A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF SEMANTIC CHANGE: THE CASE STUDY OF

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1 199 A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF SEMANTIC CHANGE: THE CASE STUDY OF THE FACE-RELATED LEXICAL ITEMS Edyta Więcławska Abstract: The aim of this paper is to verify the direction of semantic changes of eight lexical items that may be assumed to be conceptually related to the semantic field FACE. The analysis deals with a discussion on the semantics of the nominal, primary and secondary sense-threads linked conceptually to the scrutinised body-part lexical items. Specifically, some space is devoted to distinguishing specific conceptualisation patterns in the construal of the relevant historical senses. The issues related to the kinds of semantic alterations, the criteria for their distinction and directionality of the semantic shift processes are in focus here. Also, controversial as it may seem, the author attempts to seek semantic contact points between various nominal, historical senses of the lexical items subject to the analysis. The analysis is performed with the elements of the cognitive model, as applied by the academics centered around the Rzeszów School of Diachronic Semantics. Keywords: structural contiguity, cognitive salience, semantic shift, conceptual category, attributive value Introduction 1 The cognitive approach to the analysis of body-part terminology brings in results that point to noticeable, conceptual mobility of the lexical items in question, which may be said to result from their significant phraseological productivity and semantic changes affecting them. Specifically, the aim of the paper is to demonstrate the findings from an analysis of the historical evolution of the semantics of 8 FACE-related lexical units, that is: O.E. eye (a 700 > Mod.E.), O.E. cheek (c 825 > Mod.E.), O.E. nose (c 897 > Mod.E.), O.E. chin (c 1000 > Mod.E.), O.E. ear (a 1000 > Mod.E.), O.E. lip (c 1000 > Mod.E.), O.E. mouth (c 1000 > Mod.E.) and Mid.E. face (c 1290 > Mod.E.). 1 The findings presented in the foregoing were formulated in the course of PhD research on the semantics of body-part nomenclature (an PhD thesis titled: Semantic Changes and Phraseological Productivity of the English HEAD-related Lexical Items in Diachronic and Contrastive Perspective). Let me take this opportunity to thank my supervisor Prof. Grzegorz A. Kleparski for his valuable guidance and assistance. Also, I owe a debt of gratitude to Prof. Stanislav Kavka (University of Ostrawa) and Prof. Pavol Štekauer (University of Koszyce) for all critical remarks and positive comments included in their reviews.

2 200 A Conceptual Approach to the Study of Semantic Change: the Case Study of the Face-related Lexical Items The main points to be discussed here include firstly outlining the basic methodological assumptions of the analysis, and secondly - discussing the findings as regards the conceptual dimensions in which the FACE-related lexical items might be said to be involved. The author will focus on the directionality of the conceptual processes leading to the construal of the relevant, secondary senses and presenting the kinds of semantic shifts operative in construal of the historical senses of the lexical items primarily linked to the conceptual macrocategory BODY PARTS. 2 Methodological assumptions For better understanding of the conclusions discussed in what follows, please see Figure 1 that schematizes an overview of the analysis performed. Figure 1: The historical senses of English FACE-related lexical items in the context of conceptual categories and phraseological formations. Figure 1 itemises schematically the most important elements that re-occur throughout the analysis, that is the notion of conceptual category (e.g. APPELLATIONS/NICKNAMES, COMMUNICATION, APPLIANCES/ TOOL COMPONENTS), the body of lexical items the 2 The study of this sector of the English lexicon was stimulated by a number of earlier analyses in point (e.g. Andersen 1978, Blank and Koch 1999, Brown 1976, Lehrer 1974, Liston 1972, Krefeld 1999, Ultan 1975, 1976 and Witkowski and Brown 1985).

