IMD. Finding the Way: A Discussion of the Swedish Migrant Integration System

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1 Finding the Way: A Discussin f the Swedish Migrant Integratin System Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD July 2014

2 Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

3 Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

4 Intrductin Sweden s freign-brn ppulatin has been grwing fr many decades. In 2013 clse t 16% f the Swedish ppulatin were brn abrad, putting Sweden amng the OECD cuntries with the largest freign-brn ppulatin, and a further 5% f native-brn Swedes had tw freign-brn parents. Integratin f immigrants and their children is therefre f key imprtance fr the Swedish ecnmy and sciety as a whle. At the same time, labur market utcmes f immigrants and their children ften lag behind thse f ther Swedes. These utcmes have t be seen against the backdrp f a large prprtin f migrants wh have arrived fr humanitarian reasns. Between 2003 and 2012, nearly 20% f permanent migrant inflws int Sweden were made up f humanitarian migrants the largest share f all OECD cuntries. Such migrants have mre difficulties t integrate in all OECD cuntries. A first OECD review f the Swedish system fr labur market integratin f migrants, cnducted in 2004, fund their utcmes t be unfavurable in an internatinal cntext and recmmended measures such as enhancing language and vcatinal training and giving a clearer labur market fcus t integratin plicy (OECD, 2007). Since then, much thught has gne int plicy design in Sweden. In December 2010, a new law was intrduced t increase the labur market fcus f intrductin activities fr certain newly arrived migrants and, t this end, respnsibility fr the new prgramme was placed under the aegis f the public emplyment service (see Annex B fr details). This change, alngside ther labur-market riented initiatives, has insured that Sweden is well advanced relative t ther OECD cuntries with respect t plicy gverning the integratin f new arrivals. In spite f this, hwever, there remains rm fr imprvement in integratin utcmes and recent refugee chrts still have lw emplyment rates. What is lst in the translatin frm plicy refrm t imprved migrant utcmes? The answer t this questin is cmplicated by events bth plitical and ecnmic that have influenced the cmpsitin f the migrant inflw as well as the labur market cnditins they face upn arrival in Sweden. In rder t tackle this cmplex questin, the OECD c-rganised, tgether with the Swedish Ministries fr Emplyment and Finance, a wrkshp that brught tgether practitiners drawn frm acrss gvernment ministries and agencies, scial partners, reginal actrs and private sectr emplyers t discuss the Swedish integratin system in a hlistic manner. The design f the wrkshp built upn infrmatin gathered during a fact-finding missin invlving clse t 100 individuals, including pliticians, scial partners, as well as persnnel wrking peratinally with integratin such as municipal administratrs, emplyment fficers and teachers. Building n the in-depth knwledge and expertise f each participant, the wrkshp held n 28 th April in Stckhlm first wrked t identify the bttlenecks and shrtcmings in the design and implementatin f integratin plicy in Sweden. Supprted by expert peer reviewers frm ther OECD cuntries, participants then began t develp cncrete ideas f hw t tackle these challenges. The wrkshp fcused n seven themes identified by the OECD and the Swedish authrities as critical issues facing migrants in their integratin int the Swedish labur market. I. Basic skills and Swedish language fr adults II. Validatin and recgnitin III. Emplyer demand IV. Discriminatin V. Netwrks and jb search VI. Schl-t-wrk transitins VII. C-rdinatin amng actrs Each f these seven thematic areas was discussed in small sub-grups. The findings in these areas frm the basis f this synthesis nte and will be discussed in turn, fllwing a brief presentatin f the Swedish situatin as highlighted at the beginning f the wrkshp. The views expressed in this nte, hwever, d nt necessarily reflect the views f all participants in the wrkshp. Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

5 Sweden Denmark Netherlands Belgium New Zealand France Nrway Spain Ireland Austria Canada Germany United Kingdm Switzerland Finland Italy United States IMD A shared understanding f integratin in Sweden In mst cuntries in the OECD, migrants face mre difficulties finding emplyment cmpared with their native-brn peers and Sweden is n exceptin in this regard and indeed, the gaps are larger than elsewhere. Indeed, acrss the educatinal distributin the large disparities in emplyment levels between immigrants and the native-brn put Sweden amng the wrst perfrmers in the OECD. Figure 1. Emplyment by educatinal attainment Where Sweden clearly stands ut, hwever, is with respect t the large disparity in the emplyment levels f lw-qualified migrants and their nativebrn cunterparts. Emplyment rates amng the lw-educated lag nearly 25 percentage pints behind the native-brn (Figure 1) and amng thse wh are in emplyment, many are in jbs requiring less than their frmal educatin level (see Challenge II). These utcmes are certainly dependent, t sme extent, n the cmpsitin f the migrant ppulatin: many refugees cme frm cuntries with failing educatin systems and lack even basic qualificatins and skills (see Challenge I belw); thers with tertiary qualificatins ften acquired these in a very different cntext, raising issues abut the transferability f their credentials (see Challenge II belw). Percentage pint differences in the emplyment/ppulatin ratis between native- and freign-brn, years ld, Lw Medium High Lw/Medium/High educatin refers t ISCED levels 0-2/3-4/5+. Surce: Eurpean Labur Frce Survey 2008, ad-hc mdule; Australian Survey f Educatin and Training 2009; Canadian 2006 census; United States Current Ppulatin Survey Alngside this, the discrepancy between emplyment levels amng immigrants and nativebrn wmen is als particularly prnunced in Sweden. Again, this shuld be viewed in the cntext f the labur market participatin f Swedish-brn wmen which is high cmpared with that in ther OECD cuntries, and even mre s cmpared with thse cuntries frm which many f Sweden s immigrants riginate. Nevertheless, there is rm fr imprvement. That many f Sweden s immigrants came fr humanitarian reasns, frm rigin cuntries where the educatin systems and labur markets are quite different frm thse prevalent in Sweden, can nly partially explain the disparities in labur market utcmes between immigrants and the native-brn. Additinal hurdles include: language barriers (see Challenge I), discriminatin (see Challenge IV), and the imprtance f netwrks in finding emplyment (see Challenge V). Indeed, many f Sweden s largest immigrant grups appear t have had mre ease entering emplyment elsewhere in the OECD (see Figures 2 and 3). Figure 2. Emplyment rate amng Smali migrants, 25-64, 2010 Figure 3. Emplyment rate amng Iraqi migrants, 25-64, 2010 Surce: Database n Immigrants in OECD Cuntries 2010/2011 (frthcming). Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

