Benefits of Preschool Education

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1 Benefits of Preschool Education Broad Evidence from Many Studies Chicago Child-Parent Center Study Abecedarian Study High/Scope Perry Preschool Study Cost of High Quality Preschool Why Quality Must be Improved Curriculum: Not Just Academics National Institute for Early Education Research Copies and details available from nieer.org Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 1

2 Long-Term Effects Many studies with children from lowincome families find: Increased Achievement Test Scores Decreased Grade Retention Decreased Special Education Very long term studies also find: Increased High School Graduation Decreased Crime & Delinquency Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 2

3 Three Outstanding Studies Chicago-Child Parent Centers (CPC) a half-day program on a large scale in the Chicago public schools Abecedarian educational child care a full-day year-round program in Chapel Hill, NC High/Scope Perry Preschool a half-day program on a small scale in the Ypsilanti, MI public schools All three: employ highly rigorous research methods conducted very long-term follow-ups evaluated costs and benefits studied intensive, high-quality programs Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 3

4 CPC: Academic and Social Benefits at School Exit Program group No-program group HS Graduation 39% 50% Special Education 14% 25% Grade Repeater 23% 38% Juvenile Arrest 17% 25% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 4

5 Abecedarian : Academic Benefits Program group No-program group Special Education 25% 48% Grade Repeater 31% 55% HS Graduation 51% 67% 4 Yr College 13% 36% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 5

6 Abecedarian: Benefits to Mothers and Children Program group No-program group Teen Moms Self- Supporting 58% 70% Smoker at age 21 39% 55% Skilled Job or Higher Education at age 21 40% 67% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 6

7 Perry Preschool: Educational Effects Program group No-program group Special Education (Cog.) 15% 34% Age 14 achievement at 10th %ile + 15% 49% Graduated from high school on time 45% 66% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 7

8 Perry: Arrests per person by age 27 Felony Misdemeanor Juvenile Program arrests No program arrests Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 8

9 Perry: Economic Benefits at Age 27 Program group No-program group Earn $2,000 + monthly 7% 29% Own home 13% 36% Never on welfare as adult 20% 41% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 9

10 CPC: Economic Return Education Participant Earnings Child Care Human Services Crime Preschool Benefits $5K $28K $13K $2K $47,759 Costs $6,692 $0 $5,000 $10,000 $15,000 $20,000 $25,000 $30,000 $35,000 $40,000 $45,000 $50,000 Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 10

11 Abecedarian: Economic Return Education Participant Earnings Smoking Health Maternal Earnings Future Generations Preschool Benefits $7K $47K $50K $6K $12K $143,674 Costs $44,092 (prek & college) $0 $20,000 $40,000 $60,000 $80,000 $100,000 $120,000 $140,000 Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 11

12 Perry: Economic Return to the Public (excludes $20,000 in economic benefits to participants) Welfare Taxes on earnings Crime victims Special education Justice system Preschool Benefits $ 3 K $6K $9K $13K $58K $88,433 Costs $12,356 $7 return for every dollar invested $0 $20,000 $40,000 $60,000 $80,000 $100,000 Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 12

13 Cost Benefit Analysis of Preschool for Disadvantaged Children Cost Benefit to Society Perry Preschool: $12,000 $108,000 Abecedarian: $35,864 $136,000 CPC: $7,000 $ 48,000 All three studies find that economic benefits from intensive, high-quality programs to taxpayers and participants combined far exceed the cost of highquality programs (comparable to the cost of public education generally). Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 13

14 Could universal preschool produce similar benefits for the middle class? Middle class children have fairly high rates of problems preschool reduces for low-income children. Reducing these problems could generate large benefits. Income Retention Dropout Lowest 20% 17% 23% 20-80% 12% 11% Highest 20% 8% 3% Source:US Department of Education, NCES (1997). Dropout rates in the United States: Figures are multi-year averages. Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 14

15 Most preschool children are already in some kind of classroom The percentage of preschool children in a nursery school or child care classroom has been increasing steadily Age Increase % 45.5% 4.3% 0 3year olds 4year olds % 69.2% 9.8% Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 15

16 Participation in Center-based Programs by Mother s Education 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 52% < HS Grad 64% 73% 82% HS GradSome Coll BA + Mother's Education Level Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 16

17 Preschool Classroom Quality is too Low in the United States and Abroad 7 Excellent Quality scores (ECERS) Good Minimal 1 Urban NJ - Year 1 Urban NJ - Year 2 Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, Phoenix, Seattle Indiana North Carolina GA, MA, VA CA, CO, CT, NC Georgia Pre-K Head Start Germany Portugal Spain Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 17

18 High Quality Preschool Programs Needed to Produce Benefits Well-educated preschool teachers Adequate teacher compensation Small classes Strong supervision High, broad standards for learning and teaching Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 18

19 A sound curriculum includes teacher directed and self-initiated learning: Results of an experiment Direct Instruction High/Scope Nursery School Child-initiated activities 2% 27% 21% Comparison of 3 different models Teacher-directed activities 48% 56% 72% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 19

20 Negative effects when only direct instruction is used (findings at age 23) Direct Instruction High/Scope Nursery School Ever emotionally impaired 6% 6% 47% 10+ acts of teen misconduct 23% 23% 56% People give you a hard time 36% 63% 69% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 20

21 Positive effects when there is substantial self-initiated learning (results at age 23) Played sports as teen Planned bachelor's degree at 23 Did volunteer work at 23 11% Direct Instruction High/Scope Nursery School 36% 44% 43% 44% 57% 72% 70% 94% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 21

22 Conclusions Quality preschool education can be a good economic investment Most 3-4 year old children already attend some type of classroom Quality is too low and must be raised Curriculum is more than literacy and academics taught through direct instruction Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development 22

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