AP Chemistry Summer Assignment Due August 23, 2016

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1 The following assignments must be completed and turned in by the Due Date: August 23, Take time throughout the summer to complete these review assignments.! Complete the Chapter Questions! Complete the AP Chemical Naming and Formula Worksheet AP Chemistry Summer Assignment Due August 23, 2016! Memorize a) the metric prefixes, b) the lists of strong acids and strong bases, c) the 40+ common ions, and d) the solubility rules found in the following pages.! You will have a quizzes on a) the memorized items, b) naming, and c) the Chapter Questions at the beginning of the school year. To Get Help 1. Access the following tutorial sites: a. b. c. d. e. f. 2. Contact Mr. Evans: Oakland Technical High School

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7 AP Chemistry *Chapter Questions Complete the following problems on your own paper. Chemical Foundations 1. Which of the following statements (hypotheses) could be tested by quantitative measurement? a. Ty Cobb was a better hitter than Pete Rose. 44 b. Ivory soap is 99 % pure. 100 c. Rolaids consumes 47 times its weight in excess stomach acid. 2. A student performed an analysis of a sample for its calcium content and got the following results: 14.92% 14.91% 14.88% 14.91% The actual amount of calcium in the sample is 15.70%. What conclusion can you draw about the accuracy and precision of these results? 3. Calculate the percent error for the following measurements. a. The density of an aluminum block determined in an experiment was 2.64 g/cm 3. (True value 2.70 g/cm 3.) b. The experimental determination of iron in ore was 16.48%. (True value 16.12%) 5. Use exponential notation to express the number 480 to a. one significant figure b. two significant figures c. three significant figures d four significant figures 6. Perform the following mathematical operations, andexpress each result to the correct number of significant figures. a b x0.0821x273 c d. ( ) You re planning to buy a new car. One model that you re considering gets 32 miles to a gallon of gasoline in highway travel. The one that your spouse likes gets 14 kilometers to the liter. Which car has the better gas mileage? 8. You pass a road sign saying New York 112 km. If you drive at a constant speed of 65 mi/h, how long should it take you to reach New York? If your car gets 28 miles to the gallon, how many liters of gasoline are necessary to travel 112 km? 4. Round off each of the following numbers to two significant figures, and write the answers in exponential notation. a c. 35,900 b. 31,254,000 d You have a 1.0 cm 3 sample of lead and a 1.0 cm 3 sample of glass. You drop each in separate beakers of water. How do the volumes of water displaced by each sample compare? Explain. *The chapter questions come from Zumdahl, S.S. 2000, Chemistry, 5 th ed. Boston, Houghton Mifflin and from Lorraine Kyle Cedar Park, Texas.

8 10. A person has a temperature of F. What is this temperature on the Celsius scale? on the Kelvin scale? 11. Diamonds are measured in carats, and 1 carat = g. The density of diamond is 3.51 g/cm 3. What is the volume of a 5.0 carat diamond? 12. The volume of a diamond is found to be 2.8 ml. What is the mass of the diamond in carats? (See question #18) 13. A sample containing g of metal pellets is poured into a graduated cylinder initially containing 12.7 ml of water, causing the water level in the cylinder to rise to 21.6 ml. Calculate the density of the metal. 17. If you place a glass rod over a burning candle, the glass appears to turn black. What is happening to each of the following (physical change, chemical change, both, or neither) as the candle burns? Explain each answer. a. the wax b. the wick c. the glass rod Atoms, Molecules and Ions 18. How many protons and neutrons are contained in the nucleus of each of the following atoms? In an atom of each element, how many electrons are present? a b Ti c. 32 Ge e. 33 As Zn d. 36 Kr f. K Two spherical objects have the same mass. One floats on water; the other sinks. Which object has the greater diameter? Explain your answer. 15. Classify each of the following as a mixture or a pure substance. Of the pure substances, which are elements and which are compounds? a. water f. uranium b. blood g. wine c. the oceans h. leather d. iron i. table salt (NaCl) e. brass 19. Write the atomic symbol ( ) for each of the isotopes described below. a. Z = 8, number of neutrons = 9 b. the isotope of chlorine in which A = 37 c. Z = 27, A = 60 d. number of protons = 26, the number of neutrons = 31 e. the isotope of I with a mass number of The element copper has naturally occurring isotopes with mass numbers of 63 and 65. The relative abundance atomic masses are 69.2% for mass = amu, and 30.8% for mass = amu. Calculate the average atomic mass of copper. 16. List four indications that a chemical change (reaction) has occurred. 21. In the periodic table, how many elements are found in a. Group 2A (2) c. the nickel group? b. the oxygen family? d. Group 8A (18)

9 22. An ion contains 50 protons, 68 neutrons, and 48 electrons. What is its symbol? 23. Which of the following sets of elements are all in the same group in the periodic table? a. N, P, O c. Rb, Sn b. C, Si, Ge d. Mg, Ca 24. Identify each of the following elements: a. a member of the same family as oxygen whose most stable ion contains 54 electrons b. a member of the alkali metal family whose most stable ion contains 36 electrons c. a noble gas with 18 protons in the nucleus d. a halogen with 85 protons and 85 electrons 25. Would you expect each of the following atoms to gain or lose electrons when forming ions? What ion is the most likely in each case? a. Na d. Ba g. Al b. Sr e. I h. S c. P f. O 26. For each of the following ions, indicate the total number of protons and electrons in the ion. For the positive ions in the list, predict the formula of the simplest compound formed between each positive ion and the oxide ion. For the negative ions in the list, predict the formula of the simplest compound formed between each negative ion and the aluminum ion. a. Fe 2+ c. Ba 2+ e. S 2- g. Br - b. Fe 3+ d. Cs + f. P 3- h. N 3- ion 27. The designations 1A through 8A used for certain families of the periodic table are helpful for predicting the charges on ions in binary ionic compounds. (In these compounds, the metals generally take on a positive charge equal to the family number, while the nonmetals take on a negative charge equal to the family number minus eight. Thus the compound between sodium and chlorine contains Na + ions and Cl - ions and has the formula of NaCl.) Predict the formula and the name of the binary compound formed from the following pairs of elements. a. Ca and N e. Ba and I b. K and O f. Al and Se c. Rb and F g. Cs and P d. Mg and S h. Al and Br 28. An element s most stable ion forms an ionic compound with bromine, having the formula XBr 2. If the ion of element X has a mass number of 230 and has 86 electrons, what is the identity of the element, and how many neutrons does it have? Chemical Reactions 29. Predict and balance the following synthesis (combination) reactions. a. Sulfur dioxide gas is bubbled through water. b. A pea-sized piece of sodium is added to a container of iodine vapor. 30..Predict and balance the following decomposition reactions. a. A sample of calcium carbonate is heated. b. Liquid hydrogen peroxide is warmed. c. Molten aluminum chloride is electrolyzed.

10 31. Predict and balance the following single replacement reactions. a. Liquid bromine is added to a container of sodium iodide crystals. b. An aluminum strip is immersed in a solution of silver nitrate. c. Zinc pellets are added to a hydrochloric acid solution. d. Chlorine gas is bubbled into a solution of aluminum fluoride. 32. Predict and balance the following double replacement (metathesis) reactions. All reactants are aqueous. Note: Some of these reactions do not go to completion. a. Silver nitrate and potassium chromate are mixed together b. Ammonium chloride and cobalt(ii) sulfate are mixed together. c. Lithium hydroxide and sodium chromate are mixed together. 33. Predict and balance the following combustion reactions. a. Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) is burned completely in air. b. Solid zinc sulfide is heated in an excess of oxygen. c. Lithium metal is burned in air.

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