6 Canada Australia Switzerland United States United Kingdm Luxemburg Sweden Germany France Austria Nrway Netherlands Belgium Italy Czech Republic Spain Prtugal Australia Canada Ireland Denmark United Kingdm United States Israel* Nrway OECD average France Switzerland Netherlands Sweden Estnia Luxemburg Belgium Spain IMD Disparities exist als amng yuth wh shuld still be develping their skills. NEET rates in Sweden are higher amng freign-brn yuth; they have als been increasing faster since the nset f the crisis than amng native-brn yuth. Even thse brn in Sweden t immigrant parents have, n average, lwer educatinal attainment than thse whse parents were als brn in Sweden, althugh the differences are nt larger than elsewhere in the OECD (see Figures 4 and 5). Figure 4. Prprtin f immigrant and native-brn yuth wh have a lw level f educatin Persns aged 25 t 34, by place f birth and parents place f birth, arund Includes thse in educatin Figure 5. Prprtin f immigrant and native-brn yuth wh have a high level f educatin Persns aged 25 t 34, by place f birth and parents place f birth, arund Includes thse in educatin Native-brn ffspring f immigrants Immigrants Offspring f native-brn Native-brn ffspring f immigrants Immigrants Offspring f native-brn * Infrmatin n data fr Israel: Surce: Eurpean Unin Labur Frce Survey 2008, ad-hc mdule; Australian Survey f Educatin and Training 2009; Canadian 2006 census; United States Current Ppulatin Survey Given the large and grwing share f immigrants and the challenges assciated with ppulatin ageing, Sweden cannt affrd t waste the valuable skills embdied in immigrants and their children. If they are effectively integrated, migrants can represent an imprtant resurce t supprt ecnmic grwth. Fr example, clse t 24% f dctrs practicing in Sweden were trained abrad an increase f 10 percentage pints in the last ten years. These health wrkers, as well as sme f thse qualified in ther pririty sectrs, have benefitted frm supprt in getting their qualificatins recgnised and upgraded thrugh bridging curses. Yet, thse whse skills d nt pertain t pririty sectrs als have the ptential t bst the prductivity f the Swedish ecnmy. Indeed, the prprtin f migrants wh have attained a tertiary educatin is higher than native Swedes. Yet, ver 30% are wrking in jbs fr which they are ver-qualified (Challenge II). Against the backdrp f this shared understanding f the Swedish cntext, seven key challenges and the plicy directins t address them - as identified in the wrkshp - are discussed in turn belw. Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

7 Prtugal Ireland United Kingdm Italy Nrway Austria Finland Pland Netherlands Denmark Belgium Switzerland Greece Spain Germany Luxemburg Sweden France IMD Challenge I. Basic skills and Swedish language fr adults Basic skills The pr emplyment utcmes amng Sweden s lw-educated immigrants can, t sme extent, be explained by the cmpsitin f Sweden s immigrant ppulatin alngside the declining number f lw-skilled jbs in the Swedish ecnmy. The prprtin f the freign-brn ppulatin whse highest educatin is primary r pre-primary is nearly 10 percentage pints higher than amng the nativebrn ppulatin (see Figure 6). A similar picture emerges frm recently released data frm the OECD Survey f Adult Skills which suggests that the literacy levels f the freign-brn with a lw level f educatin lag 60 pints behind their native cunterparts; equivalent t apprximately 8 years f schling. It shuld, hwever, be remembered that language als plays a rle in tests f functinal literacy. Language Knwledge f the hst-cuntry language is a key factr in determining the speed and success f integratin bth ecnmic and scial. Language skills are an Surce: Eurpean Labur Frce Survey. essential prerequisite in the ability f the freign-brn t frm netwrks with the native-brn ppulatin and search fr a jb. And, since bth netwrks and emplyment are imprtant rutes thrugh which t build further language skills, pr knwledge f the hst cuntry language can prmpt a vicius cycle. In terms f the use f migrant skills, language abilities have nt nly a substantial impact n the transferability f skills, but are als a key cmpnent f further skill acquisitin. In 2010, nly 13% f migrants t Sweden came frm a cuntry in which ne f the main fficial languages was Swedish. This cmpares with ver 45% f immigrants t Canada, France and the United Kingdm, and up t 76% f immigrants t New Zealand. Plicy gverning basic skills and language in Sweden Language training in Sweden is a mandatry cmpnent f the intrductin plan, c-rdinated by the public emplyment service. The prvisin f Swedish fr Immigrants (SFI), hwever, is the respnsibility f the municipality and as such can vary frm ne municipality t the next. Municipalities are bliged t ffer SFI fr municipal residents wh lack basic knwledge f Swedish the quality, hwever, is variable, and while in sme municipalities the ffer is highly develped even including language training tailred t particular prfessins elsewhere the ffer is mre limited. In additin t prviding adult immigrants with a basic knwledge f the Swedish language, SFI aims t give illiterate immigrants the pprtunity t learn t read and write, develping their ability t cmmunicate in Swedish, bth rally and in writing. SFI is als intended as preparatin fr further study. Depending n their educatinal backgrund and prir knwledge, students are placed within ne f three prgrammes with varying degrees f intensity and ambitin. SFI curses can be based within municipality-run schls r can be cntracted ut t external prviders. In 2010, abut 35% f the students were enrlled in curses ffered by private institutins, adult educatinal assciatins (Studieförbund) and flk high schls (Flkhögsklr). Figure 6. Prprtin f thse with very lw educatin levels Percentage pint differences in the prprtin f thse with very lw educatin levels (ISCED 0/1) between immigrants and nativebrn ppulatins, aged 25-54, Freign-brn are verrepresented Freign-brn are under-represented Beynd SFI, municipal adult educatin at basic level (Kmvux) and fr thse with learning disabilities (Särvux) aims t give adults the knwledge they need t take part in sciety and the labur market as well as t prepare them fr further study. Municipal adult educatin at upper-secndary level crrespnds t the levels set fr pupils at upper-secndary schl. Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

8 A IMD Strengthening basic skills and develping Swedish language Key challenges The quality f SFI prvisin seems t vary substantially acrss the cuntry. Swedish fr Immigrants may nt always be sufficient t enable very lw-skilled migrants t learn t read and write. Adult educatin is inapprpriately tailred t the needs f migrants lacking basic literacy skills and must currently be financed by the migrants themselves. Prject-based prgrammes targeted at basic skills limit stability and lng-term budgeting. Segregatin in schls and husing limits interactins with native Swedes and hence language develpment. Pssible directins fr future plicy develpment 1. Quality f SFI prvisin. The number f new arrivals participating in language tuitin (SFI) has increased sharply in recent years, and between 2005 and 2011, the number mre than dubled. Hwever, f thse wh participated, 23% drpped ut and a further 38% achieved nly the lwest passing grade. In an attempt t address the shrtcmings in SFI attainment, in 2009 the gvernment intrduced a perfrmance-based bnus t mtivate migrants, payable t newly-arrived migrants achieving a passing grade within a specified time perid. Fllwing an evaluatin that identified significant effects nly in Stckhlm and ther majr urban agglmeratins, this pilt is t be discntinued frm August A ptential explanatin fr this limited impact utside the majr cities is that it is the quality f SFI prvisin particularly utside urban areas that is the cnstraint n attainment rather than the mtivatin f the migrants. The qualificatins required t teach SFI are currently less stringent than the requirements facing ther teachers in the educatin system, and the gvernment is investing t upgrade the cmpetences f language teachers. 2. Flexibility f SFI. Language training is mre ften effective when cmbined with vcatinal training r wrk. Fr many parents, language training is nly pssible when cmbined with childcare. 3. Labur market fcus. The labur market refrms f 2010 that placed intrductin f new arrivals under the aegis f the PES did a great deal t shift the emphasis f plicy t labur market integratin. SFI, hwever, which represents the bulk f funding fr the intrductin f new arrivals, remains in the hands f municipalities. As such, in sme cases, the emphasis f language prvisin may be insufficiently fcused n the gal f labur market entry. 4. Supprt fr thse lacking basic skills. The bjective f SFI, in additin t prviding immigrants with a basic knwledge f the Swedish language, is t equip thse adults wh cannt read and write with these fundamental skills. Hwever, migrants lacking these very basic skills may be unable t btain them within the intrductin perid and may end up parked n SFI curses. 5. Educatin and training pathways fr adult migrants. Adult learning is currently cnfined t either shrt PESadministered curses r lng-term adult educatin. Flexible training pathways, including n the jb training, culd be develped ffering migrants the chance t pursue, alngside wrk, their lnger-term aspiratins and gain skills relevant t the Swedish labur market. There is currently n funding beynd the intrductin benefit fr frmal adult educatin. Undertaking such educatin thus ften requires that the participant takes ut a lan frm the CSN (Centrala Studiestödsnämnden) t tp-up the grant that they prvide. Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

