOD 25
World War II TOWARD A GLOBAL COMMUNITY (1900 PRESENT) WWII began on September 1, 1939 when Germany invaded Poland. The Germans used a strategy known as blitzkrieg (lightening war), which involved coordinated
Chapter 27: Americans in World War II 1941-1945 Section 1: Early Difficulties Objective 1: Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the Allied and Axis Powers in 1941. Objectives 2: Outline the steps that
World War 2 Project By Cdt.Sgt.Allen.Devonlee & The other Guy (Dalton Barron) Propaganda (Germany) Most propaganda in Nazi Germany was made by the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda. Joseph
CHAPTER TWENTY-THREE: WORLD WAR II: FIGHTING THE GOOD WAR, 1939 1945 READING AND STUDY GUIDE I. The Approaching War A. Fascism and Appeasement B. The Arsenal of Democracy C. War with Japan II. On the Home
SOL Review World War II Part I Causes and leaders of World War I Inflation Depression Germany Unemployment 1. Political instability and economic problems in Europe: - World Wide. - High war debt owed by.
World War II Origins and Home Front Chapters 34-35 Origins of WWII Soviet Union 1917 Russian Revolution Communism - Vladimir Lenin 1924 Lenin dies Joseph Stalin comes to power Origins of WWII - Dictators
WS/FCS Unit Planning Organizer Subject(s) Social Studies Conceptual Lenses Grade/Course History 2 Foreign Policy Unit of Study Unit 5: World War II (6.1, 6.2, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3) War Unit Title World War II
Chapter 26 World War II, 1939 1945 Chapter Summary Chapter 26 offers a survey of World War II. Topics covered in this chapter include the complexities of the American struggle with neutrality; the American
No Greater Love Memorial Day May 26, 2013 Trinity United Methodist Church John 15:9-17 In our nation, where history is often overshadowed by current happenings, it is good that we set aside a couple days
Lesson Plan Central Historical Question: Why did the U.S. enter World War I? Materials: Classroom Textbook Excerpt on Copies of Documents A and B: Wilson Speeches Copies of Document C: Zinn Document Copies
WORLD WAR II 5-4.4: Explain the principal events related to the involvement of the United States in World War II, including campaigns in North Africa and the Mediterranean; major battles of the European
US History 2 Ch. 24: World War II 1941-1945 Review Sheet Mr. Mulry Axis Power Goals Country Leader Goals Germany Adolf Hitler Dominate Europe and eliminate inferior Jews Italy Benito Mussolini Dreams of
Women in the Military Women have served in military conflicts since the American Revolution, but World War II was the first time that women served in the United States military in an official capacity.
Education Service World War II: Government Posters help win the war?? 2 This resource was produced using documents from the collections of The National Archives. It can be freely modified and reproduced
Rise to Power Adolf Hitler Objectives: The objective of this presentation is to give students an understanding of Adolf Hitler s early, pre-adult years. Students will also become familiar with how this
APPENDIX IV MODERN WORLD HISTORY DETAILED KEY CONCEPTS TOPIC 1: REVOLUTIONS IN THOUGHT KEY CONCEPT 1.1: Analyze how the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment ideas impacted human thought. a. Identify
Non-fiction: The Holocaust The Holocaust The Holocaust refers to the horrific time period from 1933 to 1945 when throughout Europe over six million Jewish men, women, and children were systematically killed
12 November 2011 voaspecialenglish.com Sam Houston, 1793-1863: An Early Leader of Texas Cavalry soldiers line up at Fort Sam Houston, Texas loc.gov (You can download an MP3 of this story at voaspecialenglish.com)
Unit 7 5th Grade Social Studies World War II Study Guide Additional study material and review games are available at www.jonathanfeicht.com. Copyright 2015. For single classroom use only. All rights reserved.
