The Doppler Effect in Warning Signals: Perceptual Investigations into Aversive Reactions Related to Pitch Changes

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1 The Dopple Effect in Waning Signals: Peceptual Investigations into Avesive Reactions Related to Pitch Changes Clemens Kuhn-Rahloff & Matin Neukom Institute fo Compute Music and Sound Technology (ICST, Baslestasse 30, CH-8048 Zuich, Switzeland, Mathias S. Oechslin Laboatoy of Development and Moto Leaning, Geneva Neuoscience Cente, FPSE, Univesity of Geneva, Uni Mail, 40 Bd du Pont-dAve, CH-105 Geneva, Switzeland. Summay This pape pesents investigations into the applicability of the Dopple effect in waning signals. Listening tests with vehicle noises have been caied out to investigate the influence of pitch changes on peceived velocity and dangeousness of moving sound souces. Simulations included amplitude and pitch changes of adial components (diotic sound epoduction. Results of the fist expeiment indicate that the Dopple effect is a sufficient cue to diffeentiate speed and dangeousness of vehicles. Futhemoe, a second expeiment evealed that the Dopple effect influences the eaction time in a paied compaison expeiment. Applications of the Dopple effect in waning signals ae discussed. PACS no Hg, Lj 1. Intoduction 1 In this pape we pesent esults of two expeiments about peceived speed and dangeousness stimulated by ca sounds as well as about elated eaction times. These studies ae pat of a boade poject (PERAS Peceptual Studies on Radially Moving Sound Souces which investigates peceptual effects of pitch changes of moving sound souces elated to the Dopple effect and to comb filte effects fom eflections. One aim of the poject is to investigate the applicability of the Dopple effect in waning signals fo dive assistance systems. Peceptual influences of the Dopple effect have been extensively studied e.g. [1], [], [3], and [4]. Kaczmaek ([3] pesented esults on the dependence of peceived speed of sound souces and fequency changes caused by the Dopple effect. Howeve, to the authos knowledge, investigations on peceived dangeousness of moving sound souces have not been published up to now. Theefoe, we conducted two expeiments based on a scenaio with cas passing a listene. 1 (c Euopean Acoustics Association 1.1. Expeiment Stimuli, Methodology and Pocedue In this expeiment, we tested the influence of the Dopple effect on the peceived dangeousness of ca sounds. The stimuli wee geneated accoding to the scenaio pesented in fig. 1. Fig. 1. Geometical view of the scenaio fo stimulus geneation. Two vehicles cove the distance fom point p 0 to p 1 and fom p 0 to p 1, espectively. This set-up causes a Dopple effect fo the adial velocity component (diected towads the listene.

2 FORUM ACUSTICUM June - 1. July, Aalbog Kuhn-Rahloff et al.: The Dopple Effect in Waning Signals Two vehicles (with identical engine noise ae passing a listene in the distances d and d, espectively. The vehicles cove the distance fom point p 0 to p 1 and espectively fom p 0 to p 1 with the constant velocity v and v. This set-up causes a Dopple effect fo the adial velocity component (diected towads the listene. Futhemoe, the level of the vehicle noise vaies in function of the adial distance ( and : When the vehicle appoaches the listene, the level inceases and vice vesa. Due to the atio of distances and stat positions of the vehicles, it holds: p p0 k p p 1 0 d d 1 l l (1 with k being the constant aspect atio. Futhemoe, the velocities of the vehicles ae chosen such that: v k v ( In wods: The velocity of the vehicle is inceased in popotion to its distance. Theefoe, the sound pessue ove time nomalized to the sound pessue at t 0 (vehicle in point p 0 o p 0, espectively is identical fo both vehicles. Fist, we conside the adiuses and : ( t ( l vt 1 1 ( l k k 1 ( l v t k 1 ( t k fo all t. v t d d 1 ( d k (3 We can conclude that the sound pessue ove time nomalized to the sound pessue at the stating position is identical fo both vehicles. If we nomalize both signals to the same stat sound pessue level, both signals only diffe in fequency changes due to the Dopple effect (fig. 3 and have the same envelope (fig.. We excluded all futhe paametes fom the stimuli such as HRTFs, fist eflections, etc. to stimulate the hypothetical peceptual effects only by the fequency changes. To investigate the effect fo moe than two diffeent velocities, sets of stimuli with duation of 4 s each wee geneated fom this setting: Stimuli Set A : ostimulus 1: No Dopple effect (but identical envelope as fo stimulus und 3 ostimulus : d =1,5m v = 8 m/s (appox. 30 km/h ostimulus 3: d =6m v = 3 m/s (appox. 115 km/h Stimuli Set B : ostimulus 1: No Dopple effect (but identical envelope as fo stimulus und 3 ostimulus : d = 1,5 m v = 1 m/s (appox. 43 km/h ostimulus 3: d = 6 m v = 48 m/s (appox. 170 km/h The adial distances and of the vehicles diffe at each point in time t only by a facto of 1/k. The amplitude at the eceive nomalized to the amplitude at t 0 is now given by the adiuses and : p ( t0 k k ( t ( t0 ( t0 p fo all t. (4 Fig. : Envelope of the stimuli. Blue (dotted: stimuli fom Set A, ed (continuous: Stimuli fom Set B. The envelope is identical fo all 3 stimuli within each set.