9 Switzerland Prtugal Denmark Netherlands France United Kingdm Austria Sweden Germany Finland Australia OECD average Belgium Nrway United States New Zealand Canada Ireland Spain Italy Ireland Nrway Switzerland Netherlands France UK OECD Austria Finland Germany Italy Sweden Denmark IMD Challenge II. Validatin and recgnitin Acrss the OECD, educatin acquired utside the OECD is strngly discunted in the hst-cuntry labur market. Indeed, analysis f wages and f the prbability f ver-qualificatin suggests that, in mst cuntries, the cuntry in which the highest qualificatin was btained matters mre than the cuntry f birth. Given large number f Swedish immigrants wh btained their educatin and wrk experience abrad (Figure 7), there is a strng need fr efficient and credible recgnitin f their qualificatins and validatin f infrmal cmpetences. Figure 7. Share f highly qualified individuals brn in nn-oecd cuntries Persns aged wh btained their educatin utside the hst cuntry, selected OECD cuntries, % 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Surce: Labur Frce Surveys (Eurstat) Figure 8. Overqualificatin rates f the highly-educated emplyed individuals Persns aged nt in educatin, selected OECD cuntries, arund Surce: Australia, Canada: Labur Frce Surveys ; Eurpean cuntries: Labur Frce Surveys 2012; New Zealand: Labur Frce Survey ; United States: Current Ppulatin Survey Plicy gverning recgnitin and validatin in Sweden 0 Freign-brn Native-brn Over-qualificatin A large prprtin f the highly-educated freign-brn in Sweden ver 30% are verqualified fr their jbs, cmpared with just ver 10% f the native-brn ppulatin (Figure 8). If a migrant is emplyed in a jb fr which he/she is ver-qualified, there is n public supprt available fr training/educatin with the aim f finding a jb apprpriate t their frmal educatin level. Indeed, recent research in Sweden has fund that few f thse wh are in jbs fr which they are ver-qualified are able t mve int mre apprpriate jbs this is particularly the case amng migrants (Anderssn et al., 2012). 1 Cmplementary educatin is currently available in Sweden fr certain ccupatinal categries, including teachers, lawyers, dctrs, nurses and dentists. Since 2013, all assessment f freign educatin is undertaken under the aegis f a new agency, the University and Higher Educatin Cuncil (Universitets- ch högsklerådet). In 2013, the agency received clse t applicatins, f which clse t were reslved. Applicatins fr recgnitin in regulated prfessins are sent t ther cmpetent bdies, such as the Natinal Bard f Health and Welfare. Additinal resurces have been allcated t shrten prcessing times and meet increased inflws f individuals with a freign educatin. The Swedish Natinal Agency fr Higher Vcatinal Educatin is respnsible fr c-rdinating the validatin f freign prfessinal qualificatins as well as prviding certificates and synchrnising jint effrts with relevant stakehlders in the field. Effrts are currently underway t increase the number f validatins f cmpetences acquired in bth frmal and infrmal settings undertaken by emplyers in the wrkplace. 1. Anderssn, P., N. Datta Gupta and E. Wadensjö (2012), Overeducatin Amng Immigrants in Sweden. Incidence, Wage Effects and State Dependence, IZA Discussin Papers, N. 6695, Bnn. Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

10 Strengthening validatin and recgnitin Key challenges Validatin f frmal and infrmal cmpetences is rare and nly gradually develping. Recgnitin is difficult fr thse wh have nt finished r wh have n prf f their degrees. Bridging curses (cmplementary educatin) are undevelped and, where they exist, they can require a very large time investment. Pssible directins fr future plicy develpment 1. C-rdinatin between validatin and the PES. The intrductin prgramme fr certain newly arrived immigrants, intrduced in 2010 (see Annex B), is based arund a tailred plan that aims t individualise the integratin prcess n the basis f the immigrants backgrund. Hwever, the referral f new arrivals t the University and Higher Educatin Cuncil is currently at the discretin f the PES casewrker wrking with the migrant t design the intrductin plan. The qualificatin an immigrant hlds is perhaps the mst critical cmpnent in determining their integratin path and the necessary skill upgrading that they require. Validatin that is undertaken early is therefre fundamental t build an apprpriate intrductin plan and find an apprpriate jb. 2. Supprt fr thse highly qualified migrants wh accept a lw-skilled jb. Highly qualified immigrants wh enter emplyment that des nt utilise their qualificatins are n lnger amng the unemplyed. As such, they are ineligible fr cntinued PES supprt. Withut supprt, immigrants may struggle t identify apprpriate bridging curses and, subsequently, t find emplyment in the field in which they are qualified. 3. C-peratin with emplyers. Emplyer uncertainty abut the real value f the qualificatins and experience immigrants hld presents a significant hurdle impeding the labur market entry immigrants withut experience in Sweden. Credible and harmnised validatin f cmpetences will help thse entering the labur market t vercme this uncertainty. In rder t be accepted, validatin must invlve emplyers in rder t build trust, target skills shrtages, create a harmnised system, and ensure the resultant assessments are accepted and utilised. While effrts are currently underway t enhance emplyer invlvement, it is imprtant t make sure that they are an integral part f the certificatin prcedure. 4. Bridging curses (cmplementary educatin). The gvernment has allcated additinal resurces t maintain the number f places n bridging curses fr a selected number f regulated prfessins such as teachers, lawyers, dctrs, nurses and dentists. This ffer culd be expanded beynd these regulated prfessins. Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