Section 2 American Strengths and eaknesses At the beginning of the war, American soldiers were poorly trained and poorly equipped. They lacked gunpowder, rifles, food, and clothing. Some men had only spears
AP UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 5 Analyze the ways in which the federal government sought support on the home front for the war effort during the First World War. The
How successful was the Civil Rights campaign in achieving its aims between 1950 and 1965? I have a dream... Civil Rights Aims Desegregation Voting Rights Civil Rights End to Discrimination Methods Legal
Chapter 19 Section 4 America Enters the War Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Chapter Objectives Section 4: America Enters the War Explain how Roosevelt helped Britain while maintaining
DICTATORSHIP: THE ROAD NOT TAKEN FDR s inauguration took place at the lowest point of the Great Depression. With unemployment soaring and banks collapsing, public fear was so great that many were ready
World War II 1939-1945 The failure of European nations to stop the aggression of Adolf Hitler leads to World War II, with the United States officially being drawn into the war as a result of the Japanese
WAR HORSES The American Revolution The American Revolution, otherwise known as the Revolutionary War, occurred between 1775 and 1783 between Great Britain and the original thirteen colonies in the Americas.
1 PRE-TEST Directions: Read the following statements and circle whether they are True or False. 1. After World War One, many countries had difficulty dealing with war debts, hunger, and unemployment. 2.
World War II It seems to be unfortunately true that the epidemic of world lawlessness is spreading. When an epidemic of physical disease starts to spread, the community approves and joins in a quarantine
Name: Class: Date: Chapter 23 Georgia and World War II Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which accurately describes how the Lend Lease program
FDR Birth Announcement. Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882 to James Roosevelt and Sara Delano Roosevelt at their home in Hyde Park, New York. This whimsical birth announcement was found
Table of Contents Part One: Social Studies Curriculum Chapter I: Social Studies Essay Questions and Prewriting Activities 1. How the United States Became a World Power 1 2. Immigration 5 3. The Role of
African Americans World War II was a unique time for African Americans. They were asked to fight against Hitler s racism in Europe even though they experienced racism on a daily basis in the United States.
The Cold War Arts Fighting the Reds:Joseph McCarthy The Cold War The two sides and their differences: military, economic, but also cultural. The US tried to show that American intelligentsia enjoyed more
Key Concepts: Rights Responsibilities Bystander Patriotism Democracy Materials: White board, chalkboard, overhead projector, or easel with chart paper Downloadable testimony clips: Testimony - TV and DVD
Road to War & World War II Chapter 35 & 36 London Conference During the 1930s we were really only worried about the U.S. & ourselves London Economic Conference (1933) Hoped to form a global plan to fight
Name: Teacher: Period: World War II Review Sheet Textbook Chapters 16 & 17 Brown Book Chapter 12 1. Evaluate the Russian leader, type of government, and their aggressions leading up to WWII (529) 2. Evaluate
FDR AND PEARL HARBOR Almost as soon as the attacks occurred, conspiracy theorists began claiming that President Roosevelt had prior knowledge of the assault on Pearl Harbor. Others have claimed he tricked
92 A Study of Anti-heroism: A Character Analysis of Holly Martins from the film The Third Man (1949) Yoshiya Nishi INTRODUCTION One of the ways to compare two cultures is to focus on the idea of heroism.
Chapter 9: The Policies of Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson Department of State, Department of Treasury, Department of War, Attorney General, Postmaster General : 5 government departments established
African Americans in Aviation: The 1940s A Decade of Change PRACTICING HISTORY WITH PRIMARY SOURCES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This poster is made possible by the generous support of the Gertrude E. Skelly Charitable
Name: World War II Unit Test Please read the directions prior to beginning every section. Good Luck! Matching: Place the correct term with the correct definition. 1 point each. 1. He founded Italy s Fascist
No Taxation Without Representation!! Actions that led to the Revolutionary War Raising Taxes The French and Indian War had caused the British to be in a great deal of debt. They decided to keep a standing
7 Wisconsin: Our State, Our Story Wisconsin and the Civil War In this chapter, students focus on the upheaval brought on by the events associated with the Civil War. Brought home are questions about slavery
Franklin Delano Roosevelt The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. By: Lorin Murphy This book belongs to: Fun Facts About Franklin He was President of the United States longer than any other President.
