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1 Endocrine/Neuroendocrine, and Hypothalamic-pituitary systems L

2 Fig. 3.3 TYPES OF GLANDS Gland = cluster of secretory cells EXOCRINE GLANDS secrete fluids through duct onto epithelial surface external surface e.g.sweat glands mammary glands internal surface e.g.gall bladder salivary glands ENDOCRINE GLANDS secrete hormones directly into circulatory system no duct no distinctive morphological features well vascularized

3 Fig Feedback regulatory systems Endocrine regulation Usually negative feedback [hormone] or [product] as a result of hormonal action inhibits synthesis and secretion Sometimes positive feedback especially in initial response phase for rapid increase in hormonal levels until threshold reached e.g. +ve feedback of reproductive hormones ovulation

4 Regulation of Cell Signaling Set Point The value of the variable that the body is trying to maintain Feedback loops Positive Output of effector amplifies variable away from the set point Positive feedback loops are not common in physiological systems Negative Output of effector brings variable back to the set point Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

5 Direct feedback loop

6 Fig Feedback regulatory systems

7 The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland

8 NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEM

9 Posterior Pituitary Extension of the hypothalamus Neurons that originate in hypothalamus terminate in posterior pituitary Neurohormones oxytocin and vasopressin synthesized in cell body and travel in vesicles down axons First-order endocrine pathway Hypothalamus receives sensory input Hypothalamus serves as integrating center Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

10 Posterior Pituitary Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Figure 3.29

11 Anterior Pituitary Hypothalamus synthesizes and secretes neurohormones Hypothalamic-pituitary portal system Anterior pituitary releases hormones Tropic hormones Cause release of another hormone Third-order endocrine pathway Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

12 Anterior Pituitary Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Figure 3.30

13 Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Figure 3.31

14

15

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17 Vertebrate Hormones Evolutionary changes in way tissues respond to a hormone, rather than a change in hormone molecules Some hormones have same affect in different animals Example: human growth hormone increase growth rate in fish; estrogen from pregnant mares can be used in post-menopausal women Some hormones have a different affect in different animals Example: prolactin stimulates milk production in mammals, inhibits metamorphosis and promotes growth in amphibians, regulates water balance in fish Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

18 Regulation of Blood Glucose Precisely controlled Blood glucose too low, brain cannot function Blood glucose too high, osmotic balance of blood disturbed Hormones Insulin lowers blood glucose levels Glucagon raises blood glucose levels Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

19 Regulation of Blood Glucose Insulin and glucagon are secreted by pancreas Direct feedback loops Pancreas also receives neural and hormonal signals Antagonistic pairing Hormones that have opposing effects Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

20 Fig.3.32 Mammalian pancreas Fig.3.33 Interactions of pathways regulating insulin secretion

21 Fig Antagonistic regulation of blood glucose by insulin and glucagon

22 Additivity and Synergism Additivity When hormones cause same response in a target cell Hormones do not use the same signaling pathway Example: glucagon, epinephrine, and cortisol all raise blood glucose by different mechanisms Response of target cell to combinations of these hormones is additive Synergism When hormones enhance affect of other hormones Response of target cell to combinations of these hormones more than additive Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

23 Vertebrate Stress Response Interaction between nervous and endocrine systems Sense organs detect stress Activation of sympathetic nerves Increased heart rate, respiration, dilation of airways Decreased secretion of insulin from pancreas Increased secretion of glucagon from pancreas Increased secretion of epinephrine from adrenal medulla Increase in blood glucose level Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

24 Vertebrate Stress Response Hypothalamic-pituitary axis stimulates the adrenal cortex Hypothalamus Secretes corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) Anterior pituitary Secretes adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Adrenal cortex Secretes cortisol Stimulates target cells to increase blood glucose level Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

25 Fig The vertebrate stress response

26 Fig Comparative anatomy of the adrenal gland Chromaffin and interrenal cells are associated with the kidneys of vertebrates. In mammals, birds, and reptiles they form discrete adrenal glands, while in fishes and amphibians the cells are in isolated clusters.

Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.

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