3 Edyta Więcławska 201 historical evolution of which is analysed (eye, cheek, nose, chin, ear, lip, mouth, face), the time axis along which the lexical items evolved semantically, and the notion of relatedness of semantics of lexical items to various conceptual categories. To account for the place of the lexical items bearing the primary and secondary meaning respectively within the conceptual system the following terminology is adopted: that is source conceptual category the category to which the given lexical category is linked by virtue of its primary meaning, as contrasted to the target conceptual category. Significantly, the semantics of one and the same lexical category may historically come to be related to many conceptual categories. In terms of methodology the analysis is cognitively-couched. Following the methodological solutions adopted by scholars linked to the Rzeszów School of Diachronic Semantics 3 (Kleparski 1996, 1997, Kiełtyka 2008, Kopecka 2011, Grygiel and Kleparski, 2007, Cymbalista 2008) the secondary semantic developments are explicated through determining certain conceptual links between the conceptual elements of semantic structure of the primary and secondary nominal senses of a given lexical item. The rise of the novel sensethreads is accounted for by, among other things, the mechanisms of foregrounding/ highlighting/adding, or backgrounding of the conceptual alternatively attributive values specified within the attributive paths of the primarily or secondarily identified conceptual domains (henceforth: CDs). Let us illustrate the mechanism with the example of the historically primary sense A of lip which appeared in English already during the O.E. times (c 1000 Wið lippe sar. > 1891 The little upward lift in the middle of her top lip. > current in present-day English), and it is defined in the OED as fleshy structure which in men and other animals forms the edges of the mouth. 4 On our interpretation, this sense linked to the conceptual macrocategory BODY PARTS may be accounted for by postulating the operations of highlighting relevant locations within the attributive path of DOMAIN OF BEING [ ], that is, [(HUMAN BEING) ^ (ANIMAL)]. Simultaneously, the original semantic pole of lip may be said to be linked to the following set of attributive values: (RED/REDDISH), (ELLIPTICAL) and (CAVITY ENCLOSURE) within the 3 Henceforth referred to as RSDS. 4 To do justice to the facts of language and its history, one needs to state at the very outset that the account of the semantic developments ventured here covers merely selected historical sense shifts that may be classified as wellevidenced in the history of English, as documented by the major lexicographic source relied upon here (that is the OED), or being especially productive in terms of having entered various syntagmatic relations in present-day English.

4 202 A Conceptual Approach to the Study of Semantic Change: the Case Study of the Face-related Lexical Items attributive matrix of DOMAIN OF COLOUR [ ], DOMAIN OF SHAPE [ ], and DOMAIN OF RELATIVE POSITION [ ] respectively. The analysis of the semantic developments of the 8 lexical items related conceptually to the category FACE showed that the semantic changes affecting the lexical items in question match the types of semantic changes most often distinguished in the literature of the subject (among others, Stern 1931, Ullmann 1957, Lyons 1977, Hughes 1978, Warren, B. 1992, Traugott and Dasher 2002), that is: (1) sense widening/generalisation, (2) sense narrowing/specialisation, (3) metaphor, (4) and metonymy. 5 The main criterion for the classification of semantic alterations is the question whether a given alteration occurs within the same conceptual category or whether the new sense may be said to be linked to another, more distant conceptual category. The first scenario, following the methodological principles of the RSDS frequently covers cases of sense narrowing or widening, and in terms of cognitive analysis the type of alteration depends on the number of CDs involved in the construal of the novel sense, compared to the number of those involved in the source sense. In qualifying the sense alterations occurring within the same conceptual category we follow Kleparski (1997) who postulated that semantic changes are qualified as cases of sense narrowing if the number of conceptual categories involved in the sense construal (that is attributive values or CDs) is relatively larger and by the reverse mechanism sense widening occurs in those cases where the involvement of the attributive values or CDs decreases compared to the construal of the source sense. As for the second scenario, it is assumed after Thomas (1896) that the metonymically- or metaphorically-conditioned semantic developments take the source sense into another conceptual sphere, which on our interpretation implies that the novel sense becomes linked to another conceptual category. Note, however, that there are cases of semantic changes channelled through the operation of metonymy or metaphor that involve 5 The research of the figurative sense developments carried out by the RSDS academics involves the examination of the qualitative and quantitative changes by investigating the onomasiological data, which, among other things, implies investigation of metaphorically and metonymically derived synonyms or near-synonyms of lexical items most frequently primarily linked to the conceptual categories CLOTHES (Kopecka 2011), ANIMALS (Kiełtyka 2008), FOODSTUFFS (Kleparski 2008), HUMAN BEINGS (Grygiel and Kleparski 2007, Kleparski 1990, 1997) PROFESSIONS (Cymbalista 2008). Pikor- Niedziałek (2012), in turn, analyses the relation between metaphor, metonymy and context.

5 Edyta Więcławska 203 intracategorial shifts, that is in those cases when the newly developed sense remains within the limits of the same conceptual category. Such case may be illustrated with the secondary sense cheek referring to the buttocks labeled as sense E, where both the source and the target sense are related to the conceptual macrocategory BODY PARTS. The OED contexts illustrate the presence of the sense since the end of the 16th century (a 1600 Spied both his great cheekes full of small blisters. > 1959 A car is already a girl. The tail-lights are cloacal the rear is split like the cheeks of a drum-majorette.). It may be added that the use of cheek in sense D is chiefly documented in dictionaries of slang use (see, for example, MED). In accounting for the conceptual architecture of the historical senses of the body-part terms an attempt was made to establish some links between the source and target nominal senses, and the cognitive operations accounting for the construal of the relevant secondary sense are assumed to occur on the semantic potential of the envisaged source sense, and on the grounds of these links the secondary senses are referred to as, for example, A-, B-, C- related. The case of lip provides an illustration of the conceptual links between historical senses of the body-part term, as presented graphically in the Figure 2. Figure 2: The links in the semantics of lip. Hence, for example, the secondary sense B, which is defined by the OED as the organ of speech, is believed to have been construed on the attributive potential of sense A, but it itself constitutes a conceptual springboard for the metonymically conditioned rise of the secondary sense D of lip, that is insolent talk.