11 Challenge III. Emplyer demand Emplyers may nt always cnsider emplying immigrants fr a number f reasns: Skills mismatch. It may simply be that the skills f immigrants are nt thse that are demanded in the lcal labur frce. Indeed, given high number f immigrants in Sweden with a limited educatinal backgrund, there may be an element f such a mismatch. Risk aversin and uncertainty. Relatively strict emplyment prtectin legislatin in Sweden fr permanent emplyment means that the risks f hiring migrants, whse skills and qualificatins are subject t greater uncertainty than their native-brn cunterparts, may discurage emplyers frm hiring freign-brn wrkers n permanent cntracts. As a result, migrants, are ften hired n temprary cntracts where, in additin t earning less, they are in less stable emplyment and are less likely t benefit frm training. Pr matching mechanisms. The reliance f the Swedish labur market n netwrks and infrmal cntacts limits the ability f immigrants t gain access t all jb ffers in the market (see Challenge V). It is nt just amng private sectr emplyers that demand fr migrant labur has been lw in the past and this limited demand des nt nly cncern thse persns wh themselves immigrated. Indeed, bth the freign-brn and the native-brn children f immigrants are under-represented in the public sectr in mst OECD cuntries Sweden included. Hwever, the Swedish public sectr has made steady prgress twards increasing the diversity f its emplyees in the past ten years and the prprtin f new hires frm the freign-brn ppulatin exceeded the prprtin in the Swedish ppulatin fr the first time in 2012 (see Table 1). Table 1. Evlutin f the share f state emplyees with a freign backgrund, State emplyees New state emplyees Emplyment (20-64) n.a. Ppulatin (20-64) Peple with mnthly paid emplyment f mandatry and vluntary members f Swedish Agency fr Gvernment Emplyers. 2. Persns wh were nt emplyees f the state last year and peple wh have changed emplying agency since last year. Surce: Swedish Agency fr Gvernment Emplyers. Plicy supprting emplyer demand in Sweden There exist several prgrammes t encurage emplyers t hire migrants. These include: - Step-in-jbs prvides a subsidy f 80% f wage csts f new arrivals fr up t 24 mnths - New Start Jbs prvides a tax relief equivalent t duble the emplyers scial security cntributin - Apprenticeships fr new arrivals cmpensates emplyers fr n-the-jb caching csts - Applied basic year funds lw educated new arrivals with training n the jb Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

12 Encuraging emplyer demand fr immigrant wrkers Key challenges Relatively lw take-up f initiatives targeted at increasing emplyer demand fr migrant skills. Emplyment prtectin legislatin fr permanent jbs cmbined with risk aversin amng emplyers limits the ability f migrant wrkers t btain this type f cntract. Vacancies registered with the PES receive many applicatins frm wh apply t fulfill jb search criteria, irrespective f whether they are always apprpriately qualified fr the psitin. Pr infrmatin limits emplyers understanding f migrant skills and qualificatins. Pssible directins fr future plicy develpment 1. Awareness f existing initiatives. The initiatives utlined abve, intrduced in rder t enhance emplyer demand, will nly be effective if emplyers are aware f them. Mre culd be dne t supprt emplyers in identifying in which ways, and t what extent, they can benefit frm targeted prgrammes. 2. C-peratin with emplyers. The gvernment s aim f prviding psitins per mnth under the Step-in Jbs initiative has nt been realised, there are currently apprximately psitins per mnth. Cnsultatin with emplyers shuld infrm refinements f such initiatives, t ensure that they are adequately attractive. Fr example, Step-in Jbs, which in spite f cvering 80% f wage csts, is said t be unattractive t emplyers, in the first place because f the shrt duratin f the subsidy and in the secnd place because f the bligatins it impses n emplyers. These bligatins invlve enabling emplyees t participate in SFI alngside their wrk (such that they can vercme the language barriers that may reduce their prductivity in the shrt term) and insurance bligatins equivalent t thse f cntracts signed under cllective agreements (which can reach apprximately 5% f pre-tax wages). Furthermre, the subsidy is capped such that it cvers mainly jbs in the bttm decile f the wage distributin, and the effective subsidy is nt significantly larger than that prvided under New Start Jbs, which places fewer requirements n emplyers. 3. Efficiency f wage subsidy administratin. Limited take-up f sme initiatives can als result frm the administrative burden they imply fr the PES which may limit the number f referrals they make. At the same time, while the PES is heavily invlved in rganising the placement, it has little pwer t ensure cmpliance. 4. Supprt t emplyers recruitment. Emplyer demand fr migrant skills is, in large part, limited by a lack f infrmatin abut the skills f migrants. Better identificatin and selectin f suitable migrant candidates may help vercme this. 5. Emplyment f migrants in the public sectr. The emplyment f migrants in the public sectr increases the dayt-day cntact between migrants and the native-brn. As such, it is an imprtant tl t ensure that miscnceptins and infrmatin deficiencies d nt perpetuate. Public sectr emplyment f thse with a freign backgrund als increases the visibility f migrants in public life, prvides rle mdels fr yuth with a freign backgrund, and ensures that migrants are given the pprtunity t integrate and develp their skills. Emplyment f the freignbrn in the Swedish public sectr has been increasing in recent years (see Table 1) but cntinues t lag behind private sectr emplyment f the freign brn. Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

13 Challenge IV. Discriminatin Discriminatin generally takes ne f tw frms. The first, knwn as statistical discriminatin, ccurs when lack f infrmatin abut a candidate s experience r qualificatins causes risk-averse emplyers t avid hiring him/her. Recent analysis f the OECD Survey f Adult Skills suggests that the literacy prficiency within educatinal categries is n average lwer amng immigrants than amng the nativebrn and there is wide variatin within the immigrant ppulatin. The secnd, taste-based discriminatin, ccurs when emplyers simply prefer t hire candidates with a particular rigin. Figure 9. Attitudes twards welcming immigrants Views f the ppulatin regarding the number f migrants f a different race r ethnic grup wh shuld be allwed t cme and live in the cuntry, allw nne allw a few allw sme allw many In practice, it is ften difficult t Surce : Eurpean Scial Survey. distinguish between these tw types f discriminatin, as statistical discriminatin tends t be based upn prejudices rather than accurate perceptins abut immigrants and indeed, the effects n the individual immigrant tend t be the same. Situatin testing using fictitius jb applicatins with immigrant-sunding names and therwise equivalent CVs revealed a high incidence f discriminatin in Sweden, in spite f a strng anti-discriminatin framewrk and a generally welcming attitude (see Figure 9). Discriminatin Plicy in Sweden Since 2009, the Swedish Anti-Discriminatin Act cnslidated anti-discriminatin plicy under the aegis f the Equality Ombudsman (DO). The DO is a gvernment agency that seeks t cmbat discriminatin (n grunds f sex, transgender identity, ethnicity, religin, disability, sexual rientatin r age) and prmte equal rights and pprtunities fr everyne. The 2009 act intrduced a new penalty fr discriminatin bth t deter discriminatin and t cmpensate fr its effects. The DO registers and investigates cmplaints based n the law s prhibitin f discriminatin and harassment, and can represent victims in curt free f charge. In 2012, cmplaints were received by the DO, representing a reductin f 20% cmpared with 2011 and f 40% cmpared with In additin, the DO mnitrs hw emplyers, higher educatin institutins and schls live up t the prvisins f the Anti-Discriminatin Act and prmtes active measures against discriminatin. Finally, the Ombudsman is tasked with raising awareness and disseminating knwledge and infrmatin abut discriminatin and abut the prhibitins against discriminatin, bth amng thse wh risk discriminating against thers and thse wh risk being subjected t discriminatin. Lcal anti-discriminatin agencies (which are independent vluntary rganisatins) prvide advice and supprt at lcal level regarding anti-discriminatin laws. Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

