A SHORT RUSSIAN REFERENCE GRAMMAR

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1 I. M. PULKINA A SHORT RUSSIAN REFERENCE GRAMMAR WITH A CHAPTER ON PRONUNCIATION. EDITED BY Prof. P. S. KUZNETSOV Doctor of Philology Third edition 7M Bi PROGRESS PUBLISHERS Mos cow AZ,DD/MA

2 CONTENTS Preface Tofe/e Page g I. MAIN PECULIARITIES OF RUSSIAN PRONUNCIATION AND SPELLING Speech Sounds and Letters \\ Russian Vowels and Consonants H Russian Vowel Sounds _ 12 Russian Vowels 1 13 Russian Consonants 13 Classification of Consonants according to Place of : Obstruction 2 14 Hard and Soft Consonants 14 Russian Hard and Soft Consonants 3 16 How to Indicate Hard and Soft Consonants in Writing.. 16 Use of the Letters M, e, S, H>, b, ^ 4 17 Russian Voiceless and Voiced Consonants 5 19 Plosive, Fricative and Affricative Consonants 20 Alain Changes of Sound Values _ 20 Unstressed Vowels _ 20 Combinations of Hard and Soft Consonants with Vowels.. 22 Changes in Voiceless and Voiced Consonants 23 Changes in the Plosive, Fricative and Affricative Consonants _ 23 Main Principles of Russian Spelling 24 Alternation of Sounds 24 Main Instances of Alternation of Vowels 6 25 Unstable Vowels 7 25 Main Instances of Alternation of Consonants 8 26 Some Remarks on Stress in Russian 32 3

3 II. THE NOUN Table Page General Remarks 34 The Gender of the Noun; Masculine, Feminine and Neuter The Gender of Nouns denoting Persons The Gender of Nouns denoting Animals. Birds, Fishes, Insects The Gender of Nouns denoting Inanimate Objects and ending in The Plural of Nouns Nouns used Only in the Singular or Plural Three Types of Declension of the Noun 50 First Declension: Declension of Masculine and Neuter Nouns (with the Stem ending in a Hard or Soft Consonant) Peculiarities in Some Case-Forms of Masculine Nouns belonging to the First Declension Second Declension: Feminine Nouns ending in -a(-m) Third Declension: Feminine Nouns without an Ending and with the Stem ending in a Soft Consonant or a Hard or Soft Sibilant Declension of Nouns in the Plural 19 Genitive Plural of Nouns 20 Peculiarities in the Declension of Nouns in the Plural Special Declension of Nouns Declension of Surnames of Persons and Names of Towns Main Types of Stress in Nouns 64 Main Types of Stress-Shift in the Noun Additional Remarks 73 Uses of Cases without Prepositions 74 Uses of the Genitive Case Uses of the Dative Case Uses of the Accusative Case Uses of the Instrumental Case ^ Uses of Cases with Prepositions 101 The Genitive Case The Dative Case The Accusative Case The Instrumental Case The Prepositional Case Prepositions and Some of the Most Common Prepositional Words used with Cases Prepositions used with Several Cases (Main Uses) Use of the Prepositions e and na and the Prepositions U3 and c corresponding to Them Most Common Uses of Prepositions to express Relations of Space, Time, Cause and Purpose List of Common Russian Verbs with the Cases They Require Verbs requiring the Prepositions na, e

4 III. THE ADJECTIVE Table Page General Remarks _ jyg Gender Endings of Adjectives Declension of Adjectives 41 i7g Declension of Adjectives of the edahuu, AUCUH Type Agreement of the Adjective with the Noun Short Form Qualitative Adjectives Uses of Short Form Qualitative Adjectives Declension of Adjectives ending in -UH, -oe and denoting Possession Formation and Uses of the Comparative and Superlative Degrees _ 187 The Comparative Degree 187 The Superlative Degree 188 Adjectives: Degrees of Comparison IV. THE PRONOUN General Remarks 194 Pronouns: Declension and Uses 195 Personal Pronouns Use of the Reflexive Pronoun ce6a The Possessive Pronouns Uses of the Pronoun ceou The Pronouns ee6, ee, ux used as Possessive Pronouns The Interrogative and Negative Pronouns Uses of Indefinite Pronouns with Particles The Demonstrative Pronouns mom, mom, mo, amo, ma, ama, me, Smu The Pronouns cam and cdjubih The Pronouns eect, ecn, ece, ece Pronouns declined as Adjectives V. THE NUMERAL General Remarks 204 Cardinal and Collective Numerals Numerals: Declension and Uses 206 The Numerals odun, odnd, odnd. The Numerals dea (masc. and neuter), dee (fem.), mpu, nem^pe. Collective Numerals. The Numerals cdpok, cmo, noamopd, noamopu. The Numerals nnmb, rutrntdecam, nambcom. The Numerals deicmu, mpucma, temupecma Cardinal Numerals used with Nouns and Adjectives Ordinal Numerals Uses of Ordinal Numerals, 211