6 204 A Conceptual Approach to the Study of Semantic Change: the Case Study of the Face-related Lexical Items Sense developments in the conceptual category FACE As was already mentioned the FACE-related data scrutinised here may be said to have undergone semantic alterations labelled as changes within the same conceptual sphere, that is cases of sense narrowings and cases of sense widening, the ratio/amount of the attributive values recalled in the construal of the source and target sense respectively being the criterion of sense classification as sense widening or narrowing. Because the two types of semantic changes operate by opposite mechanisms, let us illustrate one of them at this point. The case of sense widening is illustrated by the construal of sense B of lip, that is the O.E. sense the organ of speech, whose construal can, in my interpretation, be viewed as a case of sense widening and the novel, secondary sense B remains linked to the same conceptual sphere BODY PARTS. The rise of the novel sense, that is sense B is explicable by means of referring to fewer number of conceptual elements compared to the explication of sense A, and thus the semantic shift may be qualified as sense widening. Specifically, the construal of sense B may be accounted for by foregrounding of the attributive value (SPEAKING) within the attributive path of DOMAIN OF FUNCTION [ ], with the simultaneous process of backgrounding of the element (ANIMAL), specified within the attributive path of DOMAIN OF BEING [ ]. The three CDs specified for the construal of sense A, that is DOMAIN OF COLOUR [ ], DOMAIN OF SHAPE [ ] and DOMAIN OF RELATIVE POSITION [ ] with the elimination of the conceptual values [(RED/REDDISH) ], [(ELLIPTICAL) ] and [(CAVITY ENCLOSURE) ] discernible in the attributive paths of these CDs may be said to be inactive. As already mentioned, some of the semantic changes determined in the corpus analysis involved the so called shifts into another conceptual sphere covering cases of metaphor and metonymy. The analysis carried out confirms the strong claim advanced on the Polish scene by, among others, Kleparski (1997), Kiełtyka (2008), Kopecka (2011) that one should distinguish between the operation of metaphor and metonymy in the historical semantic evolution of lexical items. In our analysis the historical effects of the working of metonymy are clearly visible, and one can certainly speak about the presence of recurrent metonymic formula which may be defined along the following lines: <TOOL TO PERFORM THE ACTIVITY FOR THE PERSON PERFORMING THE ACTIVITY> identified in the construal of the FACE-related senses targeting the category APPELLATIONS/ NICKNAMES (i.e. sense E of lip, sense D of eye,

7 Edyta Więcławska 205 sense G of nose, sense E of mouth 6, all referred to as various categories of human being ). Specifically, the peripheral senses that are assumed to fit in the discussed pattern of metonymic extension are as follows: a lawyer, a detective, a person who identifies fragrances and a spokesman respectively. The following OED quotations illustrate the working of the discussed conceptual processes as regards the lexical item mouth. Hence, one of the earliest senses falling within the scope of sense E of mouth is mouth used in the sense a spokesman since the 15 th century (c 1400 We aske þe, lauerd, þurȝ þe muȝ [read muþ] of þe profete. > 1892 You are a little man to be the mouth of so big a chief. > current in present-day English). The 19 th century use of the word in this sense is confirmed by RHHDAS which also testifies to the use of mouth with reference to criminal defense lawyers. Another ever recurring metonymic pattern identified in a number of partial analyses of body-part terminology may be verbalised as <TOOL TO PERFORM THE ACTIVITY FOR THE RESULT OF THE ACTIVITY> and it is identified in the construal of the senses that, for example, fit within the limits of conceptual categories PERCEPTION and COMMUNICATION. The examples in point include eye employed in the sense a view, nose used in the sense smells, odours, perfumes, lip employed in the sense an insolent talk, ear used in the sense voluntary hearing/attention and finally face standing for the representation of physical features of human visage. To illustrate, the historical sense of ear defined as voluntary hearing/ attention is the first E.Mod.E. sense, as according to the OED it first appeared in the history of English at the beginning of the 16 th century (1503 Gyuynge god ere vnto the vteraunce. > 1884 To gain the ear of the House.). Within the methodological framework employed in the analysis one has grounds to classify the semantic development dealt with here as a specific case of metonymy, whereby the mental state of being attentive is equated with the result of activity. Another regularity discernible in the semantic evolution of the FACE-related lexical items pertains to the group of transfers for which the label intracategorial shifts has been coined. Among others, the case illustrations include (i) eye employed euphemistically in reference to 6 As stated in the main text the discussed metonymic formula show themselves to be most universal. The relevant language data shows, however, that the same body-part item may develop a few peripheral senses linked conceptually to the same conceptual category. Here the example is mouth employed in specific contexts as in the peripheral sense a food consumer linked to the category APPELLATIONS/NICKNAMES, whereby the sense may be assumed to have arisen as the working of a somewhat more specific metonymic pattern <FOOD RECEPTACLE FOR THE FOOD CONSUMER>.