AFRICAN-AMERICAN CONTRIBUTIONS SERIES presented by BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee THE COLOR OF BLOOD TIME LINE OF MILITARY INTEGRATION 1639 The Virginia House of Burgesses passed the first legislation
AVIATOR S FLIGHT LOG BOOK NAME: SCHOOL: GRADE: DATE: Welcome to the US Freedom Pavilion: The Boeing Center at ore than 70 years ago, the United States and its Allies fought and defeated M Germany, Japan,
When they came for me, there was no one left to speak up. A Lesson Plan from the Education Department of the The National World War II Museum The National World War II Museum 945 Magazine Street New Orleans,
UNIT TEST Name 1. During the 1920s, German Jewish families a. were well-established in German society. b. rejected German culture. c. maintained their own dietary, dress and language traditions. d. lived
WWII: The Lost Color Archives - Volumes I and II Introduction Beginning as a European confrontation and escalating into all-out international conflict, World War II is now known as the most destructive
Georgia Studies Unit 6: Early 20 th Century Georgia Lesson 2: World War II Study Presentation Lesson 2: World War II ESSENTIAL QUESTION: How do acts of aggression influence public sentiment toward conflict?
Enrichment Activity 1 The Changing Pledge In this activity, students try to solve a mystery about the Pledge of Allegiance. They are provided with a version of the Pledge from October 1892 and are asked
Causes of the American Revolution SWBAT Explain the causes of the American Revolution Do Now The Townshend Act fixed taxes on which item: A.Tea B. Glass C. Lead D.All of the Above The Albany Conference
Chapter 23 America and the Great War, 1914 1920 Chapter Summary Chapter 23 introduces the student to the American role in World War I. Among the topics covered in this chapter are the complexity of the
MacArthur Memorial Education Programs World War II Primary Resources Flag Raising on Iwo Jima, February 23, 1945 Background President Woodrow Wilson described World War I as the war to end all wars. In
The Roosevelt's and Civil Rights of Minorities By: Rebekah, Kate, Dan, and Angelica Who Really Were The Roosevelts? Eleanor Roosevelt was the wife of our 32 nd president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. She
PROJECT TITLE: The War of Words: Propaganda as a Weapon and Glue AUTHOR: William P. Daisley Jr. GRADE LEVEL & SUBJECT Middle School/ High School SCHOLARSHIP & RESEARCH 1. Primary Investigative Question(s)
THE WORLD WAR I ERA (1914-1920) Militarism Mobilization Central Powers Allies Stalemate Propaganda Section 1 - The Road To War: A. Causes of World War I 1. June 28, 1914 - World War I is touched off by
Historical Background of the Russian Revolution Animal Farm Animal Farm: Historical Allegory = Multiple Levels of Meaning 1845-1883: 1883: Soviet philosopher, Karl Marx promotes Communism (no private ownership
COMMON CORE Lessons & Activities TEACH IT TODAY! About this Book This Common Core Lessons and Activities Book allows you to immediately meet new Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts, as
Unit 9: World War II Chapters: 24-25 Essential Questions 1) What political ideas are appealing to people during times of crisis and uncertainty? Why? 2) How do world conflicts and political changes impact
1 Revolutionary War Music Overview: Music frequently plays an important role in military and social history. Often, songs become standards of troops fighting in war, such as the Battle Hymn of the Republic
Name Date Page # I DO, WE DO, YOU DO: Siege at the Alamo WE DO-READERS THEATRE: Enrique Esparza and the Battle of the Alamo Characters: Narrator #1 Narrator #2 Enrique Esparza: an eight-year old boy living
Power Point to accompany the lesson The Rise of Totalitarianism, the Start of World War II and the US Response, available in the Database of K-12 Resources To view this PDF as a projectable presentation,
First 100 Instant Words the had out than of by many first and words then water a but them been to not these called in what so who is all some oil you were her sit that we would now it when make find he