14 Tackling discriminatin IMD Key challenges Anti-discriminatin laws are difficult t implement because discriminatin is difficult t prve. Implicit discriminatin can take many different frms and is difficult t identify. Unnecessarily high language requirements ften result in effective discriminatin. Sme recruitment practices, fr example by hiring nly via specific channels uncmmn t immigrants, may als enable discriminatin. Steretypes, which are at the rt f discriminatin, are difficult t tackle. Pssible directins fr future plicy develpment 1. Enhancing the benefit t emplyers f nn-discriminatin. Tls emplyed in ther cuntries invlve plicy instruments such as diversity charters and diversity labels. Diversity charters are vluntary cmmitments in which private cmpanies pledge t prmte diversity and equal pprtunities at the wrkplace. Diversity labels g a step further, delivering a certificatin based n an assessment f implementatin f diversity measures. 2. Raise awareness f discriminatin. Anti-discriminatin laws are ften difficult t enfrce. In many cases, discriminatin is nt vert, and in sme cases the party that discriminates might be unaware that its behaviur is discriminatry. Raising awareness abut the issue, and abut implicit practices, is an imprtant first step. 3. Signaling. Statistical discriminatin is based upn inadequate knwledge abut a candidate s mtivatin and abilities. By prviding tls which allw migrants t signal their quality (fr example thrugh enrllment in prestigius and selective prgrammes), plicy can help t vercme the discriminatin that results frm such infrmatin asymmetries. 4. Tackling steretypes. Brader integratin measures that bring immigrants int cntact with emplyers such as mentring and traineeships will help t vercme the infrmatin deficit that ften underpins discriminatin. 5. Overcming uncertainty amng emplyers. Wage subsidies and emplyer tax relief targeted t new jbs fr immigrants such as thse prvided under Step-in-Jbs and New Start Jbs play the dual rle f i) cmpensating fr the limited prductivity f immigrants during their first wrk experience in Sweden (fr example due t limited language abilities) and ii) allwing emplyers t vercme imperfect knwledge f the skills f the immigrant by hiring them initially n a trial basis. Genuine experience f wrking with immigrants is ften far mre effective in cmbating discriminatin than anti-discriminatin law itself. Other tls which give emplyers the ability t bserve the skills f immigrant wrkers at a limited risk culd be cnsidered. 6. Prgramme evaluatin. It is imprtant that in-depth evaluatins f all prgrammes are cnducted and results are reflected in plicy design. Althugh Sweden makes mre use f such evaluatins than many ther OECD cuntries, it remains a pririty. Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

15 Challenge V. Netwrks and jb search Effective use f migrant skills requires that supply and demand meet i.e. that migrant jb seekers are able t find and apply fr jb vacancies apprpriate t their skills. The first prt f call bth fr newly-arrived migrants and the unemplyed is ften the public emplyment service (PES). Hwever, in Sweden, relatively few emplyers pst their vacancies with the PES and, thse wh d s, frequently reprt being verwhelmed by the number f applicatins frm individuals receiving benefits, wh apply t cmply with jb-search requirements. Many vacancies are instead filled thrugh infrmal netwrks, including cntacts via friends, relatives and existing emplyees. Figure 10. Percentage pint difference in reliance n PES in jb search Freign-brn minus native-brn, 2008 Sweden Germany Austria Netherlands France Newly arrived immigrants tend t have fewer netwrks that are relevant t the labur market than d native-brn Swedes. The cntacts f migrants with lnger Swedish residency will ften themselves be mre distant frm the labur market r cncentrated in lwer-skilled jbs. Thus, the heavy reliance f the jb-matching prcess n infrmal netwrks in Sweden can limit access t jbs by migrants and put them at a significant disadvantage in the labur market. As a result, despite the relatively limited access t jb vacancy infrmatin f the Swedish PES, when cmpared t nativebrn Swedes, many migrants rely the public emplyment service as their primary surce f jb search supprt (Figure 10). Belgium UK Ireland Spain Luxemburg Italy Prtugal -5% 0% 5% 10% 15% Nte: Respndents culd als respnd migrant r ethnic rganisatin r ther. Mst (75%) Swedish native-brn have the cde n answer. Surce: Labur Frce Survey (Eurstat) Netwrks and jb search in Sweden Since the 2010 refrm, each participant f the intrductin prgramme has the right t an intrductin guide. This intrductin guide is an individual cntracted t guide newly arrived immigrants during their first years in Sweden. The rles f the guide include: the prvisin f supprt in lking fr wrk and career guidance; advice n scial matters; and the prvisin f access t netwrks. Intrductin guide services are cntracted ut t private rganisatins r cmpanies t whm the PES pays a mnthly fee, which is supplemented n the basis f the emplyment results f the prgramme participant. The PES prvides infrmatin n the guides frm which participants can chse. The PES des nt, hwever, make recmmendatins regarding the chice f guides. If the participant des nt chse a guide, ne is assigned n the basis f residential prximity. Jb-seekers wh are nt cvered by the intrductin act are referred by the PES t cmplementary actrs wh prvide jb-search supprt based n each participant's specific needs. Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

16 Enhancing Netwrks and Facilitating Jb Search Key challenges Jb-search supprt is hampered by the limited number f vacancies available thrugh the PES. The PES is currently nly infrmed abut apprximately 40% f all jb vacancies. Immigrants cntact with emplyers is limited. Intrductin guides prvide hetergeneus quality f service. Career guidance is limited and nt always sufficiently tailred. Pssible directins fr future plicy develpment 1. Intrductin guide remuneratin. The PES pays a mnthly remuneratin t intrductin guides as well as perfrmance based cmpnent if the newcmer gets a jb r starts a higher educatin. Hwever, the service delivery f the sme guides has been fcused mre n scial related assistance rather than addressing the new arrivals needs fr labur market related service. 2. The dual rle f intrductin guides. Guides fr new arrivals are currently respnsible fr bth prviding scial supprt activities such as mentring, settling in activities as well as jb-search supprt. These tw activities are differentially suited t results-based remuneratin and the unificatin may lead t inefficient impact n the individual's labur market utcmes. 3. Rejectin f apprpriate ffers f emplyment and its cnsequences. Currently, intrductin prgramme participants incur n benefit reductin if they reject a jb ffer. Indeed, if they accept an ffer, they will have their benefit reduced (after a delay f six mnths). And while there is currently n data n the number f intrductin prgramme participants that have turned dwn a jb, frm August 2014 a new regulatin will blige new arrivals with an intrductin plan t accept apprpriate jb ffers. It is imprtant, hwever, t guide migrants and t give careful cnsideratin f what cnstitutes an apprpriate ffer. This is f particular imprtance given that, in the current system, nce in emplyment, migrants lse access t further PES supprt. 4. Prvisin f individualised career advice and planning. Career guidance and planning fr the highlyeducated (particularly thse fr whm the requirements f their first jb are belw their educatin level) can have an imprtant lng-term impact n labur market efficiency by: Helping peple t understand their interests, abilities and qualificatins, as well as what is invlved in varius ccupatins s that they seek jbs they are likely t have a chance f btaining, and will d well. Teaching peple hw t assess the shrt- and lng-term cnsequences f particular types f ccupatinal chices. Making infrmatin available abut the labur market, abut the educatin system and abut the qualificatin recgnitin system. Ensuring that the lng-term gal f getting a gd jb is nt jepardised by taking up a lesser-skilled jb. Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