8 206 A Conceptual Approach to the Study of Semantic Change: the Case Study of the Face-related Lexical Items the taboo body parts, (ii) the meronymically developed sense C of chin the cheek, cheek used in the sense the buttocks and the historical nonce sense of mouth such as a tooth. To be more specific, note the semantic shift of the lexical item eye based on the relation of metaphorical associations within one and the same conceptual category, such as, the discussed macrocategory BODY PARTS. Here, the lexical item eye comes to be applied to other body parts, the shift being naturally conditioned by either the similarity of function, shape or relative position, and the sense-threads embodied in the euphemistic application of eye convey the senses the penis, the anus and breasts. 7 Furthermore, one can certainly speak about the directionality of semantic processes that have been found operative in the development of the body-part terminology, and one of the most interesting observations that may be formulated here pertains to the scope of historical involvement of conceptual categories other than FACE in the evolution of the lexical items that have been analysed. In particular, one notices that in most cases the same conceptual categories tend to be involved in the semantic evolution of the lexical items covered by the analysis, for example, ATTITUDES, COMMUNICATION, MENTAL CAPACITY. To illustrate this, note that all the discussed, FACE-related body-part lexical items historically developed senses referring to objects resembling the given body part in shape and/or relative position and/or function, and all these senses are related to the conceptual category APPLIANCES/TOOL COMPONENTS. The examples here involve eye realised contextually as the hole of a needle, nose realised contextually as a prominent, projecting part of an object, lip realised contextually as the margin of a cup, cheek realised contextually as a side-piece of a windowframe, ear realized contextually as a handle of a vessel, face realized contextually as a part of a cylinder and mouth realized contextually as a trap-door opening. In all the cases the assumption is that the metaphorical transference discussed here has been facilitated through the similarity of form, shape and function of the given lexical item in its source sense, as related conceptually to the source macrocategory BODY PARTS, and the secondary sense referring to various appliances and/or tool components. In the cognitive account, it may be 7 The linguistic figures of euphemisms and dysphemisms related to the lexical item eye are studied in more detail by Duda (2011) who treats the dysphemistic expressions one-eyed trouser snake and one-eyed mamba as the lexical realisations of the conceptual metaphor SEX ORGAN IS AN ANIMAL. Morton (2003) devotes a whole chapter to the synonyms of penis, some of which include the modifier one-eyed, for instance, one-eyed whale, one-eyed Bob, one-eyed brother, one-eyed demon, one-eyed monk, one-eyed monster.