3 FORUM ACUSTICUM June - 1. July, Aalbog Kuhn-Rahloff et al.: The Dopple Effect in Waning Signals test duation was 14 minutes (minimum: 8 minutes, maximum: 1 minutes Results and Discussion Assessing the peceived speed of pesented stimuli, we fist tested on a 5% significance level if the samples wee nomally distibuted using a Komolgoov-Sminov-Test. No significant diffeences wee found. We pefomed a onesample-t-test to obseve if detection of diffeences fo speed o dangeousness is significantly diffeent fom zeo. Fig. 5 shows means and 95%-confidence intevals of the samples. The compaison of stimuli 1 and 3 as well as of stimuli and 3 show significant diffeences fom zeo on a 5%-level (p <0.0. Inteestingly, no significant diffeence was found fo the pais of stimulus 1 (no Dopple effect and stimulus (slow vehicle with Dopple effect. p- values ae between 0.09 and 0.06 fo the speed compaison and between 0.81 and 0.78 fo the compaison of dangeousness. Fig. 3: Fequency dop of the stimuli at the listening position due to the Dopple effect (above fo stimuli fom Set A, below fo stimuli fom Set B. Blue (continuous: no Dopple effect, ed (dashed: slow vesion, geen (dotted: fast vesion. Fo each set of stimuli, pai wise atings wee collected (i.e. 3 pais pe stimulus set, with each pai pesentation epeated twice. Fist, subjects wee asked which ca was faste. Answes about peceived speed diffeences wee collected using a continuous ating scale with zeo cente point and five point scale to both sides (left: fist ca was faste than second ca, ight: vice vesa. A simila scale was used fo peceived diffeences of dangeousness (left: fist ca was moe dangeous than second ca, ight: vice vesa.aftewads, subjects wee asked to imagine that the cas wee passing them in a taffic situation. They should judge which of the two cas was moe dangeous. 3 subjects paticipated in the listening test (aged between 19 and 65 yeas, median: 3 yeas, 16 male, 7 female. 10 subjects aleady had expeiences with listening tests. No subject epoted having absolute pitch. Stimuli wee pesented unde diotic conditions ove headphones (Sennheise HD 600 using a MATLAB gaphical use inteface on a Laptop. Subjects could listen to the stimuli as often as they wanted. The medium The isolated investigation of the pitch shift as peceptual cue eveals that the Dopple effect is sufficient to judge speed and dangeousness of vehicles. This esult is emphasized by the condition without Dopple effect (Stimulus 1 of each set: This cue conflicts with pevious expeience fom natual scenaios. Theefoe, judgment of these stimuli is moe difficult than fo the othe compaisons. This explains why no significant diffeence is found between stimuli 1 and. 1.. Expeiment Stimuli, Methodology and Pocedue Since esults of expeiment 1 indicated that the Dopple effect might be appopiate fo applications in waning signals, we conducted a second expeiment to evaluate influences of the Dopple effect on eaction times. In this second expeiment, we pefomed paied compaisons of stimuli geneated in a simila way as fo expeiment 1. The geometical set-up was chosen as shown in fig. 1, but paametes of the 3 stimuli wee set as follows: ostimulus 1: No Dopple effect (but identical envelope as fo stimulus und 3 ostimulus : d =3m v = 16 m/s (appox. 58 km/h

4 FORUM ACUSTICUM June - 1. July, Aalbog Kuhn-Rahloff et al.: The Dopple Effect in Waning Signals o- Stimulus 3: d =6m v = 3 m/s (appox. 115 km/h The following stimulus sequences wee andomly pesented: 1-, -1, 1-3, 3-1, -3 and 3-. Afte the pesentation of each pai subjects wee asked to decide as quickly as possible duing the second stimulus, whethe the fist o the second ca was faste (two-altenative foced choice test / -AFC. Answes wee collected by pessing espective keys on the compute keyboad. To avoid that subjects made thei decision upon the stating pitch of the stimuli, all stimuli wee atificially pitch shifted to the same stat fequency. The esulting fequency function is given in fig. 4. Each stimulus sequence (1-, -1, 1-3, 3-1, -3, 3- was pesented 15 times (90 pais in total. The subjects stated with a taining phase of 9 pais, to familiaize them with the test pocedue. 14 subjects paticipated in the listening test (aged between 0 and 46 yeas, median: 31 yeas, 9 male, 5 female. We excluded 1 subject fom the analysis, since he pessed answe buttons aleady duing the fist stimulus fo 40 % of the pais. No subject epoted having absolute pitch. The same audio system was used fo the stimulus pesentation as in expeiment 1. Subjects could listen to each stimulus pais only once. The medium test duation incl. taining was 17 minutes (minimum: 16 minutes, maximum 4 minutes. Fig. 4: fequency dop of the stimuli in expeiment. All stimuli ae pitch shifted to the same stat fequency: blue (continuous: no Dopple effect, ed (dashed: Dopple effect slow vesion, geen (dotted: Dopple effect fast vesion Results and Discussion Due to the small sample size, extensive intepetations of the esults would be pesumptuous. Nevetheless, we can state that the hit ate of the subjects shows mainly two goups: Fig. 5: Means and 95%-confidence intevals of paied compaison (peceived speed and dangeousness. A positive value indicates that the stimulus with highe numbe is judged as being faste o moe dangeous than the stimulus with lowe numbe. The compaisons of stimuli 1-3 and -3 show significant diffeences fom zeo. Howeve, no significant diffeences ae found fo the pais 1-. Asteisks indicate level of significance * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.