17 Finland Italy Ireland Spain OECD average Denmark Netherlands Greece Germany United Kingdm Nrway Australia Sweden Austria Belgium Switzerland New Zealand Canada United States IMD Challenge VI. Schl-t-wrk transitins In Sweden, 23% f students with an immigrant backgrund attend a sciecnmically disadvantaged schl (ne whse students mean sci-ecnmic status is statistically significantly belw the Swedish mean). The OECD average is just ver 15% (Figure 11). At the same time, data frm the OECD s Prgramme fr Internatinal Student Assessment shw that students with an immigrant backgrund lag thse with Swedish brn parents by 40 pints even when cntrlling fr sciecnmic characteristics. This is equivalent f apprximately a schl year. These disparities in educatinal utcmes have lasting implicatins fr the career prspects f migrants and the children f migrants as they mve frm schl t wrk. The minimum requirement fr entry int upper-secndary educatin in Sweden is t qualify fr vcatinal prgrammes, and while ver 91% f native-brn students achieve this minimum, the numbers are lwer fr thse native-brn students whse parents were brn utside Sweden (85.8%) r thse wh arrived at a yung age (86.6%). The prprtin f yung migrants wh arrive after the start f cmpulsry schl and yet manage t qualify fr upper-secndary schl is even lwer (see Figure 12). Furthermre, f thse yung migrants wh successfully enter upper-secndary prgrammes, many still face difficulties. 10.5% f freign-brn students drp-ut f upper-secndary educatin cmpared with just 5.4% f native-brn students and a further 24.1% change prgramme (cmpared t 12.6% f native-brn). Educating yung migrants in Sweden Figure 11. Prprtin f students with an immigrant backgrund attending sci-ecnmically disadvantaged, average and advantaged schls, % 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Sci-ecnmically disadvantaged schls Sci-ecnmically average schls Sci-ecnmically advantaged schls Surce: OECD Prgramme fr Internatinal Student Assessment (2012). Figure 12. Percentage f students qualified fr upper secndary Qualified fr vcatinal prgrammes lwest upper-secndary requirements Upper-secndary schl in Sweden cnsists f three cmpnents: Surce: Natinal Agency fr Educatin. six higher educatin preparatry prgrammes, 12 vcatinal prgrammes, and five intrductry prgrammes (see Figure 13). Pupils n any prgramme can achieve eligibility fr higher educatin: pupils wh are nt eligible fr uppersecndary schl, but wh are cnsidered capable f achieving eligibility within a year, are ffered a preparatry year. Pupils cnsidered t need mre supprt are ffered Individual Alternatives that can cver educatin, wrk experience, and guidance. While designed fr a small number f students in temprary need f additinal supprt, ver half f Individual Alternative students are migrants (54%), and many fail t make prgress twards upper-secndary eligibility. Investments planned between 2013 and 2016 aim t imprve schl results thrugh extended teaching time fr newly arrived pupils in primary schl, building the cmpetencies f teachers and principals, surveys f knwledge amng new arrival pupils, imprvements in the quality f SFI, and infrmatin n free chice f schl in different languages. Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

18 High starting salaries and a relatively rigid labur market render the transitin frm schl t wrk challenging in Sweden. In 2012 ver yung peple aged were unemplyed with an unemplyment rate apprximately fur times that f thse aged Gaining a fthld in the labur market can be especially challenging fr yung peple with an immigrant backgrund particularly if they lack a slid educatinal basis. Figure 13. Pathways frm schl int wrk Prir t the crisis, the gap in emplyment rates between freign-brn yuth aged and their native-brn cunterparts had been clsing. Since 2008, hwever, this trend has reversed. In 2012, with emplyment rates f just 30.5%, the disparity has reached 10 and 15 percentage pints amng men and wmen, respectively. In 2012, apprximately 8% f the yung peple aged were neither in emplyment, educatin, nr training (NEET). Freign-brn yuth, particularly wmen, are verrepresented. Mving int wrk in Sweden After 12 weeks in unemplyment, yung peple aged are referred t the jb guarantee fr yung peple which includes: - Phase I: jb-search training and caching fr three mnths - Phase II: a wrk placement r shrt training fr up t 15 mnths r until the yung persn reaches 25 New arrivals are als eligible t fllw the intrductin prgramme frm the age f 20 (r 18 if they have n parents in Sweden). Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

19 Smthing schl-t-wrk transitins Key challenges Schl utcmes are strngly linked with sci-ecnmic backgrund. Regins vary in the quality f supprt they can ffer. Peer effects and teacher expectatins widen the divide and disadvantaged schls can ften nly attract less experienced teachers. The Individual Alternative prgramme is characterised by a lw utflw and ften ends as a parking space fr thse struggling t navigate the system. The aspiratins f yung peple with a freign backgrund are stymied by the limited number f rle mdels in the labur market. Thse wh drp-ut ften struggle t find emplyment. Children f immigrants are ver-represented in this grup. Adult educatin requires students t take respnsibility fr their wn learning. This is nt always apprpriate fr recent yung arrivals wh are nevertheless required t fllw this rute frm the age f 20. Pssible directins fr future plicy develpment 1. Recruiting, training and retaining teachers t teach in disadvantaged schls. In many cuntries acrss the OECD, schls with higher prprtins f disadvantaged children and children with an immigrant backgrund struggle t attract and retain effective teachers. Yet, cmpetent teachers are critical bth t build skills and aspiratins. 2. Respnse t the early warning signs f schl failure. Given that schls are run at the municipal level in Sweden, the ability t react t schl failure remains hetergeneus acrss the cuntry. While larger municipalities have the capacity t allcate their funds accrding t schl needs, smaller municipalities are ften nt able t d this. The gvernment has recently annunced funding t target ten disadvantaged schls in Sweden. The initiative will fcus n: prviding study guidance n students in native language; prviding supprt the schl's cntacts with guardians; develping additinal activities t increase teaching time, and ffering additinal help with hmewrk. The prject has been designed t investigate effective mechanisms t cmbat educatinal inequality and scale-up thse appraches fund t have a psitive effect. Hwever, it is imprtant that targeting disadvantage in the educatin system is built int the system and autmatically targeted twards all schls that are failing. 3. Labur market-fcused career guidance frm a yung age. Career guidance shuld be fcused n labur market realities and encmpass a brad range f tls including the prvisin f infrmatin, mentrs and wrk experience. Up-t-date infrmatin n emplyment pprtunities, ptential returns (expected earnings and ptential career paths) as well as the qualificatins necessary t access certain career paths is a critical cmpnent in building aspiratins and ensuring that early educatinal chices d nt lead t a path dependency. 4. Tackling drp-uts. Thse wh leave educatin withut basic skills are likely t struggle t find emplyment. Furthermre, thse that leave between the age f 16 and 18 are nt yet eligible fr PES supprt and are likely t face even mre difficulties. Integrating yung migrants in schl is a challenge, integrating them when they have left schl can be mre challenging still. It is imprtant, therefre, that thse wh are struggling are identified early and given the necessary supprt. Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