9 Edyta Więcławska 207 assumed that the conceptual process that is operative in all the cases systematically results from highlighting specific source values determined for the source sense, and extending them metaphorically via the similarity of the objects compared, or substituting the source values with new ones. Let us illustrate the sense construal with the example of the relevant sense of nose, i.e. an object resembling a nose in shape and/or relative position and/or function. We may assume foregrounding of the values specified originally for the construal of the relevant source sense linked to the macrocategory BODY PARTS within the attributive paths of DOMAIN OF SHAPE [(TUBE) ] and DOMAIN OF RELATIVE POSITION [(PROTRUSION)^ (HEIGHT) ]. As for the third source CD, that is DOMAIN OF BEING [ ], certain primarily activated values, i.e. [(HUMAN BEING) ^ (ANIMAL)] become backgrounded, which is coupled with the addition of the value (INANIMATE OBJECT). To complement the cognitive account of the sense of nose linked to the category APPLIANCES/TOOL COMPONENTS, it is justified to postulate the activation of the attributive element (TRANSMISSION) within the attributive matrix of DOMAIN OF FUNCTION [ ]. The case of conceptual category APPLIANCES/TOOL COMPONENTS described here is by no means an exception, and there are others that may readily be provided. Another set of historical developments involves those senses that may be assumed to be related to the conceptual zone APPELLATIONS/NICKNAMES. The relevant FACE-related data includes various peripheral senses that, for the sake of generalisation, were given the common label various categories of human being. The cases in point are metonymically construed senses that may be said to relate to the conceptual microcategory PROFESSIONS (i.e. a detective, a spy, a lawyer as contextual realizations of eye, nose and lip respectively) or metonymic extensions targeting other unlabelled, peripheral regions of the conceptual category (i.e. a well-known person, a food consumer discerned in the semantics of face and mouth respectively). Let us illustrate the phenomenon with the example of the relevant secondary sense of chin fitting within the frames of the conceptual category APPELLATIONS/NICKNAMES, i.e. a child. As was already stated, the sense may be convincingly argued to be metonymically conditioned. The rise of the sense may be conjectured to have been triggered by the metonymically conditioned association of chubby chins with a child on the plump side, which in terms of cognitive mechanism translates into the operation of metonymic relationship between the two senses, namely chin used in reference to body part, and in the sense that denotes a

10 208 A Conceptual Approach to the Study of Semantic Change: the Case Study of the Face-related Lexical Items specific category of human being, which may be formulated as a token of the pattern <CHARACTERISTIC FEATURE OF A PERSON FOR THE PERSON>. Another tendency that certainly sticks out from the bulk of language data analysed is the one that provides yet another piece of evidence of the long-proven regularity, originally formulated by Bréal (1897) which amounts to saying that abstract senses tend to develop from concrete senses. Among other things, these are the secondary historical meanings that may be said to fit in the frames of the conceptual category SENSES, and these are as follows: ear used as the sense of auditory perception, its narrowed variant ear employed in the sense aural sensitivity as to differences in musical pitch, eye used in the sense ocular knowledge, and nose conveying the sense the faculty for discriminating scents, especially in relation to the ability to track by scent. Likewise, the same may be said about the secondary senses of FACErelated lexical items that are assumed to be secondarily linked to the conceptual category COMMUNICATION. The cases in point here are the late 19 th century senses of lip and chin, that is an insolent talk and a conversation respectively. The rise of the historical sense of chin a conversation that may be linked to the conceptual category COMMUNICATION is first evidenced in the English language lexicon in the second half of the 19 th century, as shown by the following quotations (1877 I haven't had so much chin-chin for years. > 1952 We'd like to have a little chin with you right now. > current in the present-day English lexicon). 8 Again, the cognitive account of the construal of the sense follows a path analogical to the explication of the corresponding secondary sense lip, which serves to refer to an insolent talk. Also here, one is justified in postulating the metonymically conditioned operation of the pattern <TOOL TO PERFORM THE ACTIVITY FOR THE RESULT OF THE ACTIVITY>, whereby the referent of chin is regarded as a speech production organ and the metonymic formula operates along the lines the organ of speech for speech itself. Also, there obtains a certain pattern that emerges from the links between the individual nominal senses of the analysed lexical items related to the conceptual macrocategory BODY PARTS. Hence, for example, the historical senses that are variously related to the conceptual category APPELLATIONS/NICKNAMES tend to be universally rooted in one of the historically prior senses of the word in question linked to the conceptual macrocategory BODY PARTS that encompasses the senses related to the functional aspect of body parts, that is body parts 8 Examples borrowed from RHHDAS, DSUE and DU.

11 Edyta Więcławska 209 viewed as organs of communication or perception in general. Hence, the secondary sense of lip, i.e. the organ of speech is conjectured to have given rise to the chronologically later secondary sense of lip, i.e. various categories of human being, whereby the meaning transference had a metonymic nature fitting in the pattern of the specific version of <PARS PRO TOTO> formula. An analogical scenario may be written to the rise of the historical sense of nose various categories of human being which is believed to have originated from the semantic potential of the chronologically prior sense of nose, i.e. the organ of smell. Likewise, the development of sense various categories of human being identified in the semantics of mouth and eye is believed to have followed the same pattern, as it may be viewed as being rooted in the senses the organ of speech production and the organ of sight in men and animals discerned in the semantics of the lexical items mouth and eye respectively. Historical senses that are variously related to the conceptual zone APPLIANCES/TOOL COMPONENTS almost universally pertain to extra-linguistic objects resembling the given body part either in shape and/or relative position and/or function. Such senses are almost invariably related to the primary senses of the body part terms. The examples here are easily found in the semantics of all the FACE-related lexical items covered by the analysis and these, as was already mentioned above, include secondary sense-threads that are various contextual realisations of what is referred to as appliances and tool components (e.g. ear used in the sense a handle, mouth employed in the sense a trap-door opening ). The following OED contexts document the sense an object resembling nose in shape and or relative position and/or function linked to the conceptual category APPPLIANCES/TOOL COMPONENTS down to the mid 16 th century (1538 Coronas, the nose of a shippe. > 1971 Nose, the foremost part of a trailer.). Note that the currency of the sense-thread is richly documented in contemporary lexicographic works (see, for example, DAHP and TT). Concluding remarks The body parts-related data discussed here supports the often advanced thesis regarding the systemic character of semantic evolution of lexical items having common conceptual affinity (cf. Łozowski 1996, Kleparski 1988, 1990, 1996, 1997, Cymbalista 2008, Kiełtyka 2008, Górecka-Smoilińska 2008, Grygiel 2007). The study shows that the same or very similar universal cognitively-driven qualitative regularities can be detected on the plane of diachronic