5 VI. THE VERB Table Page Genera! Remarks 212 Aspects of the Verb 215 Formation of Perfective Verbs by means of Prefixes Formation of Verbs of Imperfective and Perfective Aspects by means of Suffixes 222 Verbs with the Suffixes -uea-, -btea Verbs with the Suffix -ny Verbs with the Suffix -eo Verbs with the Suffixes -u-, -a Verbs with Changes occurring in the Root and the Stem Summary Table of Alternation of Root Vowels in Different Aspects of the Verb Formation of Different Aspects by Shifting the Stress Expressing Different Aspects by Different Words Verbs Having No Imperfective or Perfective Counterpart Verbs of Motion with Different Stems Comparative Table of Verbs of the Imperfective and Perfective Aspects Conjugation of the Verb dbtim Uses of the Present Tense of the Verb Cbtrrib (ecmb. cymb) The Infinitive Uses of the Infinitive Use of the Imperfective Infinitive Use of Only the Imperfective Aspect in the Compound Predicate after Words denoting Inexpediency Use of the Imperfective or Perfective Infinitive in Sentences expressing Prohibition or Impossibility to Perform an Action ^ Use of the Imperfective or Perfective Infinitive after Verbs denoting Persuasion or Intention to Perform an Action The Present Tense Verbs with Unstressed Endings Uses of the Present Tense Use of the Present Tense to Express a Past or Future Action The Past Tense Some Peculiarities in the Formation of the Past Tense Comparative Table on the Uses of the Past Tense of Imperfective and Perfective Verbs 89 ^ Use of the Past Tense with the Words OusdAO and 6iiA Use of the Past Tense with Future Meaning The Future Tense

6 Table Meaning of the Simple and the Compound Future Uses of the Simple Future Use of Imperfective and Perfective Verbs in a Context The Conditional-Subjunctive Mood Uses of the Conditional-Subjunctive Mood Use of Imperfective and Perfective Verbs preceded by the Negative Particle He in the Conditional-Subjunctive Mood The Imperative Mood Aspect of the Imperative with and without ne Aspects of the Negative Imperative Aspect of the Infinitive with or without HB used in the Sense of the Imperative Verbs ending in -CM Meaning and Use of Verbs ending in -CJi Impersonal Verbs Main Types of Verbs (Productive and Non-Productive) 280 Productive Types of Verbs Non-Productive Types of Verbs Verbs which do not Conform to Any Type Main Types of Stress in Verbs 289 Main Types of Stress-Shift in Verbal Forms 289 Productive Types Non-Productive Types List of the Most Important Verbs of Non-Productive Types... Ill 293 List of Most Frequently used Verbs with the Suffix -Hy- forming their Past Tense without this Suffix Isolated Verbs having Certain Peculiarities in Conjugation Page VII. THE PARTICIPLE AND THE VERBAL ADVERB The Participle 298 A. Verbal Characteristics of the Participle 298 B. Adjectival Characteristics of the Participle 299 Active and Passive Participles 300 The Active Participle Formation of Active Participles The Long Form Passive Participle Formation of Passive Participles The Short Form Passive Participle Summary Table of Formation of Participles Declension of Participles Place of the Participle in the Sentence 307

7 Table Page The Verbal Adverb 307 General Remarks 307 A. Verbal Characteristics of the Verbal Adverb 307 B. Adverbial Characteristics of the Verbal Adverb Formation of Verbal Adverbs Uses of Verbal Adverbs VIII. THE ADVERB Formation of Adverbs 311 Principal Ways of Forming Adverbs IX. THE CONJUNCnON The Conjunction X. WORD-BUILDING General Remarks 325 Most Productive Noun-forming Suffixes 326 Suffixes used to Form Nouns denoting the Agent or Performer of an Action Suffixes forming Abstract Nouns Diminutive and Augmentative Noun Suffixes Stress in Nouns with Diminutive and Augmentative Suffixes Compound Nouns Formation of Adjectives

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