20 Challenge VII. C-rdinatin amng integratin actrs The integratin f migrants bth new arrivals and thse wh are established in Sweden invlves a wide number f stakehlders bth at the natinal and the municipal level. The public emplyment service is respnsible fr crdinating the intrductin prgramme; drawing-up a custmised plan; assessing and granting intrductin allwance; prcuring intrductin guides; and rganising settlement and accmmdatin fr thse migrants wh are eligible fr the intrductin plan but wh have nt been able t find accmmdatin by themselves. There are, hwever, many ther actrs invlved: Municipalities are respnsible fr arranging SFI, ffering civic rientatin, and prviding access t schls and making accmmdatin available t PES. Municipalities are als respnsible fr prviding childcare fr newlyarrived immigrants with children (a critical pre-requisite t enable jb search and wrk), and fr prviding scial assistance fr migrants wh require it fllwing the end f the tw-year intrductin perid. The Swedish Migratin Bard is respnsible fr the settlement f quta refugees and new arrivals wh are nt entitled t an intrductin prgramme (thse asylum seekers wh are resident in Migratin Bard facilities and have nt yet been granted permits). In additin, it is respnsible fr the cmpensatin t municipalities and cunty cuncils fr the receptin f new arrivals. The cunty administrative bards are in charge regarding readiness and capacity f municipalities t receive new arrivals. They sign receptin agreements with municipalities, as well as bringing abut a reginal cllabratin between municipalities. The Swedish Scial Insurance Agency is respnsible fr the husing allwance and payment f the intrductin benefit n the basis f infrmatin prvided by the PES. Additinal agencies are invlved in the prcess f the recgnitin and validatin f freign qualificatins and skills (see Challenge II). This invlvement f multiple stakehlders creates a number f challenges: Vertical c-peratin between the central-level PES and municipalities in the settlement f migrants While respnsibility fr the settlement f migrants n the intrductin plan is placed with the PES, limited willingness t receive migrants n the part f sme municipalities ften delays this task. Hwever, evidence suggests that early labur market access is crucial fr lng-term integratin utcmes Hrizntal c-rdinatin between the lcal PES and municipalities in the rganisatin f intrductin activities Given the large number f actrs invlved in the prvisin f intrductin activities, it is essential t cmbine interventins effectively in rder t ensure the intrductin perid is used efficiently. C-rdinatin is particularly imprtant in the lcatin and scheduling f these activities as well as in their sequencing. The efficient prvisin f supprt fr thse mre established in Sweden wh remain utside the labur market Municipalities pay the scial assistance f thse wh are nt eligible fr the active labur market plicy instruments (ALMPs) prvided by the PES. As a result, many have established their wn emplyment services in parallel. The invlvement f municipalities is largely fcused n the activatin f thse amng the scial assistance recipients wh are nt cvered by the PES but the remits are nt always clearly distinct. There are, hwever, large disparities in the level and sphisticatin f municipalities invlvement in prviding ALMPs, as well as the degree t which they crdinate their actins with the lcal PES. Where municipal prvisin f ALMPs is high and c-rdinatin with the PES is strng, the system appears t wrk relatively well; in ther cases, there is either a risk f duplicatin r f underprvisin fr sme migrant grups namely thse nt n any benefit. Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

21 Imprving c-rdinatin amng actrs Key challenges Efficiency f intrductin activities is limited by c-rdinatin challenges surrunding effective scheduling f SFI and PES administered activities. Settlement delays arise as many municipalities are reluctant t hst additinal migrants. Duplicatin f effrts between municipality labur market training fr the inactive claiming scial assistance, and PES supprt fr the unemplyed ften prvide similar supprt. Pssible directins fr future plicy develpment 1. Plicy c-rdinatin. Prir t the refrms that placed migrant intrductin under the aegis f the PES, the Integratin Bard played a c-rdinating rle and prvided guidelines t municipalities n its implementatin. The PES is currently nt equipped t pursue this rle. 2. Migrants n scial assistance. Municipalities are respnsible fr utreach t thse n scial assistance wh are nt currently seeking emplyment. The extent f their effrts and resurces, hwever, differs markedly acrss the cuntry. At the same time, the PES is respnsible fr thse n scial assistance wh are seeking emplyment. These individuals are eligible fr supprt thrugh the jb guarantee if they have been seeking wrk fr mre than 18 mnths. This arrangement means that training prgrammes may be duplicated. It als risks creating cnfusin amng recipients regarding where t turn fr supprt. Budget and prcurement practices culd be reexamined t address this and t facilitate the referral f individuals t apprpriate prgrammes, whether they are run by the PES r by municipalities. 3. Mainstream vs. prject-based interventins. Prject-based interventins can be an imprtant surce f knwledge regarding what wrks in integratin plicy. T make use f this surce, prjects must be carefully designed, effectively evaluated and thse aspects that are fund t be successful must be subsequently scaled-up and firmly embedded within the integratin system. Cntinued reliance n prject financing in the lnger-term impedes the prjects ability t plan and train staff and can undermine staff mtivatin. In additin, resurces are devted t seeking cntinued finance rather than integratin itself. 4. Funding structure fr migrant settlement. The funding that municipalities are granted upn receiving migrants is calculated n the basis f estimated csts (including thse invlved rganising receptin, language tuitin, civic rientatin, schl and pre-schl fr children, and welfare benefits during the first tw years f intrductin). These grants are ften seen as insufficient t cver the csts f migrants wh may nt be fully integrated within the tw years prvided fr under the intrductin plan. In the budget 2013, the gvernment annunced a review regarding the rules fr reimbursement t municipalities that cnclude arrangements n refugee receptin t initiate a perfrmance-based cmpensatin. It will be imprtant t accunt fr the fact that integratin ften takes lnger than the 2-3 years intrductin prgramme. Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

22 Annex A. The integratin wrkshp The OECD, tgether with the Swedish Ministry f Finance and the Swedish Ministry f Emplyment, hsted the first migrant integratin wrkshp, Finding the way: Emplying the use f migrants in Sweden, in Stckhlm n the 28 th f April Participants were invited t view the integratin system in a hlistic manner in rder t identify bttlenecks and leakages whether in plicy design r implementatin and t wrk tgether t develp cncrete ideas f hw t tackle these challenges. The wrkshp, pened by the Minister fr Integratin, Erik Ullenhag, and the State Secretary in the Ministry f Finance, Susanne Ackum, brught tgether a senir experts and plicy makers drawn frm acrss Gvernment ministries Gvernment agencies Scial partners Reginal and lcal actrs In additin, participants were jined by internatinal experts in vertical and hrizntal c-peratin and c-rdinatin, qualificatin recgnitin and validatin f skills, and emplyer demand fr migrant skills. A full list f the participants is included belw. The wrkshp fcused n seven themes, identified as critical issues facing migrants in their integratin int the Swedish labur market. These include: I. Basic skills and Swedish language fr adults II. Validatin and recgnitin III. Emplyer demand IV. Discriminatin V. Netwrks and jb search VI. Schl-t-wrk transitins VII. C-rdinatin amng actrs Prir t the wrkshp, an OECD fact-finding missin tk place in February The wrkshp will be fllwed-up by a full review with cncrete plicy recmmendatins which will begin in the furth quarter f The review will prvide in-depth analysis int the selected themes utlined in this synthesis nte. Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