12 210 A Conceptual Approach to the Study of Semantic Change: the Case Study of the Face-related Lexical Items and synchronic semantic analysis of the individual lexical items linked to the conceptual category FACE. This refers both to the categories of secondary senses, some of which prove to be universal for the word stock analysed (e.g. secondary senses of eye, nose, lip targeting the category of APPELLATIONS/NICKNAMES), as well as to the mechanics operative behind the construal of the historical senses that may be assumed to be primarily linked to the conceptual category FACE. Here the issues of conceptual motivation and specific conceptualisation paths are meant. The data presented show that however intricate the meanderings of human thinking may be, our conceptualisation processes still share certain common traits and these often arise as a result of some extralinguistic factors and show, however unpopular it may sound, the schematic way the human mind operates. References lexicographic sources: Chantrell, G. (ed.). (2002): The Oxford Dictionary of Word Histories, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (ODWH) Dalzell, T. (1996): Flappers 2 Flappers, Springfield, Massachusetts: Meriam-Webster, Incorporated. (FF) Delbridge, A. (ed.). (1995): The Macquarie Encyclopedic Dictionary, Castle Hill: Macquaire Library. (MED) Evans, I. H. (1989) [1970]: Brewer s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, London: Cassell Publishers Ltd. (DPF) Kay, Ch., et al. (2009): Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary with Additional Material from a Dictionary of Old English, New York: Oxford University Press. (HToOED) Laroche, N. and Urdang L. (eds.). (1980): Picturesque Expressions: A Thematic Dictionary, Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Company. (PE) Lighter, J. E. (ed.). (1994): Random House Historical Dictionary of American Slang, New York: Random House. (RHHDAS) Mathews, M. M. (ed.). (1951): A Dictionary of Americanisms on Historical Principles, Chicago: The University of Chicago. (DAHP) Murray, J., et al. (eds.).(1971) : The Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (OED) Partridge, E. (1937): A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English, London: George Routledge and Sons. (DSUE) Partridge, E. (1949): A Dictionary of the Underworld, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. (DU) Reid, L. (2006): Talk the Talk, Ohio, Cincinnati: Writer s Digest Books. (TT)

13 Edyta Więcławska 211 References other sources: Andersen, E. S. (1978): Lexical universals of body-part terminology, In: H. J. Greenberg (ed.), Universals of Human Language. Vol. 3 Word Structure, Stanford: Stanford University Press. Blank, A. and Koch, P. (1999) : Onomasiologie et étymologie cognitive: l exemple de la tête, In : Actas do 1 0 Encontro International de Linguistica Cognitiva (Porto, 29/ ), Blank, A., Koch, P. and Gévaudan, P. (1998): Onomasiologie, sémasiologie et l étymologie des langues romanes: esquisse d un projet, In : A. Englebert, et al. (eds.), Actes du XXIIe Congrès International de Linguistique et Philologie Romanes, Bruxelles Vol. 4: Des Mots aux Dictionnaires, Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, Bréal, M. (1897): Essai de sémantique. Science de significations, Paris: Hachette. Brown, C. (1979): Theory of lexical change (with examples from folk biology, human anatomical partonomy and other domains, In: Anthropological Linguistics, Vol. 21. No. 6, pp Brown, C. (1976): General principles of human anatomical partonomy and speculations on the growth of partonomic nomenclature, In: V. R. Bricker, et al. (ed.), American Ethnologist. Vol. 3, pp Croft, W. (2002): The role of domains in the interpretation of metaphors and metonymies, In: R. Driven and R. Pörings (eds.), Metaphor and Metonymy in Comparison and Contrast, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp Cruse, D. A., et al. (eds.). (2002): Lexicology: An International Handbook on the Nature and Structure of Words and Vocabularies/ Lexicologie: Ein internationales Handbuch zur Natur und Struktur von Wörtern und Wortschätzen, Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter. Cymbalista, P. (2008): Semantic Developments of Selected Items in the Macro-Category of HOMO FABER in the English Language. Rzeszów: unpublished PhD Dissertation. Duda, B. (2011): Downstairs, Upstairs and Other You-know-whats. On Human Conceptualisation of Taboo, In: O. Weretiuk, D. Osuchowska, S. Kozioł (eds.) International English Studies Journal, Studia Anglica Resoviensia 8, pp Geeraerts, D. (1983): Prototype theory and diachronic semantics: A case study, In: Indogermanische Forschungen, Vol. 88, pp Geeraerts, D. (1985a): Cognititve restrictions on the structure of semantic change, In: J. Fisiak (ed.), Historical Semantics and Historical Word-Formation, The Hague: Mouton, pp Geeraerts, D. (1985b): Diachronic extensions of prototype theory, In: G. Hoppenbrouwers, P. Seuren and A. Weijters (eds.), Meaning and the Lexicon, pp