EuGENEus Welcome to the Pack Up and Go! game. Find out more about the history of Canadian immigration as you match each push factor (reason for leaving a place) and pull factor (reason for choosing a place)
The American Legion MEDIA & COMMUNICATIONS P.O. BOX 1055 INDIANAPOLIS, IN 46206-1055 (317) 630-1253 Fax (317) 630-1368 For God and Country Memorial Day 2016 The American Legion Media & Communications Division
The Sequence of Causes of the Cold War Outside the U.S. In the U.S. 1917 Revolutions in Russia 1917-1919 Russian Civil War 1941-1944 Second Front against Hitler Casablanca Conference 1943 Teheran Conference
Nazi Ideas about Race and Religion Nazi Germany This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. 1 of 25 For more detailed instructions, see the Getting
Student Handout #1 Propaganda Objectives and Tools Common Objectives of Wartime Propaganda 1. Recruitment of soldiers or other wartime personnel, either through a draft or voluntary enlistment 2. Financing
U.S. Reasons For Going to War U.S. declares its neutrality in 1914. Conditions will be created which pull the U.S. into war on the side of the Allies. U.S. Reasons for going to War The Sinking of Merchant
Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words The Fry list of 600 words are the most frequently used words for reading and writing. The words are listed in rank order. First Hundred Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group
Lesson 1 Summary Lesson 1: Trouble over Taxes Use with pages 268 273. Vocabulary Parliament Britain s law-making assembly Stamp Act law that placed a tax on printed materials in the colonies repeal cancel
Second Grade The War of 1812 Assessment 1a. Who was president during the War of 1812? a. George Washington b. James Madison 1b. Who was president during the War of 1812? a. George Washington b. James Madison
World War II Propaganda Propaganda definition: information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause In WWII, propaganda was used more than any other time this world has seen. With new technological
Chapter 19 Section 3 The Holocaust Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Chapter Objectives Section 3: The Holocaust Describe Nazi prejudices against Jews and early persecution of German
The Cold War and the American Dream.. Key question: How did the U.S. economy and political climate change after WWII? WHAT is the COLD WAR? The Cold War was a period of mistrust and bad feeling between
Title: Patriot, Loyalist, or Neutral? You Decide By Lynne Fuller, Carusi Middle School Historical Background: During the American Revolution, the American colonists had to decide to support the War for
QUIZ ;^ ONLINE! iwww.schalastic.com * /aciionmag Ê - -^"^J!i These chilclren concentration ca like niany of Ferei Schatz'5 relatives Vocabulary concentration camps: camps where Jews and others were sent
To what extent were the policies of the United States responsible for the outbreak and development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1949? Although the dominant military confrontations of the 20 th century
Activity Title: Advancing Across the Pacific (Elementary and Middle Schools) Areas of the museum to visit for this lesson plan: The Admiral Nimitz Museum and the George H.W. Bush Gallery. Teacher Note:
THE QUALITIES OF GOOD LEADERS What is Leadership? Anyone can be a leader. There are leaders everywhere around us: at home, at school, on television, on the sports field, in the community and in government.
Non-fiction: Colonization and Revolutionary War The Declaration of Independence Colonization and Revolutionary War The Declaration of Independence During the years right before the Revolutionary War, more
Age range: 9 14 Curriculum Links: History, English, Drama, Citizenship Global citizenship skills and learning values: Research skills, team work, community awareness, reading and comprehension, presentation
Curriculum, Instruction & Professional Development Curriculum Leader, History/Social Science 997-8000, Ext. 2956 Modern World History Study Guide 10.1 Students relate the moral and ethical principles in
PUSD High Frequency Word List For Reading and Spelling Grades K-5 High Frequency or instant words are important because: 1. You can t read a sentence or a paragraph without knowing at least the most common.