23 Figure 14. Timeline f the prject prcess Participants invited t the wrkshp Gvernment Offices Abukar Omarssn Anna Schölin Cafer Uzunel Fredrik Bystedt Gisela Waisman Jan Nrberg Jan Rehnstam Michael Hags Lena Mritz Henry Mårtensn Petter Bryman Kerstin Hultgren Selma Memic Tmmy Teljsu Head f Sectin Divisin fr Labur Market Issues Head f Sectin Divisin fr Discriminatin issues Senir Adviser Divisin fr Discriminatin issues Directr General Ecnmic Affairs Department Head f Sectin Ecnmic Affairs Department Head f Sectin Divisin fr Labur Market Issues Head f Sectin Divisin fr Upper Secndary and Adult Educatin Head f Sectin Divisin fr Integratin and Urban Develpment Directr Ecnmic Affairs Department Deputy Directr Divisin fr Integratin and Urban Develpment Head f Sectin Budget Divisin Senir Adviser Divisin fr Schl Issues Head f Sectin Divisin fr Higher educatin Senir Advisr Divisin fr Integratin and Urban Develpment Ministry f Emplyment Ministry f Emplyment Ministry f Emplyment Ministry f Finance Ministry f Finance Ministry f Emplyment Ministry f Educatin Ministry f Emplyment Ministry f Finance Ministry f Emplyment Ministry f Finance Ministry f Educatin Ministry f Educatin Ministry f Emplyment Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

24 Gvernment Agencies Andreas Gäfvert Divisin fr Service and Prgram Public Emplyment Service Sectin fr Emplyment Service Annika Höög Lawyer Equality Ombudsman DO Carline Wieslander Blücher Lawyer Equality Ombudsman DO Hans-Göran Jhanssn Expert Public Emplyment Service Divisin fr Integratin and Establishment Helén Ängm Vice Directr General Swedish Natinal Agency fr Educatin Jhan Blm Directr General Swedish Natinal Agency fr Higher Vcatinal Educatin Jhan Nylander Acting Operatin C-rdinatr Public Emplyment Service Divisin fr Integratin and Establishment Lars Peterssn Head f Department Swedish Cuncil fr Higher Educatin Malin Rsén Jb Placement Officer Public Emplyment Service Prf. Olf Åslund Directr General Institute fr the Evaluatin f Labur Market and Educatin Plicy (IFAU) Petra Janssn Head f Sectin Public Emplyment Service Sectin fr Yuth Issues Rger Vilhelmssn Chief Ecnmist Swedish Agency fr Gvernment Emplyers Smers Fry Activities C-rdinatr, Malmö Public Emplyment Service Sledad Grafeuille Head f Divisin Public Emplyment Service Divisin fr Emplyers Thmas Hagman Chief f Staff Public Emplyment Service Ulf Bengtssn CEO Swedish Agency fr Gvernment Emplyers (SAGE) Ltta Naglitsch Directr f Educatin Swedish Natinal Agency fr Educatin Business Cmmunity Anna-Lena Bhm Chairman fr SME The Cnfederatin f Swedish Enterprise Carina Anderssn Human Resurces Manager ATTENDO CARE Lars Jagrén Chief Ecnmist Företagarna Melkart Afram Vice CEO Aksab Kemi Sverige AB Trade Unins Karin Perls Researcher Swedish Assciatin f Lcal Authrities and Regins (SALAR) Pär Karlssn Crrespndent Swedish Cnfederatin f Prfessinal Assciatins (SACO) Susanna Hlzer Researcher Swedish Cnfederatin fr Prfessinal Emplyees (TCO) Ulrika Vedin Researcher Swedish Trade Unin Cnfederatin (LO) Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

25 Municipalities and Cunty Administrative Bards Charltte Svenssn Head f Administratin City f Stckhlm Labur Market Administratin Helena Rjas Directr Municipality f Btkyrka Demcracy, Human Rights and Intercultural Develpment Jesper Theander Head f Department Malmö City Department fr Integratin and Labur Market Lars Olsn Planning Manager Municipality f Btkyrka Susanne Tham Quality Develper Municipality f Södertälje Stig-Göran Henrikssn Municipal Cmmissiners and Chairman fr Municipality f Fagersta Municipal Executive Bard Talieh Ashjari Head f Divisin Divisin fr Scial Sustainability Cunty Administrative Bard f Västra Götaland Bjan Brstina Operatins Manager Anti-discriminatin bureau, Stckhlm Je Frans VD NGA- Nuvm Lucian Astudill Vice Chairman Uppstart Malmö Internatinal Peer Reviewers Stephan Schiele Researcher Tür an Tür Integratinsprjekte Germany Barbr Bakken Directr General Department f Integratin in the Ministry f Children, Equality and Scial Inclusin Nrway Inge Hellemans Plicy Advisr n Integratin The Agency fr Hme Affairs f the Flemish Authrity Belgium Hilde Lerfaldet Senir Advisr Ministry f Children, Equality and Scial Inclusin, Nrway OECD Secretariat Jean-Christphe Dumnt Head f Migratin Divisin OECD Thmas Liebig Senir Administratr OECD Emily Farchy Ecnmist/Plicy Analyst OECD Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

26 Annex B. The Prgramme fr Intrductin f New Arrivals in Sweden Intrductin Plicy in Sweden Eligibility. Thse aged (r aged wh d nt have parents living in Sweden) wh have received a residence permit as a refugee r fr refugee-like reasns are eligible fr the prgramme. Accmdatin. The PES aims t find accmmdatin at a lcatin where they cnsider the chances f finding wrk and educatin are gd. Intrductin interview. The PES (alng with an interpreter if necessary) meets with beneficiaries t assess their experience, educatin and ambitins and, n the basis f this (as well as family circumstances and health) draws up an intrductin plan which can last up t 24 mnths. Intrductin plan. The plan is based upn three activities that shuld ccupy participants n a full-time basis (40 hurs): Swedish fr immigrants; Emplyment preparatin such as wrk experience and the validatin f educatinal and prfessinal experience; Scial studies, which aim t prvide a basic knwledge f Swedish sciety. Intrductin benefit. The intrductin benefit is cnditinal n attendance and is paid, at a rate f: 231 SEK (26 EUR) per day, paid twice a mnth, while drawing up the plan. Up t 308 SEK per day, paid nce a mnth, during plan (dependent n the extent f activities) Wrking. Participants wh find wrk are able t cntinue t claim the intrductin benefit alngside their wages fr a perid f six mnths. After this, the benefit is reduced by a prprtin equal t the time spent wrking. In the budget bill fr 2013, the gvernment annunced its intentins t intrduce a regulatin that bliges new arrivals with intrductin plan t accept an apprpriate jb ffer. Figure 15. The path f a new arrival thrugh the intrductin plan Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD

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