14 212 A Conceptual Approach to the Study of Semantic Change: the Case Study of the Face-related Lexical Items Görlach, M. (2000): Conceptual and semantic change in the history of English, In: Ch. Dalton-Puffer, N. Ritt,. (eds.), Words: Structure, Meaning, Function. A Festschrift for Dieter Kastovsky, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp Goossens, L. (1990): Metaphonymy: the interaction of metaphor and metonymy in expressions for linguistic action, In: Cognitive Linguistics 1-3, pp Górecka-Smolińska, M. and Kleparski, G. A. (2008): On the symbolism of mammals in the cultures of the world, In: G. A. Kleparski (ed.), Studia Anglica Resoviensia 5, pp Grygiel, M., Kleparski, G. A. (2007): Main Trends in Historical Semantics, Rzeszów: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego. Grzega, J. (2004): Bezeichnungswandel: Wie, Warum, Wozu? Ein Beitrag zur englischen und allgemeinen Onomasiologie, Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter GmbH. Haspelmath, M. et al. (eds.). (2001): Language Typology and Language Universals: An International Handbook/Sprachtypologie und Sprachliche Universalien: Ein Internationales Handbuch, Berlin: Walter de Gruyer. Hughes, G. (1978): Semantic Change in English: An Investigation into the Relation between Semantic Change and the Forces of Social Economic and Political Change from the Norman Conquest to the Present Day. PhD Dissertation, Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand. Kavka, S. and Zybert, J. (2004): Glimpses on the History of Idiomaticity Issues, In: P. Štekauer (ed.), Journal of Theoretical Linguistics, 1 (1), pp Kiełtyka, R. (2008): On Zoosemy: The Study of Middle English and Early Modern English Domesticated Animals, Rzeszów: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego. Kleparski, G. A. (1988): Semantic Change and Semantic Components: A Study of English Evaluative Developments in the Domain of HUMANS, Ph.D. Dissertation, Lublin: The Catholic University of Lublin. Kleparski, G. A. (1990): Semantic Change in English: A Study of Evaluative Developments in the domain of HUMANS, Lublin: The Catholic University of Lublin Printing House. Kleparski, G. A. (1996): Semantic change in onomasiological perspective, In: G. Persson and M. Ryden (eds.), pp Kleparski, G. A. (1997): Theory and Practice of Historical Semantics: The Case of Middle English Synonyms of GIRL/YOUNG WOMAN, Lublin: Redakcja Wydawnictw Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego. Kleparski, G. A. (2008): The joys and sorrows of metaphorical consumption: Mozarellas, Prostisciuttos, Muttons and Yum-Yum Girls - foodsemy with a Romance accent, In: G. A. Kleparski (ed.), Studia Anglica Resoviensia 5, pp