5 FORUM ACUSTICUM June - 1. July, Aalbog Kuhn-Rahloff et al.: The Dopple Effect in Waning Signals One goup of subjects pefoming almost at 100 % hit ate and a second goup of subjects with a hit ate in the ange of 50 % o below (fig. 8. As an example, fig. 7 shows the eaction times of subject no. 7 fo the stimulus pais 1-3 and 3-1 (hit-ate: 97 %. Reaction times ae calculated fom the beginning of the second stimulus. As we can see fom this boxplot in fig. 7, the subject eacts faste when the second stimulus has a stong Dopple effect. If stimulus 1 (without Dopple effect is pesented as second stimulus, decision making takes significantly longe (U-test: p = An ex-post analysis with linea egession eveals a significant coelation between hit-ate of subjects and mean eaction time diffeences ( = -0.39, p = 0.0, see fig. 6. In othe wods, highe hit ate leads to deceasing decision-making peiods when stimuli with stong Dopple effect ae pesented as second stimuli within the sequence. We ae cuently planning to pefom additional electoencephalogaphic expeiments with the Univesity of Zuich to gain insights into neuopsychological coelates of the behaviou unde test Summay, Conclusions, and Outlook Results of the two expeiments indicate that the Fig 6: Linea egession of hit ate vs. mean eaction time diffeence fo stimulus sequences (1- vs. -1, 1-3 vs. 3-1, -3 vs. 3-. A negative value of eaction time diffeences indicates that subjects eact faste when the stimulus with a stonge Dopple effect is pesented as second stimulus. Fig. 7: Example of eaction time diffeences due to the Dopple effect, hee fo subject no. 7 and sequence 1-3 vs When stimulus 1 (without Dopple effect is pesented as second stimulus, eaction time inceases significantly. Fig. 8: Histogam of subjects pe hit ates fo stimulus combinations 1-, 1-3, and -3.

6 FORUM ACUSTICUM June - 1. July, Aalbog Kuhn-Rahloff et al.: The Dopple Effect in Waning Signals Dopple effect is a sufficient cue to judge speed and dangeousness of sound souces. Howeve, hit ates of expeiment show that only appox. 50 % of the subjects eliably detects the faste sound souce in a -AFC paadigm (fig. 8. The effect on the eaction time is negatively coelated with the hit ate of subjects. Concening applications of the Dopple effect in waning signals, we can conclude that pitch changes may suppot the peceived dangeousness and eaction times, but that futhe impovement is equied to extend this effect eliably to a lage goup of subjects. The expeiments pesented in this pape wee conceived as pe-studies to futhe investigations with bain imaging techniques. We ae cuently pepaing these expeiments with the Univesity of Zuich Acknowledgements The authos would like to thank Matin Meye and Las Rogenmose (Univesity of Zuich fo fuitful discussions as well as Lucas Bennett (ICST fo poofeading. This wok has been suppoted by the Swiss National Science Foundation (snf within the poject PERAS (poject no. 13DPD6_ The poject is caied out in coopeation with the Univesity of Zuich (Institute fo Neuopsychology, Volkswagen Goup Reseach (Wolfsbug, Gemany, Phonak Heaing Systems (Zuich, Switzeland and LMS Intenational (Leuven Belgium. Refeences [1] M.K. McBeath, J.G. Neuhoff (00: The Dopple effect is not what you think it is: Damatic pitch change due to dynamic intensity change, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 00, 9 (, [] Ch. Pöschmann, Ch. Stöig (009: Investigations Into the Velocity and Distance Peception of Moving Sound Souces, Acta Acustica united with Acustica Vol. 95 (009, pp [3] T. Kaczmaek (005: Auditoy peception of sound souce velocity, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 117, No. 5, S [4] M.S. Oechslin, M. Neukom, G. Bennet (008: The Dopple effect - an evolutionay citical cue fo the peception of the diection of moving sound souces. In: IEEE, Association. Poceedings of the Intenational Confeence on Audio, Language and Image Pocessing, Shanghai, pp

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