15 Edyta Więcławska 213 Kövecses, Z. (2002): Metaphors: A Practical Introduction, London: Longman. Kopecka, B. (2011): Skirts, Jacks, Piece of Flesh Do Make People: Metonymic Developments to the Marocategory HUMAN BEING, Rzeszów: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego. Krefeld, T. (1999): Cognitive ease and lexical borrowing: The recategorisation of body parts in Romance, In: A. Blank, P. Koch (eds.), Historical Semantics and Cognition, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Kudła, M. (2011): The shades of otherness On body-oriented attributive racial (and racist) terms in English, In: L. Körtvélyessy, D. Osuchowska and A. Włodarczyk-Stachurska (eds.), Galicia Studies in Language. Historical Semantics Brought to the Fore. Chełm: TAWA, pp Langacker, R. W. (1987): Foundations of Cognitive Grammar. Volume 1, Theoretical Prerequisites, Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. Lehrer, A. (1974): Extended meanings of body-part terms. In C. F. Voegelin, et al. (ed.) International Journal of American Linguistics. Vol. 40, pp Liston, J. L. (1972): The semantic structure of body-part terms in Serbo-Croatian, In: Anthropological Linguistics, Vol. 14, No. 8, pp Lyons, J. (1977): Semantics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Łozowski, P. (1996): Semantic Change in the Conceptual Domain of DREAM: From the Truthconditional Synonymy to Unconditional Polysemy, Ph.D. Dissertation, Lublin: UMCS University. Morton, M. (2003): The Lover s Tongue. A Merry Romp through the Language of Love and Sex, Toronto: Insomniac Press. Norri, J. (1998): Names of Body Parts in English , Helsinki: Academia Scientiarium Fennica. Panther, K. U., and Thornburg, L. (1999): The potentiality for actuality of metonymy in English and Hungarian. In: K.-U. Panther and G. Radden (eds.), Metonymy in Language and Thought, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Johns Benjamins Publishing Company, pp Papafragou, A. (1996): On metonymy, In: Lingua 99, pp Pikor-Niedziałek, M. (2012): A cognitive semantics interpretation of metaphorics of National Geographic headlines : One hundred years of the evolving style, In: B. Kopecka, M. Pikor-Niedziałek and A. Uberman (eds.), Galicia Studies in Language: Historical Semantics Brought to the Fore, Chełm: TAWA, pp Radden, G., and Kövesces, Z. (1999): Towards a theory of metonymy, In: K.-U. Panther and Guenter Radden (eds.), Metonymy in Language and Thought, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp Riemer, N. (2002): When metonymy is no longer metonymy, In: Driven, R. and R. Pörings (eds.), pp

16 214 A Conceptual Approach to the Study of Semantic Change: the Case Study of the Face-related Lexical Items Ruiz De Mendoza I. and Francisco J. (2000) : The role of mapping and domains in understanding metonymy, In: A. Barcelona (ed.), Metaphor and Metonymy at Crossroads. A Cognitive Perspective, Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp Stern, G. (1931): Meaning and Change of Meaning with Special Reference to the English Language, Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Taylor, J. R. (2002): Conceptual approaches V: Concepts and domains, In: D. A. Cruse, et al. (eds.), op.cit. Thomas, R. (1896): Über die Möglichkeiten des Bedeutungswandels, In: Bayrische Blätter für das Gymnasialschulweses 32, pp Traugott, E., and Dasher R. B. (2002): Regularity in Semantic Change, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ullmann, S. (1962): Semantics, Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Ullmann, S. (1957): The Principles of Semantics, Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Ultan, R. (1975): Descriptivity Grading of Finnish Body-Part Terms. Akup. Arbeiten des Kölner Universalien Projekts, No. 16. Ultan, R. (1976): Descriptivity in the Domain of Body-Part Terms.. Akup. Arbeiten des Kölner Universalien Projekts, No. 21. Warren, B. (1992): Sense Developments. Stockholm: Almquist and Wiksel International. Więcławska, E. (2009): Rzeszów studies of the mechanism of metonymy as a continuation of the 19 th and 20 th century research in historical semantics, In: G. A. Kleparski, R. Kiełtyka and E. Więcławska (eds.), 2009 Mielec Anglistentag, Linguistics in Focus, Mielec: Drukarnia Gajek, pp Więcławska, E. (2010): Staroangielskie lip: pilotażowe studium semantyczno-frazeologiczne. In G.A. Kleparski and Robert Kiełtyka (eds.), Podkarpackie Forum Filologiczne, Seria Językoznawstwo. Jarosław: Wydawnictwo Państwowej Szkoły Zawodowej im. ks. B Markiewicza w Jarosławiu, pp Więcławska, E. (2011): On the diachrony of eye: Towards semantics and idiomatics of eye with parallels from other Indo-European languages, In: L. Körtvélyessy, D. Osuchowska, A. Włodarczyk-Stachurska (eds.), Galicia Studies in Language. Historical Semantics brought to the fore, Chełm: Wydawnictwo TAWA, pp Witkowski, S. R. and Brown C. H. (1985): Climate, clothing, and body-part nomenclature, In: Ethnology, 24 (3), pp

17 Edyta Więcławska 215 Author Edyta Więcławska, PhD., University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów, Poland;

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